Nick Jr. (UK and Ireland)
Nick Jr. is a British television channel in the United Kingdom and Ireland operated by a joint venture between Viacom International Media Networks Europe and Sky. The channel is aimed at pre-school children. Nick Jr. was first broadcast in the UK and Ireland from 1993, during the daytime hours from 9am - 12pm on the main Nickelodeon channel. In 1999, the Nick Jr slot was spun off into its own channel although the slot on Nickelodeon continued until July 2000 broadcasting on channel 606 on Sky, from 6am to 12pm alongside Sky Sports 3 on analogue satellite, although this schedule would sometimes be altered if sports were being covered in the early morning; when it first properly aired it was presented by Face. In 2001, MTV Dance started broadcasting during its downtime hours after it was spun off from MTV Extra. MTV Dance acquired its own separate channel in 2002 and both channels have since extended their broadcasting hours. A version of Nick Jr. for Ireland was launched in 2006. This version, like Nickelodeon Ireland, shares the same schedule as the UK feed, but has Irish adverts.
On 30 April 2010, the channel updated to the United States look. As of 2 August 2010, Nick Jr. broadcasts 24 hours a day. As of 5 July 2016, Nick Jr. HD launched on Sky channel 637, replacing MTV Live HD's Sky slot. On 18 February 2019, Nick Jr UK Rebranded to its current US Look. Nick Jr. Classics was a British television programming block broadcast nightly on Nick Jr. from 2004. The block launched under the name Noggin on 31 May 2004; the block ran from 8:00 p.m. until 10:00 p.m. The block was rebranded as Nick Jr. Classics on 5 September 2005; the block was first seen on Nick Jr. and was shown on Nick Jr. Too before it permanently moved to that channel on 5 January 2009; the slot was popular with both parents/guardians. The block closed down on 30 April 2010, following the rebranding of both channels. Nickelodeon Nicktoons Nick Jr. Too Nick @ Nite Nicktoonsters Official website
Milkshake! is a British preschool television programming block on Channel 5, aimed at children two to seven years old. The block debuted in 1997 and is broadcast on weekdays from 06:00 to 09:15 and weekends from 06:00 to 10:00; the block has a number of presenters, features a range of children's programming. Some of its current programmes include iconic shows such as Thomas and Friends, Peppa Pig, Ben & Holly's Little Kingdom, Fireman Sam, PAW Patrol', Wissper, Shane The Chef, Little Princess, Noddy Toyland Dectective and many more. From 1997–2002 and 2007–2016, Milkshake! aired programmes for older children. When Five Life launched in 2006, Milkshake! was shown on the channel between 09:00 and 13:00 each day. By April 2011, the channel had reduced its broadcast hours and the block was replaced by teleshopping. On 21 August 2017, Milkshake relaunched on 5Star. Milkshake! On 5Star was dropped and removed in 2018. On 6 July 2017, Channel 5 announced a rebranding of Milkshake! that launched on 24 July, including updated branding, a new studio, the launch of a YouTube channel that will feature digital content related to the block.
In November 2008, Channel 5 had been set to launch a new children's channel based on its pre-school programming block. This was a response to the BBC launching the CBBC channel and CBeebies in 2002 and ITV launching the CITV channel in 2006, but plans to launch a standalone pre-school channel were put on hold indefinitely while the broadcaster awaited a buyer. In-vision continuity presenters have been utilised by Milkshake! since the show began in 1997. The original presenters were Konnie Huq. Huq was replaced by former Nickelodeon presenter Eddie Matthews when she left the show to join the BBC as a Blue Peter presenter; the year in brackets denotes when the presenter began presenting Milkshake!. Amy Thompson David Ribi Derek Moran Jen Pringle Kemi Majeks Kiera-Nicole Brennan Nathan Connor Olivia Birchenough Sita Thomas Milkshake! Monkey Anna Williamson Andrew McEwan Beth Evans Casey-Lee Jolleys Curtis Angus Dave Payne Eddie Matthews Hannah Williams Konnie Huq Lucy Alexander Naomi Wilkinson Relief and freelance presenters have anchored Milkshake!
