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Donna Hrinak

Donna Jean Hrinak has served as the president of Boeing Latin America & Caribbean, since September 2011. Hrinak was born in Pennsylvania. After graduating from Michigan State University, she attended George Washington University, Notre Dame Law School. In 2008, she joined PepsiCo, where she served as vice president of global public policy and government affairs. Prior to that, she served as corporate affairs director for the Latin American and European Union sectors of Kraft Foods; the Miami chapter of the Organization of Women in International Trade named Hrinak international businesswoman of the year, in 2005. Her other honors include the U. S. State Department’s Career Achievement Award and the U. S. Coast Guard’s Distinguished Public Service Award. Hrinak is a member of the board of directors of the Council on Foreign Relations and the board of counselors of McLarty Associates, she is a member of Washington D. C. based think tank the Inter-American Dialogue. In addition to English, she speaks Spanish and Polish.

Hrinak has served as the U. S. Ambassador to the Federative Republic of Brazil, Republic of Bolivia, the Dominican Republic. In 1994, she served as the State Department's Coordinator for Policy at the First Summit of the Americas. Appearances on C-SPAN

Operation Starvation

Operation Starvation was a naval mining operation conducted in World War II by the United States Army Air Forces, in which vital water routes and ports of Japan were mined from the air in order to disrupt enemy shipping. The mission was initiated at the insistence of Admiral Chester Nimitz who wanted his naval operations augmented by an extensive mining of Japan itself conducted by the air force. While General Henry H. Arnold felt this was a naval priority, he assigned General Curtis LeMay to carry it out. LeMay assigned one group of about 160 aircraft of the 313th Bombardment Wing to the task, with orders to plant 2,000 mines in April 1945; the mining runs were made by individual B-29 Superfortresses at night at moderately low altitudes. Radar provided mine release information; the 313th Bombardment Wing received preliminary training in aerial mining theory while their B-29 aircraft received bomb-bay modification to carry mines. Individual aircrew were given four to eight training flights involving five radar approaches on each flight and dummy mine drops on the last flight.

Beginning on March 27, 1945, 1,000 parachute-retarded influence mines with magnetic and acoustic exploders were dropped, followed by many more, including models with water pressure displacement exploders. This mining proved the most efficient means of destroying Japanese shipping during World War II. In terms of damage per unit of cost, it surpassed strategic bombing and the United States submarine campaign. Most of the major ports and straits of Japan were mined disrupting Japanese logistics and troop movements for the remainder of the war with 35 of 47 essential convoy routes having to be abandoned. For instance, shipping through Kobe declined by 85%, from 320,000 tons in March to only 44,000 tons in July. Operation Starvation sank more ship tonnage in the last six months of the war than the efforts of all other sources combined; the Twentieth Air Force flew 1,529 sorties and laid 12,135 mines in twenty-six fields on forty-six separate missions. Mining demanded only 5.7% of the XXI Bomber Command's total sorties, only fifteen B-29s were lost in the effort.

In return, mines damaged 670 ships totaling more than 1,250,000 tons. After the war, the commander of Japan's minesweeping operations noted that he thought this mining campaign could have directly led to the defeat of Japan on its own had it begun earlier. Similar conclusions were reached by American analysts who reported in July 1946 in the United States Strategic Bombing Survey that it would have been more efficient to combine the United States' effective anti-shipping submarine effort with land- and carrier-based air power to strike harder against merchant shipping and begin a more extensive aerial mining campaign earlier in the war; this would have starved forcing an earlier end to the war. Air raids on Japan Mines Away!, by Major John S. Chilstrom, USAF, 1992 Operation Starvation, by Captain Gerald A. Mason, USN, 2002

Battles involving the Maratha Empire

The Maratha Conquests were a series of conquests in the Indian subcontinent which led to the building of the Maratha Empire. These conquests were started by Chatrapati Shivaji in 1659 from the victory at the Battle of Pratapgad against Bijapur; the empire was interrupted by the Mughal conquests of south India by Emperor Aurangzeb and lost its independence as well as execution of their kings which continued until the death of Bahadur Shah I in 1712. Afterwards, the Marathas conclusively defeated and overtook major territories of the Mughal Empire in the Indian subcontinent and its vassals, it ended with the eventual fall of the Maratha Empire after the Anglo-Maratha Wars. After a lifetime of warfare with Adilshah of Bijapur and Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, Shivaji founded an independent Maratha kingdom in 1674 with Raigad as its capital. Shivaji died in 1680. After Shivaji, Sambhaji took up throne, he built strong army as well as navy. Mughal emperor Aurangzeb shifted his capital from Delhi to Aurangabad to defeat Sambhaji.

