General Register Office
General Register Office is the name given to the civil registry in England and Wales, many other Commonwealth nations and Ireland. As such, the GRO is the government agency responsible for the recording of vital records such as births and marriages; the director of a General Register Office is titled Registrar General. General Register Office for England and Wales: The post of registrar general was created by the Births and Deaths Registration Act 1836, registration began in 1837; the first holder of the post was Thomas Henry Lister. The registrar general was soon given other responsibilities, such as the conduct of every census in England and Wales since 1841, came to be head of a statistical organisation. In 1972, with the creation of the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, the General Register Office became just one division of the new office, headed by a Deputy Registrar General. In England and Wales, birth registration with the state began on 1 July 1837; the birth was registered in the birth district and at the end of each quarter, the registrar sent a copy of all entries to the Registrar General.
However, registration did not become compulsory until 1875. Until 1875 there was no penalty for not registering a birth. Between 1837 and 1875 some births were not registered so a child could be sent out to work, or, after 1853, to avoid the compulsory vaccinations of children over three months old which began that year. With the creation of the Office for National Statistics, the post of Registrar General was merged with that of Head of the Government Statistical Service, now the National Statistician. However, following the 2008 implementation of the Statistics and Registration Service Act 2007, the General Register Office continues to be part of a ministerially-accountable department, becoming a part of the Identity & Passport Service in the Home Office and the post of Registrar-General is now held by its head. General Register Office for Scotland. Registrar General of Canada: a government minister with different and unrelated functions; each province and territory in Canada has a Registrar General responsible for collecting and storing vital statistics like births and deaths in their respective regions.
Registrar General of Sri Lanka: a civil servant who heads the Registrar General's department responsible for registration of birth and deaths of the populace Sri Lankan and legal documents pertaining to properties. The post was created in 1864; the Australian states and territories and New Zealand have similar registries for birth and marriage. These agencies are subordinate of the state attorney general department's or state department of justice; the Hong Kong Government established a registrar general after the British acquired Hong Kong in 1841. The Registrars General 249894 from the Office for National Statistics. Office of the Registrar.
England and Wales
England and Wales is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four nations of the United Kingdom. "England and Wales" forms the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England and follows a single legal system, known as English law. The devolved National Assembly for Wales was created in 1999 by the Parliament of the United Kingdom under the Government of Wales Act 1998 and provides a degree of self-government in Wales; the powers of the Assembly were expanded by the Government of Wales Act 2006, which allows it to pass its own laws, the Act formally separated the Welsh Government from the Assembly. There is no equivalent body for England, directly governed by the Parliament and the government of the United Kingdom. During the Roman occupation of Britain, the area of present-day England and Wales was administered as a single unit, with the exception of the land to the north of Hadrian's Wall – though the Roman-occupied area varied in extent, for a time extended to the Antonine/Severan Wall.
At that time, most of the native inhabitants of Roman Britain spoke Brythonic languages, were all regarded as Britons, divided into numerous tribes. After the conquest, the Romans administered this region as the province of Britain. Long after the departure of the Romans, the Britons in what became Wales developed their own system of law, first codified by Hywel Dda when he was king of most of present-day Wales. However, after the Norman invasion of Wales in the 11th century, English law came to apply in the parts of Wales conquered by the Normans. In 1283, the English, led by Edward I, with the biggest army brought together in England since the 11th century, conquered the remainder of Wales organised as the Principality of Wales; this was united with the English crown by the Statute of Rhuddlan of 1284. This aimed to replace Welsh criminal law with English law. Welsh law continued to be used for civil cases until the annexation of Wales to England in the 16th century; the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 consolidated the administration of all the Welsh territories and incorporated them into the legal system of the Kingdom of England.
Prior to 1746 it was not clear whether a reference to "England" in legislation included Wales, so in 1746 Parliament passed the Wales and Berwick Act. This specified that in all prior and future laws, references to "England" would by default include Wales; the Wales and Berwick Act was repealed in 1967, although the statutory definition of "England" created by that Act still applies for laws passed before 1967. In new legislation since 1967, what was referred to as "England" is now "England and Wales", while references to "England" and "Wales" refer to those political divisions. England and Wales are treated as a single unit for some purposes, because the two form the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England; the continuance of Scots law was guaranteed under the 1706 Treaty of Union that led to the Acts of Union 1707, as a consequence English law—and after 1801, Irish law—continued to be separate. Following the two Acts of Union, Parliament can restrict the effect of its laws to part of the realm, the effect of laws, where restricted, was applied to one or more of the former kingdoms.
