Emotion is a mental state variously associated with thoughts, behavioural responses, a degree of pleasure or displeasure. There is no scientific consensus on a definition. Emotion is intertwined with mood, personality and motivation. Research on emotion has increased over the past two decades with many fields contributing including psychology, endocrinology, history, sociology of emotions, computer science; the numerous theories that attempt to explain the origin, neurobiology and function of emotions have only fostered more intense research on this topic. Current areas of research in the concept of emotion include the development of materials that stimulate and elicit emotion. In addition PET scans and fMRI scans help study the affective picture processes in the brain."Emotions can be defined as a positive or negative experience, associated with a particular pattern of physiological activity." Emotions produce different physiological and cognitive changes. The original role of emotions was to motivate adaptive behaviors that in the past would have contributed to the passing on of genes through survival and kin selection.
In some theories, cognition is an important aspect of emotion. Those acting on the emotions they are feeling may seem as if they are not thinking, but mental processes are still essential in the interpretation of events. For example, the realization of our believing that we are in a dangerous situation and the subsequent arousal of our body's nervous system is integral to the experience of our feeling afraid. Other theories, claim that emotion is separate from and can precede cognition. Consciously experiencing an emotion is exhibiting a mental representation of that emotion from a past or hypothetical experience, linked back to a content state of pleasure or displeasure; the content states are established by verbal explanations of experiences, describing an internal state. Emotions are complex. According to some theories, they are states of feeling that result in physical and psychological changes that influence our behavior; the physiology of emotion is linked to arousal of the nervous system with various states and strengths of arousal relating to particular emotions.
Emotion is linked to behavioral tendency. Extroverted people are more to be social and express their emotions, while introverted people are more to be more withdrawn and conceal their emotions. Emotion is the driving force behind motivation, positive or negative. According to other theories, emotions are not causal forces but syndromes of components, which might include motivation, feeling and physiological changes, but no one of these components is the emotion. Nor is the emotion an entity that causes these components. Emotions involve different components, such as subjective experience, cognitive processes, expressive behavior, psychophysiological changes, instrumental behavior. At one time, academics attempted to identify the emotion with one of the components: William James with a subjective experience, behaviorists with instrumental behavior, psychophysiologists with physiological changes, so on. More emotion is said to consist of all the components; the different components of emotion are categorized somewhat differently depending on the academic discipline.
In psychology and philosophy, emotion includes a subjective, conscious experience characterized by psychophysiological expressions, biological reactions, mental states. A similar multicomponential description of emotion is found in sociology. For example, Peggy Thoits described emotions as involving physiological components, cultural or emotional labels, expressive body actions, the appraisal of situations and contexts; the word "emotion" dates back to 1579, when it was adapted from the French word émouvoir, which means "to stir up". The term emotion was introduced into academic discussion as a catch-all term to passions and affections; the word emotion was coined in the early 1800s by Thomas Brown and it is around the 1830s that the modern concept of emotion first emerged for English Language. "No one felt emotions before about 1830. Instead they felt other things - "passions", "accidents of the soul", "moral sentiments" - and explained them differently from how we understand emotions today."Some cross cultural studies indicate that the categorization of "emotion" and classification of basic emotions such as "anger" and "sadness" are not universal and that the boundaries and domains of these concepts are categorized differently by all cultures.