The Mughals invaded, fighting an War of 27 years from 1681 to 1707 in which the Marathas under Tarabai were victorious. Sambhaji was killed by Mughals. Shahu, a grandson of Shivaji, ruled as emperor until 1749. During his reign, Shahu appointed the first Peshwa as head of the government, under certain conditions. After the death of Shahu, the Peshwas became the de facto leaders of the Empire from 1749 to 1761, while Shivaji's successors continued as nominal rulers from their base in Satara. Covering a major part of the subcontinent, the Maratha Empire kept the British forces at bay during the 18th century, until internal relations between the Peshwas and their sardars deteriorated, provoking its gradual downfall; the Maratha Empire was at its height in the 18th century under Shahu and the Peshwa Baji Rao I. Losses at the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761 suspended further expansion of the empire in the North-west and reduced the power of the Peshwas. In 1761, after severe losses in the Panipat war, the Peshwas started losing the control of the kingdom.

Many military chiefs of the Maratha Empire like Shinde, Gaikwad, PantPratinidhi, Bhosale of Nagpur, Dev of Wardha, Pandit of Bhor and Newalkar started to work towards their ambition of becoming kings in their respective regions. However, under Madhavrao Peshwa, Maratha authority in North India was restored, 10 years after the battle of Panipat. After the death of Madhavrao, the empire gave way to a loose Confederacy, with political power resting in a'pentarchy' of five Maratha dynasties: the Peshwas of Pune. A rivalry between the Sindhia and Holkar dominated the confederation's affairs into the early 19th century, as did the clashes with the British and the British East India Company in the three Anglo-Maratha Wars. In the Third Anglo-Maratha War, the last Peshwa, Baji Rao II, was defeated by the British in 1818 and the empire ceased to exist. Battle of Umberkhind took place on 3 February 1661 in the mountain range of Sahyadri near the city of Pen, India; the battle was fought between the Maratha under Chhatrapati Shivaji and General Kartalab Khan of the Mughal Empire.

The Marathas decisively defeated the Mughal forces. This battle was a great example of guerrilla warfare; the Battle of Salher, a battle fought between the Maratha Empire and the Mughal Empire in February 1672 CE. The battle was fought near the fort of Salher in the Nashik district; the result was a decisive victory for the Maratha Empire. This battle is considered significant as it is the first battle in which the Mughal Empire lost on an open field. Mughal empire started to decline after this battle and the battle of Dindori fought one year earlier; the Battle of Kalyan occurred between the Mughal Empire and Maratha Empire between 1682 and 1683. General Bahadur Khan of the Mughal Empire took over Kalyan fort; the Marathas attempted a counter offensive, but failed and they were repulsed and their army was destroyed by Mughal forces. The Battle of Bhupalgarh occurred between the Mughal and Maratha empires in 1679; the battle resulted in the capture and razing of the fort of Bhupalgarh under Firangoji Narsala by the Mughal forces led by Diler Khan.

 The Battle of Sangamner was fought between the Mughal Empire and Maratha Empire in 1679. This was the last battle; the Mughals had ambushedShivaji. The Marathas engaged in battle with the Mughals for three days until Maratha General, Sidhoji Nimbalkar was killed alongside 2,000 Maratha soldiers; the Maratha force was decimated defending their king, however Shivaji managed to retreat with 500 men. War of 27 years was a series of battles fought between Marathas and Mughals from 1681 to 1707 in the Indian subcontinent, it was a series of battles. The war started in 1680 with the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb’s invasion of the Maratha enclave in Bijapur established by Shivaji; the war can be broken down into three distinct phases: Marathas under Sambhaji. Marathas under Rajaram. Marathas under Tarabai, it was a long snakes and ladders war game involving a quarter of a century and innumerable long and short battles. The war ended with the ultimate defeat and death of Aurangzeb in 1707, it paved the way for the Maratha expansion in the North.

Battle of Palkhed was a land battle that took place on 28 February 1728 at the village of Palkhed, near the city of Nashik, India between the Maratha Peshwa, Baji Rao I and the Nizam-ul-Mulk of Hyderabad. The Marathas defeate

James Cook University

James Cook University is a public university in North Queensland, Australia. The second oldest university in Queensland, JCU is a research institution; the university's main campuses are located in the tropical cities of Cairns and Townsville, one in the city state of Singapore. JCU has study centres in Mount Isa and Thursday Island. A Brisbane campus, operated by Russo Higher Education, delivers undergraduate and postgraduate courses to international students; the University’s main fields of research include marine sciences, sustainable management of tropical ecosystems and genomics, tropical health care and engineering. In 1957, Professor John Douglas Story, Vice Chancellor of the University of Queensland proposed a regional university college be established to cater to the people of North Queensland. At that time, the only higher education providers were located in Brisbane. On 27 February 1961, the University College of Townsville was opened. After being proclaimed on 20 April 1970 as an Act of Queensland Parliament, the University College of Townsville became James Cook University of North Queensland on 29 April 1970.