Continuity links, including presenter Ellie Harrison. Official website
Anime Central was a British television channel owned by CSC Media Group. The channel launched on 13 September 2007, it was first announced on 5 August 2007, though its license first appeared on the Ofcom website in January. The channel ran from 9pm to 6am, free-to-air on Sky's Digital TV Platform, channel 199. Anime was only broadcast between 6 am; the channel timeshared with Pop Girl but more bandwidth was made available removing the need for the channel to timeshare. The extra broadcast capacity was filled with the channel ident or teleshopping; the channel was shut down on 27 August 2008 being replaced with Showcase TV but Anime Central continued to be shown as a programming block on Showcase TV every night between 4am and 6am. Showcase TV was renumbered to channel 188 in September 2008. On August 3, 2009, Showcase TV became True Entertainment and the Anime Central programming block was removed completely; the regular schedule comprised six series, with a different episode broadcast every day.
These made a three-hour block, repeated twice through to 6:00am. Each series was repeated once before a major schedule change was made, unless the series was much longer than the standard length of 26 episodes. On 1 March 2008, the schedule changed, first to three double-bills to two triple-bills; the reasons for the change were unknown and reactions to this change on the channel's forum were negative. The channel did not broadcast in anamorphic widescreen. Programmes made in 16:9 format were screened in letterbox format. In 2008, a few late-season episodes of Ghost In the Shell: Stand Alone Complex: 2nd Gig were screened in 16:9 anamorphic. Bleach Cowboy Bebop Fullmetal Alchemist Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex G. I. Joe: A Real American Hero Gundam SEED.hack//SIGN Planetes s-CRY-ed Transformers: The Headmasters Transformers: Super-God Masterforce Transformers: Victory Vision of Escaflowne Witch Hunter Robin Wolf's Rain Over the 2007 Christmas season, from 21 December 2007 until 4 January 2008, the regular schedule was replaced by marathons of these 3 popular anime shows: Cowboy Bebop Fullmetal Alchemist Bleach Nine consecutive episodes of a series were shown each day to form a 4½ hour block, except on the final day of each series' marathon which had fewer episodes.
Each block was repeated until 6:00am. Although all series were broadcast in English, a popular topic of discussion on the Anime Central forums were member's preferences for Anime dubbed into English or in Japanese with English subtitles; as a result of the high demand for both, during late 2007, the last repeat of the night of Cowboy Bebop and.hack//SIGN were broadcast in Japanese with English subtitles. Throughout the channel's life, it had a consistent red-on-black theme. All the channel's the "bumpers", the ident cards and the website used this same theme. In response to a request from the channel's brand manager, there was some discussion on the Anime Central Forums about changing the red-on-black theme. However, none of the suggestions were taken up by the channel. On 3 June 2008, an updated list of UK TV licenses from OFCOM no longer listed Anime Central as a licensed channel, reinforcing the long-standing speculation on the Anime Central forums that the channel would soon close. However, the same OFCOM data indicated that CSC Media Group is set to start a new cartoon channel called True Entertainment, prompting further speculation on the Anime Central Forums that some of the channel's programming could move to the new channel.
By 14 June, confirmation that the channels's license to operate was being replaced in favour of True Entertainment, had appeared on OFCOM's monthly updates page for May 2008. Despite a fleeting suggestion on Sky's Electronic Programme Guide that a new schedule, combining content from Pop Girl, True Movies 2 and Anime Central, might start on 20 August, Sky's EPG reverted to the previous schedule of triple bills and teleshopping. On 26 August 2008, True Entertainment's OFCOM Licence was renamed to Showcase TV and Showcase TV launched the following day. Anime Central survived as a 3-hour block of programming from midnight to 3am, using the channel's original idents, DOG and continuity announcements. At the beginning of the new schedule the block carried the same triple bills of Cowboy Bebop and Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex that were seen in rotation on the full-time channel, after 7 October 2008, Anime Central's slot was further reduced to two hours, showing double bills of Cowboy Bebop and Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex.