However, others argue that there are some basic universal but spurious bases of emotions in some cultures. In anthropology, an inability to express or perceive emotion is sometimes referred to as alexithymia; the Oxford Dictionary definition of emotion is "A strong feeling deriving from one's circumstances, mood, or relationships with others." Emotions are responses to significant external events. Emotions can be occurrences or dispositions, short-lived or long-lived. Psychotherapist Michael C. Graham describes all emotions as existing on a continuum of intensity, thus fear might range from mild concern to terror or shame might range from simple embarrassment to toxic shame. Emotions have been described as consisting of a coordinated set of responses, which may include verbal, physiological and neural mechanisms. Emotions have been categorized, with some relationships existing between emotions and some direct oppos
Star Wars is an American epic space-opera media franchise created by George Lucas. The franchise began with the eponymous 1977 film and became a worldwide pop-culture phenomenon; the first film subtitled Episode IV – A New Hope, was followed by two successful sequels, Episode V – The Empire Strikes Back and Episode VI – Return of the Jedi. A subsequent prequel trilogy, consisting of Episode I – The Phantom Menace, Episode II – Attack of the Clones and Episode III – Revenge of the Sith, completed what Lucas called the "tragedy of Darth Vader". A sequel trilogy began with Episode VII – The Force Awakens, continued with Episode VIII – The Last Jedi, will end with Episode IX – The Rise of Skywalker in 2019; the first eight films were commercially successful. Together with the theatrical spin-off films Rogue One and Solo, the series has a combined box office revenue of over US$9 billion, is the second-highest-grossing film franchise; the film series has spawned into other media, including television series, video games, comics, theme park attractions and themed areas, resulting in a detailed fictional universe.
Star Wars holds a Guinness World Records title for the "Most successful film merchandising franchise". In 2018, the total value of the Star Wars franchise was estimated at US$65 billion, it is the fifth-highest-grossing media franchise of all time; the Star Wars franchise depicts the adventures of characters "A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away...." in which many species of aliens co-exist with droids who may assist them in their daily routines, space travel between planets is common due to hyperspace technology. The rises and falls of different governments are chronicled throughout the saga: the democratic Republic is corrupted and overthrown by the Galactic Empire, fought by the Rebel Alliance; the Rebellion gives rise to the New Republic and rebuilds society, but the remnants of the Empire reform as the First Order and attempt to destroy the Republic. Heroes of the former rebellion lead the Resistance against the oppressive dictatorship. A mystical power known as "the Force" is described in the original film as "an energy field created by all living things... binds the galaxy together."
Those whom "the Force is strong with" have quick reflexes. The Force is wielded by two major knighthood orders at conflict with each other: the Jedi, who act on the light side of the Force through non-attachment and arbitration, the Sith, who use the dark side through fear and aggression; the latter's members are intended to be limited to two: their apprentice. The Star Wars film series centers on a trilogy of trilogies, they were produced non-chronologically, with Episodes IV–VI being released between 1977 and 1983, Episodes I–III being released between 1999 and 2005, Episodes VII–IX, the first Star Wars films to be made without Lucas's direct involvement, being released between 2015 and 2019. Each trilogy focuses on a generation of the Force-sensitive Skywalker family; the original trilogy depict the heroic development of Luke Skywalker, the prequels tell of his father Anakin's fall from grace, the sequels introduce Luke's nephew and Anakin's grandson, Kylo Ren. A theatrical animated film, The Clone Wars, was released as a pilot to a TV series of the same name.
They were among the last projects overseen by George Lucas before the franchise was sold to Disney in 2012. An anthology series set between the main episodes entered development in parallel to the production of the sequel trilogy, described by Disney CFO Jay Rasulo as origin stories; the first entry, Rogue One, tells the story of the rebels who steal the Death Star plans directly before Episode IV. Solo: A Star Wars Story focuses on Han Solo's backstory featuring Chewbacca and Lando Calrissian. Two spin-off trilogies have been announced: one by Episode VIII's director Rian Johnson and the other by Game of Thrones creators David Benioff and D. B. Weiss. Prequel trilogy Original trilogy Sequel trilogy In 1971, George Lucas wanted to film an adaptation of the Flash Gordon serial, but couldn't obtain the rights, so he began developing his own space opera. After directing American Graffiti, he wrote a two-page synopsis titled Journal of the Whills, which 20th Century Fox decided to invest in. By 1974, he had expanded the story into the first draft of a screenplay.
