An urn is a vase with a cover, that has a somewhat narrowed neck above a rounded body and a footed pedestal. Describing a vessel as an "urn", as opposed to a vase or other terms reflects its use rather than any particular shape or origin; the term is often used for funerary urns, vessels used in burials, either to hold the cremated ashes or as grave goods, but is used in many other contexts. Large sculpted vases are called urns, whether placed outdoors, in gardens or as architectural ornaments on buildings, or kept inside. Funerary urns have been used by many civilizations. After death, corpses are cremated, the ashes are collected and put in an urn. Pottery urns, dating from about 7000 BC, have been found in an early Jiahu site in China, where a total of 32 burial urns are found, another early finds are in Laoguantai, Shaanxi. There are about 700 burial urns unearthed over the Yangshao areas and consisting more than 50 varieties of form and shape; the burial urns were used for children, but sporadically for adults.
The Urnfield culture, a late Bronze Age culture of central Europe, takes its name from its large cemeteries of urn burials. The discovery of a Bronze Age urn burial in Norfolk, prompted Sir Thomas Browne to describe the antiquities found, he expanded his study to survey burial and funerary customs and current, published it as Hydriotaphia or Urn Burial. In ancient Greece, cremation was usual, the ashes placed in a painted Greek vase. In particular the lekythos, a shape of vase, was used for holding oil in funerary rituals. Romans placed; the interior of a dovecote has niches to house doves. Cremation urns were commonly used in early Anglo Saxon England, in many Pre-Columbian cultures. In some European traditions, a king's heart, sometimes other organs, could be placed in one or more urns upon his death, as happened with King Otto of Bavaria in 1916, buried in a different place from the body, to symbolize a particular affection for the place by the departed. In the modern funeral industry, cremation urns of varying quality and cost are offered, urns are another source of potential profit for an industry concerned that a trend toward cremation might threaten profits from traditional burial ceremonies.
Biodegradable urns are sometimes used for both animal burial. They are made from eco-friendly materials such as recycled or handmade paper, cellulose or other natural products that are capable of decomposing back into natural elements, sometimes include a seed intended to grow into a tree at the site of the burial. Besides the traditional funeral or cremation ashes urns, it may be possible to keep a part of the ashes of the loved one or beloved pet in keepsake urns or ash jewellery, although this might be banned in some localities as the law of certain countries may prohibit keeping any human remains in a private residence, it is in some places, possible to place the ashes of two people in so-called companion urns. Cremation or funeral urns are made from a variety of materials such as wood, nature stone, glass, or steel. Scattering of ashes has become popular over recent decades; as a result, urns designed to scatter the ashes from have been developed. Some are biodegradable, some recyclable after being used.
Some cremation urns have been made out of wood. A Figural urn is a style of vase or larger container where the basic urn shape, of either a classic amphora or a crucible style, is ornamented with figures; these may be attached to the main body, forming handles or extraneous decorations, or may be shown in relief on the body itself. The Ashes, the prize in the biennial Test cricket competition between England and Australia, are contained in a miniature urn. Urns are a common form of architectural garden ornament. Well-known ornamental urns include the Waterloo Vase. In mathematics, an urn problem is a thought experiment in probability theory. A tea urn is a heated metal container traditionally used to brew tea or boil water in large quantities in factories, canteens or churches, they are not found in domestic use. Like a samovar it has a small tap near the base for extracting hot water. Unlike an electric water boiler, tea may be brewed in the vessel itself, although they are likely to be used to fill a large teapot.