On August 3, 2009, the last double bills of Cowboy Bebop and Ghost In The Shell were shown and Showcase TV was replaced by True Entertainment. True Entertainment shows no signs of airing any anime and it's not known if CSC Media longer owns the rights to any anime shows. In 2014, Sony Pictures Television bought CSC Media Group. On March 5, 2015, CSC's Scuzz launched Animax Movie Nights, a weekly block that aired anime movies on Thursday nights for the next month; as of 2017, animecentral.com redirects to animaxtv.co.uk, launched on 24 October 2013 prior to Sony's acquisition of CSC. Though the channel no longer exists as a separate channel, discussion on the channel's internet forum continued with a low level of activity. However, the forum stopped accepting new members in
How to Be Indie
How to Be Indie is a Canadian television show that aired on YTV from 2009 to 2011 and Disney Channel until 2012. The main character is a 13-year-old Indian-Canadian teenager named Indira "Indie" Mehta; the program is a single-camera series intended for a youth audience. The series was created by Vera Santamaria, John May, Suzanne Bolch; the series ran for two seasons and aired its final episode on October 24, 2011 on YTV in Canada and May 26, 2012 on Disney Channel in the United Kingdom. The program follows Indie's journey as she tries to get the most out of life despite the travails of junior high school and the expectations of her Indian parents, she is joined by her two best friends Marlon Parks and Abigail "Abi" Flores. She falls into the trap of caring more about what her peers think of her than who she wants to be herself, spends a lot of time trying to impress her classmates; when not focusing on Indie, the show focuses on Abi. A given episode will show Marlon's quirky antics getting him into a troublesome situation.
Abi will have to help extricate him. Sometimes, they swap roles as Marlon tries to play it cool; the show is produced by Heroic Film Company in association with DHX Media and YTV and created by writer Vera Santamaria Suzanne Bolch and John May. Season one filmed 26 twenty-five-minute episodes and first premiered on 2 October 2009; the show was a part of YTV's'Big Fun Weeknights'. A second season began filming in summer 2010, shooting five episodes and resumed filming in November 2010; the second season premiered on October 11, 2010. The series was not picked up for a third season. Melinda Shankar as Indira "Indie" Mehta, the main character of the show. An upbeat and lively teenager, she is a new generation of Indian and is modern, which clashes with her parents. Marline Yan as Abigail "Abi" Flores, Indie's best friend. Abi is intelligent, always being there to get Indie and Marlon Parks out of trouble, her parents have owned the Happy Breezy Food Hut. Dylan Everett as Marlon Parks, Indie's troublesome friend.
He relies on Abi to help him get out of trouble. He is raised by a single mother, never shown onscreen. Sarena Parmar as Chandra Mehta, Indie's older sister, she enjoys being in the spotlight and outdoing her sister and brother being rather selfish and selling her siblings out to get her way. Chandra is familiar with her parents' traditional expectations and values finding ways around them with greater ease than Indie, she offers Indie sound advice. Varun Saranga as Arun Joshi "A. J." Mehta, Indie's older brother. He is known as a geek in school. Ellora Patnaik as Jyoti Mehta, Indie's mother, she is traditional favouring Chandra for being able to impress relatives. Vijay Mehta as Vikram Mehta, Indie's father, he tries to boost his children's intelligence, has an aversion to spending large amounts of money. Errol Sitahal as Prakash Mehta, Indie's paternal grandfather, known more familiarly as "Babaji". Shainu Bala as Ram Ramachandran, a boy from India who lusts after Indie and loves proving his superiority.
Nikki Shah as Ruby Patel, Chandra and A. J.'s cousin, the daughter of Jyoti's sister, self-absorbed and loves to torment Indie by showing that she's better than her at everything. Atticus Mitchell as Carlos Martinelli, a short-tempered student who loves to victimize other students who get in his way. Deborah Glover as Mrs. Roland, Indie's teacher, stern, but deep down has a good heart. Jordan Hudyma as Chad Tash Indie's love interest for the first season. Ted Ludzik as Coach Wexler, the P. E. teacher at the school, who has a short temper. Alex De Jordy as Mike O'Donnell A. J.'s rival, whom he competes for supremacy with. Georgina Reilly as Skye Rivers a gorgeous senior girl. Jason Jia as John Lu a Chinese student who idolizes Marlon and will help him with any ideas he has. Cassius Crieghtney as Dre an employee of the Happy Breezy Food Hut. Timothy Lai as Aidan Indie's love interest. Max Topplin as Madison How to Be Indie on IMDb How To Be Indie on TV.com at TV.com Official YTV Website DHX Media Indie website Australia Broadcasting Corporation Indie website
Channel 4 is a British public-service free-to-air television network that began transmission on 2 November 1982. Although commercially-self-funded, it is publicly-owned. With the conversion of the Wenvoe transmitter group in Wales to digital terrestrial broadcasting on 31 March 2010, Channel 4 became a UK-wide TV channel for the first time; the channel was established to provide a fourth television service to the United Kingdom in addition to the licence-funded BBC One and BBC Two, the single commercial broadcasting network ITV. Before Channel 4 and S4C, Britain had three terrestrial television services: BBC1, BBC2, ITV; the Broadcasting Act 1980 began the process of adding a fourth, Channel 4, along with its Welsh counterpart, was formally created by an Act of Parliament in 1982. After some months of test broadcasts, it began scheduled transmissions on 2 November 1982; the notion of a second commercial broadcaster in the United Kingdom had been around since the inception of ITV in 1954 and its subsequent launch in 1955.