Thus, most laws applicable to England applied to Wales. However, Parliament now passes laws applicable to Wales and not to England, a practice, rare before the middle of the 20th century. Examples are the Welsh Language Acts 1967 and 1993 and the Government of Wales Act 1998. Measures and Acts of the National Assembly for Wales passed since the Government of Wales Act 2006 apply in Wales but not in England. Following the Government of Wales Act, effective since May 2007, the National Assembly for Wales can legislate on matters devolved to it. Following a referendum on 3 March 2011, the Welsh Assembly gained direct law-making powers, without the need to consult Westminster; this was the first time in 500 years that Wales had its own powers to legislate. Each piece of Welsh legislation is known as an Act of the Assembly. For a company to be incorporated in the United Kingdom, its application for registration with Companies House must state "whether the company's registered office is to be situated in England and Wales, in Scotland or in Northern Ireland", which will determine the law applicable to that business entity.
A registered office must be specified as "in Wales" if the company wishes to use a name ending cyfyngedig or cyf, rather than Limited or Ltd. or to avail itself of certain other privileges relating to the official use of the Welsh language. Outside the legal system, the position is mixed; some organisations combine as "England and Wales", others are separate. In sports, cricket has a combined international team administered by the England and Wales Cricket Board, who govern the sport across both nations, whilst football, rugby union, rugby league, the Commonwealth Games and other sports have separate national representative teams for each country. A few Welsh association football clubs, most notably Cardiff City F. C. and Swansea City F. C. play in the English football league system, while The New Saints F. C. which represents places on both sides of the border, plays in the Welsh football league system. Some religious denominations organise on the basis of England and Wales, most notably the Roman Catholic Church, but small denominations, e.g. the Evangelical Presbyterian Church.
Prior to the disestablishment of the Church in Wales in 1920, the Anglican churc
Board of guardians
Boards of guardians were ad hoc authorities that administered Poor Law in the United Kingdom from 1835 to 1930. Boards of guardians were created by the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834, replacing the parish overseers of the poor established under the old poor law, following the recommendations of the Poor Law Commission. Boards administered workhouses within a defined poor law union consisting of a group of parishes, either by order of the Poor Law Commission, or by the common consent of the parishes. Once a union was established it could not be dissolved or merged with a neighbouring union without the consent of its board; each board was composed of guardians elected by the owners and bona fide occupiers of land liable to pay the poor rate. Depending on the value of the property held, an elector could cast from one to three votes. Electors could nominate proxies to cast their vote in their absence. Where property was held by a corporation or company, its governing body could nominate an officer to cast its vote or votes.
Each civil parish in the union was represented by at least one guardian, with those with larger populations or special circumstances having two or more. The exact constitution of each board was determined by the Commissioners. Guardians were subject to annual elections. In addition to the elected guardians, any justice of the peace residing in a parish of the union was entitled to be an ex officio guardian, it was long unclear. In 1875, Martha Merington was accepted as a candidate for the Kensington Board of Guardians, was successful, her election was upheld. She was disqualified after winning a further election in 1879 as she was moving house on the election day and so it was uncertain whether she technically met the property ownership requirements at that moment. By the Public Health Act 1875, boards of guardians became rural sanitary authorities for all areas outside a municipal borough or town with a local board; the Local Government Act 1894 altered the system. At the same time, property qualifications were abolished, plural voting was ended and women were able to become guardians.
The term of office of a guardian was increased to three years, with all guardians elected, no ex officio or nominated board members. Boards were, permitted to co-opt a chairman, vice-chairman and up to two additional members from outside their own body, provided that they were qualified to be a guardian in a like manner to the elected members. Boards of guardians were abolished in 1930 by the Local Government Act 1929, when their powers and responsibilities passed to local and national government bodies. A similar system of Poor Law to that in England and Wales was introduced to Ireland in 1838, with boards of guardians elected by rate-payers; the Irish system differed from that in England and Wales, as the civil parish was not used as the basis for the election of guardians. In their place electoral divisions were formed by the agglomeration of townlands; the ratio of elected to ex officio guardians was to be at least three to one, with an election to be held among the qualified magistrates for ex officio positions if their number exceeded the limit.
