Social networking service
Most social network services are web-based and provide means for users to interact over the Internet, such as by e-mail and instant messaging and online forums. Social networking sites allow users to share ideas, digital photos and videos, depending on the social media platform, members may be able to contact any other member. In other cases, members can contact anyone they have a connection to, and subsequently anyone that contact has a connection to, LinkedIn, a career social networking service, generally requires that a member personally know another member in real life before they contact them online. Some services require members to have a connection to contact other members. The main types of social networking services are those that contain category places, means to connect with friends, there have been attempts to standardize these services to avoid the need to duplicate entries of friends and interests. A study reveals that India has recorded worlds largest growth in terms of media users in 2013. A2013 survey found that 73% of U. S. adults use social networking sites, the variety and evolving range of stand-alone and built-in social networking services in the online space introduces a challenge of definition.
Furthermore, the idea that these services are defined by their ability to bring people together provides too broad a definition, such a broad definition would suggest that the telegraph and telephone were social networking services – not the Internet technologies scholars are intending to describe. The terminology is unclear, with some referring to social networking services as social media. The potential for computer networking to facilitate newly improved forms of computer-mediated social interaction was suggested early on, efforts to support social networks via computer-mediated communication were made in many early online services, including Usenet, ARPANET, LISTSERV, and bulletin board services. Many prototypical features of social networking sites were present in online services such as America Online, CompuServe, ChatNet. Early social networking on the World Wide Web began in the form of generalized online communities such as Theglobe. com, some communities – such as Classmates. com – took a different approach by simply having people link to each other via email addresses.
In the late 1990s, user profiles became a feature of social networking sites, allowing users to compile lists of friends. New social networking methods were developed by the end of the 1990s and it became one of the first companies to profit from the sale of virtual goods. Friendster was followed by MySpace and LinkedIn a year later, friendster became very popular in the Pacific Islands. Orkut became the first popular social networking service in Brazil and quickly grew in popularity in India, attesting to the rapid increase in social networking sites popularity, by 2005, it was reported that Myspace was getting more page views than Google. Facebook, launched in 2004, became the largest social networking site in the world in early 2009, Facebook was first introduced as a Harvard social networking site, expanding to other universities and eventually, anyone. The term social media was introduced and soon became widespread, web-based social networking services make it possible to connect people who share interests and activities across political and geographic borders
Shashi Tharoor is an Indian politician and a former diplomat who is currently serving as Member of Parliament, Lok Sabha from Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala since 2009. He currently serves as Chairman of the Parliamentary Standing Committee on External Affairs and he was previously Minister of State in the Government of India for External Affairs and Human Resource Development. He is a member of the Indian National Congress and served as a spokesperson for the party from January to October 2014. Until 2007, he was an official at the United Nations, rising to the rank of Under-Secretary General for Communications. After 29 years at the UN, Tharoor announced his departure after finishing second in the 2006 elections for the Secretary-General to Ban Ki-moon. He is the author of hundreds of columns and articles in such as The New York Times, The Washington Post, TIME, Newsweek. He was an editor for Newsweek International for two years. He wrote columns for The Indian Express, The Hindu. Tharoor is a recognised speaker on Indias economics and politics, as well as on freedom of the press, human rights, Indian culture.
Tharoor was born in London to the Malayali Nair family of Lily and Chandran Tharoor of Palakkad and his father worked in various positions in London, Bombay and Delhi, including a 25-year career for The Statesman. His paternal uncle was T. Parameshwar, the founder of Readers Digest in India, after his parents returned to India, Tharoor boarded at Montfort School, Yercaud, in 1962, subsequently moving to Bombay and studying at the Campion School. He spent his school years at St Xaviers College in Calcutta. He graduated with a bachelor of degree in history from St Stephens College. At Fletcher he helped found and was the first editor of the Fletcher Forum of International Affairs and he has been awarded an honorary D. Litt by the University of Puget Sound and a doctorate honoris causa in history by the University of Bucharest. Tharoors career in the United Nations began in 1978 as a member of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees in Geneva. He processed Polish and Acehnese refugee cases, after a further stint at the UNHCR headquarters in Geneva, during which he became the first chairman of the staff elected by UNHCR personnel worldwide, Tharoor left UNHCR.
In 1989 he was appointed assistant to the Under-Secretary General for Special Political Affairs. Until 1996, he led the team responsible for peacekeeping operations in the former Yugoslavia, in 1996 Tharoor was appointed director of communications and special projects and executive assistant to the Secretary-General Kofi Annan
Alexa Internet, Inc. is a California-based company that provides commercial web traffic data and analytics. It is an owned subsidiary of Amazon. com. Founded as an independent company in 1996, Alexa was acquired by Amazon in 1999 and its toolbar collects data on browsing behavior and transmits them to the Alexa website, where they are stored and analyzed. This is the basis for the web traffic reporting. According to its website, Alexa provides traffic data, global rankings, as of 2015, its website has been visited by over 6.5 million people monthly. Alexa Internet was founded in April 1996 by American web entrepreneurs Brewster Kahle, Alexa initially offered a toolbar that gave Internet users suggestions on where to go next, based on the traffic patterns of its user community. The company offered context for each site visited, to whom it was registered, how many pages it had, how other sites pointed to it. Alexas operations grew to include archiving of web pages as they are crawled and this database served as the basis for the creation of the Internet Archive accessible through the Wayback Machine.
In 1998, the company donated a copy of the archive, Alexa continues to supply the Internet Archive with Web crawls. In 1999, as the company moved away from its vision of providing an intelligent search engine. Alexa began a partnership with Google in early 2002, and with the web directory DMOZ in January 2003, in May 2006, replaced Google with Bing as a provider of search results. In December 2006, Amazon released Alexa Image Search, built in-house, it was the first major application built on the companys Web platform. In December 2005, Alexa opened its extensive search index and Web-crawling facilities to third-party programs through a set of Web services. These could be used, for instance, to construct vertical search engines that could run on Alexas own servers or elsewhere. In May 2007, Alexa changed their API to limit comparisons to three websites, reduce the size of embedded graphs in Flash, and add mandatory embedded BritePic advertisements. In April 2007, the company filed a lawsuit, Alexa v.
Hornbaker, in the lawsuit, Alexa alleged that Ron Hornbaker was stealing traffic graphs for profit, and that the primary purpose of his site was to display graphs that were generated by Alexas servers. Hornbaker removed the term Alexa from his name on March 19,2007. Thereafter, Alexa became a purely analytics-focused company, on March 31,2009, Alexa launched a major website redesign