The subsequent movie's success led Lucas to make it the basis of an elaborate film serial. With the backstory he created for the sequel, Lucas decided that the series would be a trilogy of trilogies. Most of the main cast would return for the two additional installments of the original trilogy, which were self-financed by Lucasfilm. Star Wars was released on May 25, 1977 and first called Episode IV – A New Hope in the 1979 book The Art of Star Wars. Episode V – The Empire Strikes Back was released on May 21, 1980 achieving wide financial and critical success; the final film in the trilogy, Episode VI – Return of the Jedi was released on May 25, 1983. The story of the original trilogy focuses on Luke Skywalker's quest to become a Jedi, his struggle with the evil Imperial agent Darth Vader, the struggle of the Rebel Alliance to free the galaxy from the clutches of the Empire. According to producer Gary Kurtz, lo
102 Dalmatians is a 2000 American crime family comedy film directed by Kevin Lima in his live-action directorial debut and produced by Edward S. Feldman and Walt Disney Pictures, it is the sequel to the 1996 film 101 Dalmatians, a live-action remake of the 1961 Disney animated film of the same name and stars Glenn Close reprising her role as Cruella de Vil as she attempts to steal puppies for her "grandest" fur coat yet. Close and Tim McInnerny were the only two actors from the first film to return for the sequel; the film received negative reviews but was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Costume Design, losing to Gladiator. After three years in prison, Cruella de Vil has been cured of her desire for fur coats by Dr. Pavlov and is released into the custody of the probation office on the provision that she will be forced to pay the remainder of her fortune to all the dog shelters in the borough of Westminster should she repeat her crime. Cruella therefore mends her working relationship with her valet Alonzo and has him lock away all her fur coats.
Cruella's probation officer, Chloe Simon suspects her because Chloe is the owner of the now-adult Dipstick who moved from Roger and Anita's house to her house. Dipstick's mate, has given birth to three puppies: Domino, Little Dipper and Oddball. To mend her reputation, Cruella buys the Second Chance Dog shelter, owned by Kevin Shepherd, to resolve its financial insolvency, on the verge of eviction. Meanwhile, Dr. Pavlov discovers that when his therapy's subjects are subjected to loud noises, they revert to their original states but conceals this discovery; when Big Ben rings in her presence, Cruella reverts to her former personality and enlists the help of French furrier Jean-Pierre LePelt to steal 102 Dalmatian puppies for a new fur coat with a hood modifying the original design to use Dipstick's children. Kevin tells Chloe that if Cruella violates her parole, her entire fortune will go to him, since his dog shelter is the only one in the borough of Westminster. Knowing this, Cruella has Kevin framed for the theft of the puppies and invites Chloe and Dipstick to her house for a dinner party as a decoy to distract them while LePelt steals Dottie and the three puppies.
Dipstick hurries back to the apartment and hides in LePelt's truck but is captured at the train station. Chloe arrives too late, she is joined by Kevin, who has escaped from prison with help from his dogs and talking parrot, Kevin explaining that his past theft was just breaking animals out of a lab where they were being used for experiments. Upon finding a ticket for the Orient Express to Paris dropped by LePelt and Chloe attempt and fail to stop Cruella and LePelt, but Oddball and Waddlesworth pursue their enemies secretly, Oddball having been thrown out due to her spotless status and Waddlesworth helping her get on the train while overcoming his belief that he was a dog himself. In Paris and Chloe save some of the captive puppies, but they are seen and locked in the cellar just as the puppies flee. Cruella goes after the puppies alone. Alonzo, having been scolded beyond his patience and had enough of being abused, defeats LePelt and frees Kevin and Chloe, they give chase to a bakery, where the puppies and Kevin's dogs imprison Cruella in an immense cake.