Following the partition of the island in 1922 the guardians were abolished in the Irish Free State in 1925, being replaced by County Boards of Health. Guardians continued to exist until 1948 in Northern Ireland. Under the reformed system introduced in Scotland in 1845, relief of the poor was the responsibility of parochial boards appointed in each civil parish, boards of guardians were not formed. Adjacent parishes could form "combinations", however. Streamlining the Work of the Board
Civil parishes in Ireland
Civil parishes are units of territory in the island of Ireland that have their origins in old Gaelic territorial divisions. They were adopted by the Anglo-Norman Lordship of Ireland and by the Elizabethan Kingdom of Ireland, were formalised as land divisions at the time of the Plantations of Ireland, they no longer correspond to the boundaries of Roman Catholic or Church of Ireland parishes, which are larger. Their use as administrative units was replaced by Poor Law Divisions in the 19th century, although they were not formally abolished. Today they are still sometimes used for legal purposes; the Irish parish was based on the Gaelic territorial unit called a túath orTrícha cét. Following the Norman invasion of Ireland, the Anglo-Norman barons retained the tuath renamed a parish or manor, as a unit of taxation; the civil parish was formally created by Elizabethan legislation. Accounts were kept of income and expenditures for each parish including poor relief. Statutes were based on ecclesiastical parishes, although it is not known how well-defined such parishes were.
At the time of the English Civil War, in 1654–56 a Civil Survey was taken of all the lands of Ireland. It proved inaccurate, in 1656–58 the Down Survey was conducted, using physical measurements to make as accurate a map as was possible at the time of townlands and baronies; this became the basis for all future land claims. Parishes are an intermediate subdivision, with multiple townlands per parish and multiple parishes per barony. A civil parish is made up of 25–30 townlands, it may include urban areas such as villages. A parish may cross the boundaries of both counties. Civil parishes had some use in local taxation, they were included on the nineteenth-century maps of the Ordnance Survey of Ireland. The Local Government Act 1898 established administrative counties divided into county districts making parishes obsolete, they were removed from subsequent editions of OS maps. For poor law purposes district electoral divisions replaced the civil parishes in the mid-nineteenth century. Townlands are the smallest land unit in Ireland, were the most precise address that most rural people had until the 2015 introduction of postcodes.
An 1871 report to parliament noted that there were three classes of parish in Ireland: the civil parish, the Church of Ireland parish and the Roman Catholic parish. The first two but not always had the same boundaries, while the third did not; as a result of the 16th-century Protestant Reformation, the Roman Catholic church had to adapt to a structure based on towns and villages, with parishes that were larger than the old parishes. A Tudor statute, renewed in 1695 by the Irish parliament, said that land should be granted in each parish for a resident Protestant schoolmaster; the Union of Parishes Act 1827 defined rules for redefining parish boundaries, erecting Chapels of Ease and making Perpetual Cures. It has since in part repealed. While the boundaries of the parishes of the Church of Ireland changed following the disestablishment of the church in 1869, this did not affect the boundaries of the civil parishes; the 1871 report noted that ecclesiastical parish boundaries must be flexible to meet the requirements of the cure of souls, but that for statistical and administrative purposes the boundaries of civil parishes should be fixed, or at least should change.
By 1800 civil parishes had replaced the ecclesiastical parishes for administrative purposes. Although the timing and method of the change is not well-documented; the civil parish was used for taxation purposes. The civil parishes were included on the nineteenth-century maps of the Ordnance Survey of Ireland. At the time of the 1861 census there were 2,428 civil parishes in Ireland. Poor Law districts were created in 1838, each centered on a large town. There were 130 poor law unions with 829 registration districts and 3,751 district electoral divisions for census purposes. In 1898 poor law unions replaced civil parishes as the basic local government unit. "parish councils" which gained a modicum of official recognition were based on Roman Catholic parishes: first those recognised by the Congested Districts Board for Ireland. Civil parishes have not been formally abolished in either Northern Ireland or the Republic of Ireland, are still used in some legal contexts. One example where the parish is still referenced in Republic of Ireland law is the Intoxicating Liquor Act, 1988, which allows "any person resident in the parish in which the club premises are situated" to object to the granting of an alcohol licence to a club.
Until 1981 the Republic's official census reports included the populations of civil parishes in and near cities, because "numerous requests" were still being made for them. In 2001 there were 2,508 civil parishes. Old records of marriages, births etc. are organised by civil parish. Church of Ireland parishes conform to civil parish boundaries. List of civil parishes of Ireland Citations Sources "Historic 6-inch map". Mapviewer. Ordnance Survey of Ireland. 1833–46. Retrieved 8 November 2014. "Memorial Atlas of Ireland". NUI Galway. 2014. County maps include colour-coded parishes "Alphabetical index to
Welfare is a type of government support for the citizens of that society. Welfare may be provided to people of any income level, as with social security, but it is intended to ensure that the poor can meet their basic human needs such as food and shelter. Welfare attempts to provide poor people with a minimal level of well-being either a free- or a subsidized-supply of certain goods and social services, such as healthcare and vocational training. A welfare state is a political system wherein the State assumes responsibility for the health and welfare of society; the system of social security in a welfare state provides social services, such as universal medical care, unemployment insurance for workers, financial aid, free post-secondary education for students, subsidized public housing, pensions, etc. In 1952, with the Social Security Convention, the International Labour Organization formally defined the social contingencies covered by social security; the first welfare state was Imperial Germany, where the Bismarck government introduced social security in the late 19th century.