The official opening of the university was conducted by Queen Elizabeth II. The namesake is British sea captain James Cook, best known for being the first European to explore the eastern coast of Australia. A year after JCU's proclamation, Cyclone Althea struck the Townsville region. This, together with the destruction caused by Cyclone Tracy in Darwin 1974, prompted the establishment of a cyclone research facility; the Cyclone Testing Station started out as a small project of Professor Hugh Trollope and began its operations on 1 November 1977 as James Cook Cyclone Structural Testing Station. The Cyclone Testing Station operates as a self funded unit of the College of Science and Engineering, serves as an advising member to the Australian Standards committee in areas of structural design wind actions. On 1 January 1982, JCU amalgamated with The Townsville College of Advanced Education located adjacent to the main campus in Douglas; the university established a presence in Cairns in 1987 and moved to its current location in the suburb of Smithfield in 1995.

On 1 January 1991, the School of Art and Design of the Townsville College of TAFE was transferred to JCU. The current name of James Cook University became official on 1 January 1998. In 2003 the University opened an international campus in Singapore; the university further expanded its presence by establishing another campus in Brisbane, Queensland in 2006. JCU Singapore moved campuses in February 2015; the Hon. Tony Abbott MP, Prime Minister of Australia opened the new JCU Singapore campus at 149 Sims Drive on 28 June 2015; as a corporate body, James Cook University bears arms comprising four main elements – shield, crest and motto. The University motto is Cresente Luce, which means light increasing; this motto was first proposed by Professor Frederick Walter Robinson, professor of English at the University of Queensland, in 1962 for the University College of Townsville. The university college was established as a college of the University of Queensland. Adopted in 1963, the motto remained unchanged after James Cook University of North Queensland was established and incorporated in April 1970, became James Cook University.

James Cook University operates three main campuses, located in the tropical cities of Cairns and Townsville in Australia, the international city of Singapore. Russo Higher Education delivers JCU courses at its Brisbane centre on behalf of the University; the University operates study centres in Mackay, Mount Isa and Thursday Island. These study centres provide programs and support for students living in remote areas; the Cairns Campus of James Cook University is located 15 kilometres north of the Cairns central business district, in the suburb of Smithfield. JCU moved to this location from its original inner-city site in 1995. Located on the campus grounds are Queensland Tropical Health Alliance facilities, Australian Tropical Herbarium, the Australian Tropical Forest Institute, JCU Dental, The Cairns Institute. Over 4,000 students study at JCU Cairns, including about 385 international students. JCU's Townsville campus is the University’s largest campus and is located on 386 hectares in the suburb of Douglas, near the army base and the lee of Mount Stuart.

Over 13,000 students study including over 1,100 international students. Adjacent to the university is the Townsville Hospital and Tropical North Queensland Institute of TAFE. Located in the suburb of Pimlico, the University moved to its current site in 1967; the Discovery Rise project was announced in September 2007. The $1 billion project is aimed at redeveloping the University's Townsville campus; the project was completed in 2015. A second campus, JCU Townsville City, opened in 2015 and is located in Townsville's CBD; the campus delivers a diverse range of progressive facilities and services for the university and community organisations. James Cook University's Singapore campus was opened in 2003. In February 2015, James Cook University Singapore relocated to a new campus at 149 Sims Drive, ceasing operations at its previous campus on Upper Thomson Road, where it had been operating since July 2008. In 2018 there were over 3,000 students studying with JCU Singapore. Courses offered include business, information technology, environmental science, tourism and hospitality, to international and domestic students.

All degrees awarded are accredited by JCU

Tony Sutton (cricketer)

Michael Antony Sutton played first-class cricket for Oxford University in 1946 and 1947 and appeared in a single first-class match for Somerset in 1948, playing against Oxford University. He was born at Dorset. CricketArchive lists him as "Tony Sutton" and this is confirmed in a book published in 2018 that includes material from interviews with him, his death was announced in The Times on 2 July 2019. Sutton was educated at Worcester College, Oxford; as a cricketer he was a right-arm off-spin bowler. In the 1946 season, he was the most economical of Oxford's regular bowlers, with 31 wickets at an average of 22.93 runs each. The best bowling figures of his career came in the match against Leicestershire when he took five second innings wickets for 63 runs, his only five-wicket return, he took three wickets in the 1946 University match against Cambridge. Sutton played for the Oxford University side again in 10 matches in 1947 but his bowling was less effective and the English-born Canadian off-spin bowler Basil Robinson was preferred in the team for the 1947 University match.

In 1948 he played his one first-class match for Somerset and in 1954 he played once in the Minor Counties for Devon as well as in two other minor matches. Tony Sutton at ESPNcricinfo