Indeed, television sets sold throughout the 1970s and early 1980s had a spare tuning button labelled "ITV/IBA 2". Throughout ITV's history and until Channel 4 became a reality, a perennial dialogue existed between the GPO, the government, the ITV companies and other interested parties, concerning the form such an expansion of commercial broadcasting would take, it was most politics which had the biggest impact in leading to a delay of three decades before the second commercial channel became a reality. One clear benefit of the "late arrival" of the channel was that its frequency allocations at each transmitter had been arranged in the early 1960s, when the launch of an ITV2 was anticipated; this led to good coverage across most of the country and few problems of interference with other UK-based transmissions. At the time the fourth service was being considered, a movement in Wales lobbied for the creation of dedicated service that would air Welsh-language programmes only catered for at "off peak" times on BBC Wales and HTV.
The campaign was taken so by Gwynfor Evans, former president of Plaid Cymru, that he threatened the government with a hunger strike were it not to honour the plans. The result was that Channel 4 as seen by the rest of the United Kingdom would be replaced in Wales by Sianel Pedwar Cymru. Operated by a specially created authority, S4C would air programmes in Welsh made by HTV, the BBC and independent companies. Limited frequency space meant that Channel 4 could not be broadcast alongside S4C, though some Channel 4 programmes would be aired at less popular times on the Welsh variant, a practice that carried on up until the closure of S4C's analogue transmissions in 2010 when S4C became a Welsh channel. Since carriage on digital cable and digital terrestrial has introduced Channel 4 to Welsh homes where it is now universally available; the first voice heard on Channel 4's opening day of Tuesday 2 November 1982 was that of continuity announcer Paul Coia who said: Good afternoon. It's a pleasure to be able to say to you, welcome to Channel Four.
Following the announcement, the channel headed into a montage of clips from its programmes set to the station's signature tune, "Fourscore", written by David Dundas, which would form the basis of the station's jingles for its first decade. The first programme to air on the channel was the teatime game show Countdown, at 16:45 produced by Yorkshire Television; the first person to be seen on Channel 4 was Richard Whiteley with Ted Moult being the second. The first woman on the channel, contrary to popular belief, was not Whiteley's Countdown co-host Carol Vorderman but a lexicographer only identified as Mary. Whiteley opened the show with the words: As the countdown to a brand new channel ends, a brand new countdown begins. On its first day, Channel 4 broadcast controversial soap opera Brookside, which ran until 2003. On its launch, Channel 4 committed itself to providing an alternative to the existing channels, an agenda in part set out by its remit which required the provision of programming to minority groups.
In step with its remit, the channel became well received both by minority groups and the arts and cultural worlds during this period under founding chief executive Jeremy Isaacs, where the channel gained a reputation for programmes on the contemporary arts. Channel 4 co-commissioned Robert Ashley's ground-breaking television opera Perfect Lives, which it premiered over several episodes in 1984; the channel did not receive mass audiences for much of this period, however, as might be expected for a station focusing on minority interest. Channel 4 began the funding of independent films, such as the Merchant-Ivory docudrama The Courtesans of Bombay, during this time. In 1992, Channel 4 faced its first libel case by Jani Allan, a South African journalist, who objected to her representation in Nick Broomfield's documentary The Leader, His Driver and the Driver's Wife. In September 1993, the channel broadcast the direct-to-TV documentary film Beyond Citizen Kane, in which it displayed the dominant position of the Rede Globo television network, discussed its influence and political connections in Brazil.