In the early 20th century, Great Britain introduced social security around 1913, adopted the welfare state with the National Insurance Act 1946, during the Attlee government. In the countries of western Europe and Australasia, social welfare is provided by the government out of the national tax revenues, to a lesser extent by non-government organizations, charities. In the U. S. welfare program is the general term for government support of the well-being of poor people, the term social security refers to the US social insurance program for retired and disabled people. In other countries, the term social security has a broader definition, which refers to the economic security that a society offers when people are sick and unemployed. In the U. K. government use of the term welfare includes help for poor people and benefits, including specific social services such as help in finding employment. In the Roman Empire, the first emperor Augustus provided the Cura Annonae or grain dole for citizens who could not afford to buy food every month.
Social welfare was enlarged by the Emperor Trajan. Trajan's program brought acclaim including Pliny the Younger; the Song dynasty government supported multiple programs which could be classified as social welfare, including the establishment of retirement homes, public clinics, paupers' graveyards. According to economist Robert Henry Nelson, "The medieval Roman Catholic Church operated a far-reaching and comprehensive welfare system for the poor..."Early welfare programs in Europe included the English Poor Law of 1601, which gave parishes the responsibility for providing welfare payments to the poor. This system was modified by the 19th-century Poor Law Amendment Act, which introduced the system of workhouses. Public assistance programs were not called welfare until the early 20th century when the term was adopted to avoid the negative connotations that had become associated with older terms such as charity, it was predominantly in the late 19th and early 20th centuries that an organized system of state welfare provision was introduced in many countries.
Otto von Bismarck, Chancellor of Germany, introduced one of the first welfare systems for the working classes. In Great Britain the Liberal government of Henry Campbell-Bannerman and David Lloyd George introduced the National Insurance system in 1911, a system expanded by Clement Attlee; the United States inherited England's poor house laws and has had a form of welfare since before it won its independence. During the Great Depression, when emergency relief measures were introduced under President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Roosevelt's New Deal focused predominantly on a program of providing work and stimulating the economy through public spending on projects, rather than on cash payment. Modern welfare states include Germany, the Netherlands, as well as the Nordic countries, such as Iceland, Norway and Finland which employ a system known as the Nordic model. Esping-Andersen classified the most developed welfare state systems into three categories. In the Islamic world, one of the Five Pillars of Islam, has been collected by the government since the time of the Rashidun caliph Umar in the 7th century.
The taxes were used to provide income for the needy, including the poor, orphans and the disabled. According to the Islamic jurist Al-Ghazali, the government was expected to store up food supplies in every region in case a disaster or famine occurred; the World Bank's 2019 World Development Report on The Changing Nature of Work considers whether traditional social assistance models continue to be appropriate given that, in 2018, 8 in 10 people in developing countries still receive no social assistance while 6 in 10 work informally beyond the government's reach. Welfare can take a variety of forms, such as monetary payments and vouchers, or housing assistance. Welfare systems differ from country to country, but welfare is provided to individuals who are unemployed, those with illness or disability, the elderly, those with dependent children, veterans. A person's eligibility for welfare may be constrained by means testing or other conditions. Welfare is provided by governments or their agencies, by private organizations, or a combination of both.
Funding for welfare comes from general government revenue, but when d
Great Famine (Ireland)
The Great Famine, or the Great Hunger, was a period in Ireland between 1845 and 1849 of mass starvation and emigration. With the most affected areas in the west and south of Ireland, where the Irish language was spoken, the period was contemporaneously known in Irish as An Drochshaol, loosely translated as the "hard times"; the worst year of the period, that of "Black 47", is known in Irish as Bliain an Drochshaoil. During the famine, about one million people died and a million more emigrated from Ireland, causing the island's population to fall by between 20% and 25%; the proximate cause of the famine was a natural event, a potato blight, which infected potato crops throughout Europe during the 1840s, precipitating some 100,000 deaths in total in the worst affected areas and among similar tenant farmers of Europe. The food crisis influenced much of the unrest in the more widespread European Revolutions of 1848; the event is sometimes referred to as the Irish Potato Famine outside Ireland. The impact of the blight was exacerbated by political belief in laissez-faire economics.