She and LePelt are thereupon arrested. Kevin and Chloe, with the former exonerated from the theft accusation, are awarded the remnants of Cruella's fortune by Alonzo himself and Oddball's coat develops spots. Glenn Close as Cruella de Vil Ioan Gruffudd as Kevin Shepherd Alice Evans as Chloe Simon Tim McInnerny as Alonzo David Horovitch as Dr. Pavlov Ian Richardson as Mr. Torte QC Gérard Depardieu as Jean-Pierre LePelt Eric Idle as Waddlesworth, The Parrot Carol MacReady as Agnes Ben Crompton as Ewan Kerry Shale as Le Pelt's Assistant Ron Cook as Mr. Button On November 24, 1999, a teaser trailer was released with Disney/Pixar's Toy Story 2; the early working title was 101 Dalmatians Returns. Production began in December 1998 and ended in mid-November 1999; the film was set to be released on June 30, 2000, but was pushed back to November 22, 2000. Oxford Prison was used for the scene. 102 Dalmatians was filmed in Paris. On November 7, 2000, Disney released the soundtrack to the movie, including pre-eminently, a cover of Paul Anka's "Puppy Love" and original songs: Mike Himelstein's "What Can a Bird Do?", "My Spot in the World" and "Cruella De Vil 2000".
The film opened at the third position behind M. Night Shyamalan's Unbreakable and Ron Howard's How the Grinch Stole Christmas; the film did well at the box office, earning $67 million in the U. S. and $116.7 million in other territories, bringing its total to $183.6 million worldwide. After premiering in New Zealand, the film received positive reviews and was described by media as a "howling success". In the United States, the film received negative reviews from critics. On Rotten Tomatoes, the film has an approval rating of 31% based on 90 reviews, with the site's consensus reading "This sequel to the live-action 101 Dalmatians is more of the same. Critics say it drags in parts-- boring children-- and that it's too violent for a G-rated movie." On Metacritic, the film has a score of 35/100, based on 24 critics. Audiences surveyed by CinemaSco
McDonald's is an American fast food company, founded in 1940 as a restaurant operated by Richard and Maurice McDonald, in San Bernardino, United States. They rechristened their business as a hamburger stand, turned the company into a franchise, with the Golden Arches logo being introduced in 1953 at a location in Phoenix, Arizona. In 1955, Ray Kroc, a businessman, joined the company as a franchise agent and proceeded to purchase the chain from the McDonald brothers. McDonald's had its original headquarters in Oak Brook, but moved its global headquarters to Chicago in early 2018. McDonald's is the world's largest restaurant chain by revenue, serving over 69 million customers daily in over 100 countries across 37,855 outlets as of 2018. Although McDonald's is best known for its hamburgers and french fries, they feature chicken products, breakfast items, soft drinks, milkshakes and desserts. In response to changing consumer tastes and a negative backlash because of the unhealthiness of their food, the company has added to its menu salads, fish and fruit.
The McDonald's Corporation revenues come from the rent and fees paid by the franchisees, as well as sales in company-operated restaurants. According to two reports published in 2018, McDonald's is the world's fourth-largest private employer with 1.7 million employees. The siblings Richard and Maurice McDonald opened in 1940 the first McDonald's at 1398 North E Street at West 14th Street in San Bernardino, California but it was not the McDonald's recognizable today; the brothers introduced the "Speedee Service System" in 1948, putting into expanded use the principles of the modern fast-food restaurant that their predecessor White Castle had put into practice more than two decades earlier. The original mascot of McDonald's was a chef hat on top of a hamburger, referred to as "Speedee". In 1962, the Golden Arches replaced Speedee as the universal mascot; the symbol, Ronald McDonald, was introduced in 1965. The clown, Ronald McDonald, appeared in advertising to target their audience of children. On May 4, 1961, McDonald's first filed for a U.
S. trademark on the name "McDonald's" with the description "Drive-In Restaurant Services", which continues to be renewed. By September 13, McDonald's, under the guidance of Ray Kroc, filed for a trademark on a new logo—an overlapping, double-arched "M" symbol, but before the double arches, McDonald's used a single arch for the architecture of their buildings. Although the "Golden Arches" logo appeared in various forms, the present version was not used until November 18, 1968, when the company was favored a U. S. trademark. The present corporation credits its founding to franchised businessman Ray Kroc in on April 15, 1955; this was in fact the ninth opened McDonald's restaurant overall, although this location was destroyed and rebuilt in 1984. Kroc purchased the McDonald brothers' equity in the company and begun the company's worldwide reach. Kroc was recorded as being an aggressive business partner, driving the McDonald brothers out of the industry. Kroc and the McDonald brothers fought for control of the business, as documented in Kroc's autobiography.