After control of the station passed from the Channel Four Television Co
BBC Radio 4 Extra
BBC Radio 4 Extra is a British digital radio station broadcasting archived repeats of comedy and documentary programmes nationally, 24 hours a day. It is the principal broadcaster of the BBC's spoken-word archive, as a result the majority of its programming originates from that archive, it broadcasts extended and companion programmes to those broadcast on sister station BBC Radio 4, provides a "catch-up" service for certain Radio 4 programmes. The station launched in December 2002 as BBC 7, broadcasting a similar mix of archive comedy and current children's radio; the station was renamed BBC Radio 7 in 2008 relaunched as Radio 4 Extra in April 2011. For the first quarter of 2013, Radio 4 Extra had a weekly audience of 1.642 million people and had a market share of 0.95%. The station was launched as BBC 7 on 15 December 2002 by comedian Paul Merton; the first programme was broadcast at 8 pm and was simulcast with Radio 4. The station, referred to by the codename'Network Z' while in development, was so named to reflect the station's presence on the internet and on digital television in addition to radio.
The station broadcast archived comedy and drama, in that the programme was either three or more years old or had been broadcast twice on their original station. The station broadcast a themed section for Children's programmes; this section carried a variety of programmes, including The Little Toe Radio Show, aimed at younger children and consisting of short serials and rhymes, The Big Toe Radio Show with phone-ins and stories for the 8+ age group. The segment hosted the only news programme on the network presented by the Newsround team; the station won the Sony Radio Academy Award for station sound in 2003, was nominated for the Promo Award in 2004, in 2005 received a silver for the Short-Form award, plus nominations in the speech and digital terrestrial station-of-the-year sections. Because of the station's archive nature the station was scheduled and researched by 17 people, excluding presenters; the station was renamed on 4 October 2008 as BBC Radio 7 in an effort to bring it in line with other BBC Radio brands.
It coincided with the introduction of a new network logo for the station. During this period, Radio 7 saw growth in its audience, with a growth rate of 9.5% annually in 2010, going from 931,000 listeners in the first quarter of that year to 949,000 a quarter making it the second most listened to BBC digital radio station at the time. However, despite this growth, the audience of children between 4 and 14 was reported to be only at 25,000 and in February 2011 the BBC Trust approved a reduction in hours dedicated to children from 1,400 to 350; the BBC announced their intention to relaunch the station on 2 March 2010 and following a public consultation, the proposal was approved by the corporation's governing body the BBC Trust in February 2011. As a result, the station relaunched as BBC Radio 4 Extra on Saturday 2 April 2011; the relaunched station contained much of the same mix of programming with some new additions that reflected the new alignment with Radio 4, many of which were extended, archive or spin offs of flagship Radio 4 programmes.
BBC Radio 4 Extra is broadcast from Broadcasting House in central London, although due to the nature of the channel little of the channel's content is broadcast live from there with the continuity announcements being pre-recorded. The channel uses ten continuity announcers to link between programmes; these are Wes Butters, Kathy Clugston, Jim Lee, David Miles, Joanna Pinnock, Susan Rae, Debbie Russ, Neil Sleat, Alan Smith, Zeb Soanes, Luke Tuddenham and Chris Berrow. Previous presenters, including those presenting Radio 7, include Penny Haslam, Helen Aitken, Rory Morrison, Steve Urquhart, Alex Riley and Michaela Saunders; the station only operates on digital networks and so has no allocated analogue radio signal. Instead it is broadcast over the internet on the BBC website, on services such as Radioplayer and TuneIn and for users of IPTV's, it is available on digital radio and television services including digital terrestrial provider Freeview, cable television providers including Virgin Media and on satellite television providers Freesat and Sky who receive their signal from the Astra 2E satellite.
The pan-European nature of this satellite means that the signal can be received across northern Europe. The controller of the station is Gwyneth Williams, answerable to the Radio board in the BBC. BBC Radio 4 Extra is only available in stereo on Digital TV and online but not on DAB as its maximum bit rate is only 80kbps, only sufficient for it to be broadcast in mono. Although the current station is a rebranding of Radio 7 and contains a similar mix of archived programming, content has been brought further in line with BBC Radio 4 with new additions based upon their schedule; these include extended versions of programmes such as The News Quiz and Desert Island Discs, the broadcast of archived editions of the latter as Desert Island Discs Revisited. It has previously included the addition of the programme Ambridge Extra, a more youth-orientated version of long-running radio soap The Archers, an extended version of The Now Show; some programming is organised into programme blocks of similar programmes.