In Neoclassical furniture, it was a large wooden vase-like container, set on a pedestal on either side of a side table. This was the characteristic of Adam designs and of Hepplewhite's work. Sometimes they were "knife urns", where the top lifted off, cutlery was stored inside. Urns were used as decorative turnings at the cross points of stretchers in 16th and 17th century furniture designs; the urn and the vase were set on the central pedestal in a "broken" or "swan's" neck pediment. "Knife urns" placed on pedestals flanking a dining-room sideboard were an English innovation for high-style dining rooms of the late 1760s. They went out of fashion in the following decade, in favour of knife boxes that were placed on the sideboard. Bridge spouted vessel Crematory Pithos Urn problem Viewlogy Daily Mail article on a Roman cinerary urn Getty. Art & Architecture Thesaurus. Urns
Statue of George V, Westminster
The statue of George V in Old Palace Yard, London, is a sculpture of George V, King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, Emperor of India. The statue was sculpted prior to the Second World War and was hidden in a quarry during the war years. Other locations were suggested for the statue, including Parliament Square, but it was unveiled opposite the House of Lords in 1947; the statue is made of Portland stone. It is located south opposite the House of Lords, it is a Grade II listed structure, having become so on 5 February 1970. It was announced in March 1937 by the Lord Mayor of London that William Reid Dick had been selected as the sculptor of a statue of George V. Giles Gilbert Scott was selected to design the architecture of the plinth. A location in Abingdon Street opposite the House of Lords was announced in October 1937; the construction was organised by the King George V National Memorial Committee. The original design proved controversial and resulted in some criticism: it was to feature an ornate Gothic canopy which critics described as "dwarfing" the statue itself.
Following a public consultation this feature was removed from designs. The Amenities groups of both the House of Commons and the House of Lords opposed the citing of the statue facing the House of Lords as they were concerned it would lead to the demolition of No. 6 and 7 Old Palace Yard and houses in a nearby street. A model of the statue was exhibited in the Member's tea room of the House of Commons; the Royal Fine Art Commission suggested that the statue should be located in Parliament Square instead of opposite the House of Lords. The construction of the statue took place on Portland prior to the Second World War, but the danger of bringing the statue to London prevented the erection of it until after the war; the carving of the statue took place in the Portland quarry from which the stone was produced, during the war years it was placed inside one of the quarry's tunnels on the Island in order to prevent it from potential damage due to German bombing raids. Following the war it was moved to the Tate Gallery.
The statue was placed in the original proposed spot opposite the House of Lords, which required the demolition of No. 5 Old Palace Yard. It was unveiled by King George VI, on 22 October 1947 and was attended by Queen Elizabeth, Queen Mary, Princesses Elizabeth and Margaret. In 1968, the symbol of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament was drawn on the side of the plinth, provoking the question of its removal to be raised by Dudley Smith MP in the House of the Commons. British Pathe footage of the unveiling of the statue
A pedestal or plinth is the support of a statue or a vase. Although in Syria, Asia Minor and Tunisia the Romans raised the columns of their temples or propylaea on square pedestals, in Rome itself they were employed only to give greater importance to isolated columns, such as those of Trajan and Antoninus, or as a podium to the columns employed decoratively in the Roman triumphal arches; the architects of the Italian revival, conceived the idea that no order was complete without a pedestal, as the orders were by them employed to divide up and decorate a building in several stories, the cornice of the pedestal was carried through and formed the sills of their windows, or, in open arcades, round a court, the balustrade of the arcade. They would seem to have considered that the height of the pedestal should correspond in its proportion with that of the column or pilaster it supported. In the imperial China, a stone tortoise called bixi was traditionally used as the pedestal for important stele those associated with emperors.