The famine was a watershed in the history of Ireland, which from 1801 to 1922 was ruled directly by Westminster as part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Together with the Napoleonic Wars, the Great Famine in Ireland produced the greatest loss of life in 19th-century Europe; the famine and its effects permanently changed the island's demographic and cultural landscape, producing an estimated two million refugees and spurring a century-long population decline. For both the native Irish and those in the resulting diaspora, the famine entered folk memory; the strained relations between many Irish and the British Crown soured further both during and after the famine, heightening ethnic and sectarian tensions, boosting Irish nationalism and republicanism in Ireland and among Irish emigrants in the United States and elsewhere. The potato blight returned to Europe in 1879, but by that point the labourers of Ireland had, in the Legacy of the Great Irish Famine, begun the "Land War", described as one of the largest agrarian movements to take place in 19th-century Europe.
The movement, organized by the Land League, continued the political campaign for the Three Fs, issued in 1850 by the Tenant Right League and developed during the Great Famine. When the potato blight returned in 1879, the League boycotted "notorious landlords" and its members physically blocked evictions of farmers; as a result, the consequent reduction in homelessness and house demolition resulted in a drastic reduction in the number of deaths. Since the Acts of Union in January 1801, Ireland had been part of the United Kingdom. Executive power lay in the hands of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland and Chief Secretary for Ireland, who were appointed by the British government. Ireland sent 105 members of parliament to the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, Irish representative peers elected 28 of their own number to sit for life in the House of Lords. Between 1832 and 1859, 70 % of Irish representatives were the sons of landowners. In the 40 years that followed the union, successive British governments grappled with the problems of governing a country which had, as Benjamin Disraeli put it in 1844, "a starving population, an absentee aristocracy, an alien established Protestant church, in addition the weakest executive in the world."
One historian calculated that, between 1801 and 1845, there had been 114 commissions and 61 special committees enquiring into the state of Ireland, that "without exception their findings prophesied disaster. Lectures printed in 1847 by John Hughes, Bishop of New York, are a contemporary exploration into the antecedent causes the political climate, in which the Irish famine occurred. During the Famine, Ireland produced enough food and wool to feed and clothe double its nine million people; when Ireland had suffered a famine in 1782–83, its ports were closed to keep Irish-grown food in Ireland to feed the Irish. Local food prices promptly dropped. Merchants lobbied against the export ban, but Grattan's Parliament, exercising the short-lived powers within the Constitution of 1782, overrode their protests. There was no such export ban in the 1840s; some historians have argued, because exports were not stopped, the famine was artificial and a consequence of the British government's failure to retain foodstuffs in the country.
In the 17th and 18th centuries, Irish Catholics were discriminated against. They constituted the vast majority of the population, but they had been prohibited by the penal laws from purchasing or leasing land, holding political office, living in or within 5 miles of a corporate town, obtaining education, entering a profession, doing many other things necessary for a person to succeed and prosper in society. By 1793, such laws had been reformed and the Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829 allowed Irish Catholics to again sit in parliament. During the 18th century, the "middleman system" for managing landed. Rent collection was left in middlemen; this assured the landlord of a regular income, relieved them of direct responsibility, while leaving tenants open to exploitation by the middlemen. Catholics, the bulk of whom lived in conditions of poverty and insecurity despite Catholic emancipation in 1829, made up 80% of the population. At the top of the "social pyramid" was the "ascendancy class", the English and Anglo-Irish f
A public dispensary, charitable dispensary or free dispensary gives advice and medicines free-of-charge, or for a small charge. In the 19th and early 20th centuries a provident dispensary was a clinic offering medical care to people who made a small weekly payment as a kind of medical insurance. If and when they became ill they were entitled to out-patient treatment at the dispensary. In the 19th century it was not unusual in the United Kingdom to combine the subscription arrangement with charitable provision. One of the earlier English cities to have a provident dispensary was Coventry where, in the 1840s, members subscribed one penny a week for adults and a halfpenny a week for each of their children; this was seen as a suitable arrangement for working-class people who wanted to be provident and self-reliant, avoiding charitable treatment offered to'paupers', but with no hope of paying the fees charged to wealthier people. A provident dispensary needed a few hundred ` club' members; some dispensaries had extra funding from philanthropists, some arranged for hospital specialists to see dispensary patients at reduced fees.
Doctors at a few provident dispensaries, in London for example, would visit patients at home. A provident dispensary was opened in New York in the second half of the 19th century. In some places the same need might be met by friendly societies organised by the members themselves. Provident dispensaries, on the other hand, were set up by prosperous well-wishers and/or by a doctor, as Sophia Jex-Blake did in Edinburgh, with support from a committee. List of public dispensaries