The late night Comedy Club segment broadcasts "two hours of contemporary comedy" most nights of the week and is hosted by Arthur Smith. A long-standing segment that remained following the change from Radio 7, it was fronted by Alex Riley and Phil Williams. Comedy
ITV (TV network)
ITV is a British free-to-air television network with its headquarters in London, it was launched in 1955 as Independent Television under the auspices of the Independent Television Authority to provide competition to BBC Television, established in 1932. ITV is the oldest commercial network in the UK. Since the passing of the Broadcasting Act 1990, its legal name has been Channel 3, to distinguish it from the other analogue channels at the time, namely BBC 1, BBC 2 and Channel 4. In part, the number 3 was assigned because television sets would be tuned so that the regional ITV station would be on the third button, with the other stations being allocated to the number within their name. ITV is a network of television channels that operate regional television services as well as sharing programmes between each other to be displayed on the entire network. In recent years, several of these companies have merged, so the fifteen franchises are in the hands of two companies; the ITV network is to be distinguished from ITV plc, the company that resulted from the merger of Granada plc and Carlton Communications in 2004 and which holds the Channel 3 broadcasting licences in England, southern Scotland, the Isle of Man, the Channel Islands and Northern Ireland.
With the exception of Northern Ireland, the ITV brand is the brand used by ITV plc for the Channel 3 service in these areas. In Northern Ireland, ITV plc uses the brand name UTV. STV Group plc uses the STV brand for its two franchises of northern Scotland; the origins of ITV lie in the passing of the Television Act 1954, designed to break the monopoly on television held by the BBC Television Service. The act created the Independent Television Authority to regulate the industry and to award franchises; the first six franchises were awarded in 1954 for London, the Midlands and the North of England, with separate franchises for Weekdays and Weekends. The first ITV network to launch was London's Associated-Rediffusion on 22 September 1955, with the Midlands and North services launching in February 1956 and May 1956 respectively. Following these launches, the ITA awarded more franchises until the whole country was covered by fourteen regional stations, all launched by 1962; the network has been modified several times through franchise reviews that have taken place in 1963, 1967, 1974, 1980 and 1991, during which broadcast regions have changed and service operators have been replaced.
Only one service operator has been declared bankrupt, WWN in 1963, with all other operators leaving the network as a result of a franchise review. Separate weekend franchises were removed in 1968 and over the years more services were added; the Broadcasting Act 1990 changed the nature of ITV. This criticised part of the review saw four operators replaced, the operators facing different annual payments to the Treasury: Central Television, for example, paid only £2000—despite holding a lucrative and large region—because it was unopposed, while Yorkshire Television paid £37.7 million for a region of the same size and status, owing to heavy competition. Following the 1993 changes, ITV as a network began to consolidate with several companies doing so to save money by ceasing the duplication of services present when they were all separate companies. By 2004, ITV was owned by five companies, of which two and Granada had become major players by owning between them all the franchises in England, the Scottish borders and the Isle of Man.
That same year, the two merged to form ITV plc with the only subsequent acquisitions being the takeover of Channel Television, the Channel Islands franchise, in 2011. and UTV, the franchise for Northern Ireland, in 2015. The ITV network is not owned or operated by one company, but by a number of licensees, which provide regional services while broadcasting programmes across the network. Since 2016, the fifteen licences are held by two companies, with the majority held by ITV Broadcasting Limited, part of ITV plc; the network is regulated by the media regulator Ofcom, responsible for awarding the broadcast licences. The last major review of the Channel 3 franchises was in 1991, with all operators' licences having been renewed between 1999 and 2002 and again from 2014 without a further contest. While this has been the longest period that the ITV Network has gone without a major review of its licence holders, Ofcom announced that it would split the Wales and West licence from 1 January 2014, creating a national licence for Wales and joining the newly separated West region to Westcountry Television, to form a new licence for the enlarged South West of England region.
All companies holding a licence were part of the non-profit body ITV Network Limited, which commissioned and scheduled network programming, with compliance handled by ITV plc and Channel Television. However, due to amalgamation of several of these companies since the creation of ITV Network Limited, it has been replaced by an affiliation system. Approved by Ofcom, this results in ITV plc commissioning and funding the network schedule, with STV and UTV paying a fee to broadcast it. All licensees have the right to opt out of network programming (except fo