According to the 1396 version of the regulations issued by the Ming Dynasty founder, the Hongwu Emperor, the highest nobility and the officials of the top 3 ranks were eligible for bixi-based funerary tablets, while lower-level mandarins' steles were to stand on simple rectangular pedestals. An elevated pedestal or plinth which bears a statue and, raised from the substructure supporting it is sometimes called an acropodium; the term is from the Greek akros or "topmost" and pous or "foot". Pedestal crater Pedestal desk Pedestal table, a table with a single central leg This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Pedestal". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
Alexander Pope was an 18th-century English poet. He is best known for his satirical verse, including Essay on Criticism, The Rape of the Lock and The Dunciad, for his translation of Homer, he is the second-most quoted writer in The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations after Shakespeare. From the age of 12, he suffered numerous health problems including Pott's disease, which deformed his body and stunted his growth, he suffered from respiratory difficulties, high fevers, inflamed eyes, abdominal pain. His poor health alienated him from society, though he had many female friends to whom he wrote witty letters, he never married. In May, 1709, Pope's Pastorals earned him instant fame; this was followed by An Essay on Criticism in May 1711, well received. Pope's most famous poem is The Rape of the Lock, first published in 1712. A mock-epic, it satirises a high-society quarrel between Arabella Fermor and Lord Petre, who had snipped a lock of hair from her head without her permission; the poem brought into focus the onset of acquisitive individualism and conspicuous consumption, where purchased goods assume dominance over moral agency.
He made many enemies throughout his career, with his fierce satire and criticisms of prominent figures, at one point deemed it necessary to carry pistols while walking his dog. After 1738, Pope wrote little, toyed with the idea of a patriotic epic called Brutus, but only the opening lines survive, he revised and expanded his masterpiece The Dunciad. Book Four appeared in 1742, a complete revision of the whole poem in the following year. In this version, Pope replaced Lewis Theobald, with the poet laureate Colley Cibber, as "king of dunces", but his real target is Whig politician Horace Walpole. By now Pope's health was failing, when told by his physician, on the morning of his death, that he was better, Pope replied: "Here am I, dying of a hundred good symptoms". Alexander Pope was born in 1688 to Alexander Pope Senior, a linen merchant of Plough Court, Lombard Street and his wife Edith, who were both Catholics. Edith's sister Christiana was the wife of the famous miniature painter Samuel Cooper.
Pope's education was affected by the enacted Test Acts, which upheld the status of the established Church of England and banned Catholics from teaching, attending a university, voting, or holding public office on penalty of perpetual imprisonment. Pope was taught to read by his aunt, went to Twyford School in about 1698/99, he went on to two Roman Catholic schools in London. Such schools, while illegal, were tolerated in some areas. In 1700, his family moved to a small estate at Popeswood in Binfield, close to the royal Windsor Forest; this was due to strong anti-Catholic sentiment and a statute preventing Papists from living within 10 miles of either London or Westminster. Pope would describe the countryside around the house in his poem Windsor Forest. Pope's formal education ended at this time, from on he educated himself by reading the works of classical writers such as the satirists Horace and Juvenal, the epic poets Homer and Virgil, as well as English authors such as Geoffrey Chaucer, William Shakespeare and John Dryden.
He studied many languages and read works by English, Italian and Greek poets. After five years of study, Pope came into contact with figures from the London literary society such as William Wycherley, William Congreve, Samuel Garth, William Trumbull, William Walsh. At Binfield, he began to make many important friends. One of them, John Caryll, was twenty years older than the poet and had made many acquaintances in the London literary world, he introduced the young Pope to the ageing playwright William Wycherley and to William Walsh, a minor poet, who helped Pope revise his first major work, The Pastorals. He met the Blount sisters and Martha, both of whom would remain lifelong friends. From the age of 12, he suffered numerous health problems including Pott's disease, which deformed his body and stunted his growth, leaving him with a severe hunchback, his tuberculosis infection caused other health problems including respiratory difficulties, high fevers, inflamed eyes, abdominal pain. He grew to a height of only 1.37 m. Pope was removed from society because he was Catholic.
Although he never married, he had many female friends to whom he wrote witty letters, including Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. His lifelong friend Martha Blount was his lover. In May, 1709, Pope's Pastorals was published in the sixth part of Tonson's Poetical Miscellanies; this earned Pope instant fame, was followed by An Essay on Criticism, published in May 1711, well received. Around 1711, Pope made friends with Tory writers Jonathan Swift, Thomas Parnell and John Arbuthnot, who together formed the satirical Scriblerus Club; the aim of the club was to satirise ignorance and pedantry in the form of the fictional scholar Martinus Scriblerus. He made friends with Whig writers Joseph Addison and Richard Steele. In March 1713, Windsor Forest was published to great acclaim. During Pope's friendship with Joseph Addison, he contributed to Addison's play Cato, as well as writing for The Guardian and The Spectator. Around this time he began the work of translating the Iliad, a painstaking process – publication began in 1715 and did not end until 1720.