The San Bernardino restaurant was torn down and the site was sold to the Juan Pollo chain in 1976. This area now serves as headquarters for the Juan Pollo chain, a McDonald's and Route 66 museum. With the expansion of McDonald's into many international markets, the company has become a symbol of globalization and the spread of the American way of life, its prominence has made it a frequent topic of public debates about obesity, corporate ethics, consumer responsibility. McDonald's restaurants are found in 120 countries and territories around the world and serve 68 million customers each day. McDonald's operates 37,855 restaurants worldwide, employing more than 210,000 people as of the end of 2018. There are a total of 2,770 company-owned locations and 35,085 franchised locations, which includes 21,685 locations franchised to conventional franchisees, 7,225 locations licensed to developmental licensees, 6,175 locations licensed to foreign affiliates. Focusing on its core brand, McDonald's began divesting itself of other chains it had acquired during the 1990s.
The company owned a majority stake in Chipotle Mexican Grill until October 2006, when McDonald's divested from Chipotle through a stock exchange. Until December 2003, it owned Donatos Pizza, it owned a small share of Aroma Cafe from 1999 to 2001. On August 27, 2007, McDonald's sold Boston Market to Sun Capital Partners. Notably, McDonald's has increased shareholder dividends for 25 consecutive years, making it one of the S&P 500 Dividend Aristocrats; the company is ranked 131st on the Fortune 500 of the largest United States corporations by revenue. In October 2012, its monthly sales fell for the first time in nine years. In 2014, its quarterly sales fell for the first time in seventeen years, when its sales dropped for the entirety of 1997. In the United States, it is reported. McDonald's closed down 184 restaurants in the United States in 2015, 59 more than what they planned to open; this move was the first time McDonald's had a net decrease in the number of locations in the United States since 1970.
For the fiscal year 2017, McDonalds reported earnings of US$5.2 billion, with an annual revenue of US$22.8 billion, an decrease of 7.3% over the previous fiscal cycle. McDonald's shares traded at over $145 per share, its market capitalization was valued at over US$134.5 billion in September 2018. The compa
The Ford Fiesta is a supermini marketed by Ford since 1976 over seven generations, including in Europe, Brazil, Mexico, India and South Africa. It has been manufactured in many countries. In 2008, the seventh generation Fiesta was introduced worldwide, making it the first Fiesta model to be sold in North America since the Fiesta Mark I was discontinued at the end of 1980. Ford has sold over 16 million Fiestas since 1976, making it one of the best selling Ford marques behind the Escort and the F-Series; the Fiesta was developed under the project name "Bobcat" and approved for development by Henry Ford II in September 1972, just after the launch of two comparable cars – the Fiat 127 and Renault 5. More than a decade earlier, Ford had decided against producing a new small car to rival BMC's Mini as the production cost was deemed too high, but the 1973 oil crisis saw a rise in the growing demand for smaller cars; the Fiesta was an all new car in the supermini segment, was the smallest car yet made by Ford.
Development targets indicated a production cost US$100 less than the current Escort. The car was to have a wheelbase longer than that of the Fiat 127, but with overall length shorter than that of Ford's Escort; the final proposal was developed by Tom Tjaarda at Ghia. The project was approved for production in late 1973, with Ford's engineering centres in Cologne and Dunton collaborating. Ford estimated that 500,000 Fiestas a year would be produced, built an all-new factory near Valencia, Spain. Final assembly took place in Valencia; the name Fiesta belonged to General Motors, used as a trim level on Oldsmobile station wagons, when the car was designed and was given for Ford to use on their new B-class car. After years of speculation by the motoring press about Ford's new car, it was subject to a succession of crafted press leaks from the end of 1975. A Fiesta was on display at the Le Mans 24 Hour Race in June 1976, the car went on sale in France and Germany in September 1976, its initial competitors in Europe, apart from the Fiat 127 and Renault 5, included the Volkswagen Polo and Vauxhall Chevette.
Chrysler UK were about to launch the Sunbeam by this stage, British Leyland was working on a new supermini, launched as the Austin Metro in 1980. The Fiesta was available in Europe with the Valencia 957 cc I4, 1,117 cc engines and in Base, Popular Plus, L, GL, Ghia and S trim, as well as a van; the US Mark I Fiesta was built in Cologne, West Germany, but to different specifications. These trim levels changed little in the Fiesta's three-year run in the US, from 1978 to 1980. All US models featured the more powerful 1,596 cc engine, fitted with a catalytic converter and air pump to satisfy strict Californian emission regulations), energy-absorbing bumpers, side-marker lamps, round sealed-beam headlamps, improved crash dynamics and fuel system integrity as well as optional air conditioning. In the US market, the Ford Escort replaced both the Fiesta and the compact Pinto in 1981, competing with the Chevrolet Chevette and Chevrolet Cavalier. A sporting derivative was offered in Europe for the 1980 model year, using the 1.3 L Kent Crossflow engine to test the market for the similar XR2 introduced a year which featured a 1.6 L version of the same engine.
Black plastic trim was added to the interior. The small square headlights were replaced with larger circular ones, with the front indicators being moved into the bumper to accommodate the change. For the 1979 auto show season, Ford in conjunction with its Ghia Operations in Turin, produced the Ford Fiesta Tuareg off-road car, it was touted in press materials as "a concept vehicle designed and equipped for practical, off-road recreational use."Minor revisions appeared across the range in late 1981, with larger bumpers to meet crash worthiness regulations and other small improvements in a bid to maintain showroom appeal ahead of the forthcoming second generation. The Fiesta Mark II appeared in August 1983 with a revised front end and interior, a bootlid mirroring the swage lines from the sides of the car; the 1.3 L OHV engine was dropped, being replaced in 1984 by a CVH powerplant of similar capacity, itself superseded by the lean burn 1.4 L two years later. The 957 and 1,117 cc Kent/Valencia engines continued with only slight alterations and for the first time a Fiesta diesel was produced with a 1,600 cc engine adapted from the Escort.
The new CTX continuously variable transmission fitted in the Fiat Uno appeared early in 1987 on 1.1 L models only. The Mk2 Fiesta core range was made up of the following model variants; the second generation Fiesta featured a different dashboard on the lower-series trim levels compared to the more expensive variants. The XR2 model was updated with a larger bodykit, it featured a 96 bhp 1.6 L CVH engine as seen in the Ford Escort XR3, five-speed gearbox, rather than t
Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria. They first appeared during the Triassic period, between 243 and 233.23 million years ago, although the exact origin and timing of the evolution of dinosaurs is the subject of active research. They became the dominant terrestrial vertebrates after the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event 201 million years ago. Reverse genetic engineering and the fossil record both demonstrate that birds are modern feathered dinosaurs, having evolved from earlier theropods during the late Jurassic Period; as such, birds were the only dinosaur lineage to survive the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event 66 million years ago. Dinosaurs can therefore be divided into birds; this article deals with non-avian dinosaurs. Dinosaurs are a varied group of animals from taxonomic and ecological standpoints. Birds, at over 10,000 living species, are the most diverse group of vertebrates besides perciform fish. Using fossil evidence, paleontologists have identified over 500 distinct genera and more than 1,000 different species of non-avian dinosaurs.
Dinosaurs are represented on every continent by fossil remains. Through the first half of the 20th century, before birds were recognized to be dinosaurs, most of the scientific community believed dinosaurs to have been sluggish and cold-blooded. Most research conducted since the 1970s, has indicated that all dinosaurs were active animals with elevated metabolisms and numerous adaptations for social interaction; some were herbivorous, others carnivorous. Evidence suggests that egg-laying and nest-building are additional traits shared by all dinosaurs and non-avian alike. While dinosaurs were ancestrally bipedal, many extinct groups included quadrupedal species, some were able to shift between these stances. Elaborate display structures such as horns or crests are common to all dinosaur groups, some extinct groups developed skeletal modifications such as bony armor and spines. While the dinosaurs' modern-day surviving avian lineage are small due to the constraints of flight, many prehistoric dinosaurs were large-bodied—the largest sauropod dinosaurs are estimated to have reached lengths of 39.7 meters and heights of 18 meters and were the largest land animals of all time.
Still, the idea that non-avian dinosaurs were uniformly gigantic is a misconception based in part on preservation bias, as large, sturdy bones are more to last until they are fossilized. Many dinosaurs were quite small: Xixianykus, for example, was only about 50 cm long. Since the first dinosaur fossils were recognized in the early 19th century, mounted fossil dinosaur skeletons have been major attractions at museums around the world, dinosaurs have become an enduring part of world culture; the large sizes of some dinosaur groups, as well as their monstrous and fantastic nature, have ensured dinosaurs' regular appearance in best-selling books and films, such as Jurassic Park. Persistent public enthusiasm for the animals has resulted in significant funding for dinosaur science, new discoveries are covered by the media; the taxon'Dinosauria' was formally named in 1841 by paleontologist Sir Richard Owen, who used it to refer to the "distinct tribe or sub-order of Saurian Reptiles" that were being recognized in England and around the world.
The term is derived from Ancient Greek δεινός, meaning'terrible, potent or fearfully great', σαῦρος, meaning'lizard or reptile'. Though the taxonomic name has been interpreted as a reference to dinosaurs' teeth and other fearsome characteristics, Owen intended it to evoke their size and majesty. Other prehistoric animals, including pterosaurs, ichthyosaurs and Dimetrodon, while popularly conceived of as dinosaurs, are not taxonomically classified as dinosaurs. Pterosaurs are distantly related to dinosaurs; the other groups mentioned are, like dinosaurs and pterosaurs, members of Sauropsida, except Dimetrodon. Under phylogenetic nomenclature, dinosaurs are defined as the group consisting of the most recent common ancestor of Triceratops and Neornithes, all its descendants, it has been suggested that Dinosauria be defined with respect to the MRCA of Megalosaurus and Iguanodon, because these were two of the three genera cited by Richard Owen when he recognized the Dinosauria. Both definitions result in the same set of animals being defined as dinosaurs: "Dinosauria = Ornithischia + Saurischia", encompassing ankylosaurians, ceratopsians, ornithopods and sauropodomorphs.
Birds are now recognized as being the sole surviving lineage of theropod dinosaurs. In traditional taxonomy, birds were considered a separate class that had evolved from dinosaurs, a distinct superorder. However, a majority of contemporary paleontologists concerned with dinosaurs reject the traditional style of classification in favor of phylogenetic taxonomy. Birds are thus considered to be dinosaurs and dinosaurs are, not extinct. Birds are classified as belonging to the subgroup M
AIBO is a series of robotic pets designed and manufactured by Sony. Sony announced a prototype Aibo in mid-1998; the first consumer model was introduced on 11 May 1999. New models were released every year until 2006. Although most models were dog-like, other inspirations included lion-cubs and space explorer, only the ERS-7 version and ERS-1000 versions was explicitly a "robotic dog". In 2006, AIBO was added into the Carnegie Mellon University Robot Hall of Fame. On 26 January 2006 Sony announced that it would discontinue AIBO and several other products in an effort to make the company more profitable. Sony's AIBO customer support was withdrawn with support for the final ERS-7M3 ending in March 2013. In July 2014, Sony stopped providing repairs for AIBO products and did not provide customer support or repair for AIBO robots. In November 2017, Sony announced a new generation of AIBO after 11 years; the fourth generation model, ERS-1000, was launched in Japan on 11 January 2018. The second lottery sale was set on 6 February 2018.
AIBO is meant to be a companion robot for adults. AIBO grew out of Sony's Computer Science Laboratory. Founded in 1990, CSL was set up to emulate the innovation center at Xerox’s Palo Alto Research Center. CSL's first product was the Aperios operating system to form the base software some AIBO models used; when Nobuyuki Idei became president of Sony in 1995, he sought to adopt a digital agenda, reflected in the new motto he gave the company, “Digital Dream Kids,” and the prominence he gave to CSL. Dr. Toshitada Doi is credited as AIBO’s original progenitor: in 1994 he had started work on robots with artificial intelligence expert Masahiro Fujita within CSL. Fujita would write that the robot's behaviors will need to “be sufficiently complex or unexpected so that people keep an interest in watching or taking care of it”. Fujita argued that entertainment robots might be viable as "A robot for entertainment can be designed using various state-of-the-art technologies, such as speech recognition and vision though these technologies may not be mature enough for applications where they perform a critical function.
While there exists special and difficult requirements in entertainment applications themselves, limited capabilities in the speech and vision systems may turn out to be an interesting and attractive feature for appropriately designed entertainment robots." His early monkey-like prototype "MUTANT" included behaviors that would become part of AIBOs including tracking a yellow ball, shaking hands, karate strikes and sleeping. Fujita would receive the IEEE Inaba Technical Award for Innovation Leading to Production for "AIBO, the world's first mass-market consumer robot for entertainment applications". A friend of Doi's, the artist Hajime Sorayama, was enlisted to create the initial designs for the AIBO's body; those designs are now part of the permanent collections of Museum of Modern Art and the Smithsonian Institution. The first generation AIBO design won Japan's prestigious "Good Design Award, Grand Prize" and a special Intelligent Design award in the 2000 German Red Dot awards. In 1997 Doi received backing from Idei to form Sony’s Digital Creatures Lab.
Believing that robots would be commonplace in households by 2010, but aware of the shortcomings of available technology for functional uses, he decided to focus on robots for entertainment. The AIBO talked in a tonal language. Two of the first generation AIBOs exported into the USA came to New York, NY and one remains in the archives and display at Artspace Company Y LLC. Models of AIBOs were designed jointly with prestigious Japanese designers, continued to gain design awards; the ERS-210 design was inspired by lion cubs. The bodies of the "ERS-3x" series were designed by visual artist Katsura Moshino winning the "Good Design Award" The sleek and futuristic, space-exploration inspired body of the "ERS-220" was designed by Shoji Kawamori. Winning the "Good Design Award" and a "Design for Asia" award; the ERS-7 Also won a "Good Design Award". Ten years Idei's successor, Howard Stringer closed down AIBO and other robotic projects. Doi staged a mock funeral, attended by more than 100 colleagues from Sony.
At the funeral, Doi said that the Aibo was a symbol of a risk-taking spirit at Sony, now dead. In November 2017, Sony Corporation announced that AIBO would return with a new model that would be capable of forming an emotional bond with users. Several prototypes have been displayed by Sony. Early models were insect-like with six legs; the specifications and design of the 1998 prototype, described in a Sony press release match those of the first generation AIBOs. Differences include the use of PC-Cards for memory, the use of two batteries, the option to use a 2-wheeled "rolling module" in place of legs; the first commercially available AIBO. It has a beagle-like appearance. Sales began on 1 June 1999. There was a limited production of 3,000 for Japan and 2,000 for the USA, they sold out in 20 minutes after launch. It cost 250,000 YEN; the ERS-111 was an improved version of the original AIBO released in November 1999 as a limited edition model. All 3,000 units of the Japanese stock were bought within 17 seconds of launch.
The ERS-210 was designed to look like a cub. It has speech recognition capabilities; the colours were black, gold, blue, white. The ERS-300 had an "AIBO's heart" slogan. Original production design illustrator was Katsura Moshino; the price was 98,000 YEN. The Latte version is the low-end mod