In 1714, the political situation worsened with the death of Queen Anne and the disputed succession between the Hanoverians and the Jacobites, l
London Borough of Richmond upon Thames
The London Borough of Richmond upon Thames in south-west London, forms part of Outer London and is the only London borough on both sides of the River Thames. It was created in 1965 when three smaller council areas amalgamated under the London Government Act 1963, it is divided into nineteen wards. The borough is home to The National Archives; the attractions of Kew Gardens, Hampton Court Palace, Twickenham Stadium and the WWT London Wetlands Centre are within its boundaries and draw domestic and international tourism. The borough is half parkland – large areas of London's open space fall within its boundaries, including Richmond Park, Kew Gardens, Bushy Park and Old Deer Park; the predominant other land use is residential. Most businesses within the borough consist of retail, property improvement/development and professional services. Parts of the borough, including Barnes, Richmond, St Margarets, Cambridge Park and Marble Hill, some areas of Twickenham and much of East Sheen rival Stanmore Hill and Kenley as the highest house-price districts and neighbourhoods in Outer London.
In 2006, research commissioned by a major mortgage lender found that, on the quantitative statistical indices used, the borough had the best quality of life in London and was in the top quarter of local authorities nationwide. A neighbouring authority in Surrey achieved the best quality of life in that report. Demography is a diverse picture as in all of London: each district should be looked at separately and those do not reflect all neighbourhoods. Whatever generalisations are used, "the fine-grained texture of London poverty" by its minutely localised geography must always be taken into account according to an influential poverty report of 2010. Richmond upon Thames has the lowest child poverty rates in London at 20% and contains at least one ward with an above-average level of working-age adults receiving out-of-work benefits but this borough – reflecting the best result – has two standard poverty indices of sixteen in which it is placed in the worst quarter of boroughs. Richmond is one of London's wealthiest boroughs on many measures.
It has the lowest rates of poverty, child poverty, low pay, child obesity and adults without level 3 qualifications of any London borough, according to a 2017 research project by Trust for London. London's German business and expatriate community is centred on this borough, which houses the German School London and most of the capital's German expatriates; the Local Authority divides the borough into fourteen loosely bounded neighbourhoods, or "villages", with which residents broadly identify. Some of the neighbourhoods have the same name as their associated political ward, but the boundaries aren't aligned. There is no direct alignment between these areas and postcode districts, which tend to cover much broader areas, crossing the borough boundaries. Although most addresses in the borough have TW postcodes, some have KT postcodes. Parks take up a great deal of the borough and include Richmond Park, Bushy Park, Kew Gardens, Hampton Court Park. There are over open spaces in Richmond upon Thames and 21 miles of river frontage.
140 hectares within the borough are designated as part of the Metropolitan Green Belt. The borough is home to the National Physical Laboratory and the attractions of Hampton Court Palace, Twickenham Stadium and the WWT London Wetlands Centre that draw domestic and international tourism; the river Thames becomes narrower than at any part of Inner London towards its flow into the borough and becomes non-tidal at Teddington Lock in the borough. The borough was formed in 1965 by the merger of the Municipal Borough of Twickenham from Middlesex with the Municipal Borough of Richmond and the Municipal Borough of Barnes from Surrey; the name "Richmond upon Thames" was coined at that time. The borough's history is reflected in the coat of arms, granted on 7 May 1966, it is: Ermine a portcullis or within a bordure gules charged with eight fleurs-de-lis or. The crest is: On a wreath argent and gules out of a mural crown gules a swan rousant argent in beak a branch of climbing red roses leaved and entwined about the neck proper.
The supporters are: On either side a griffin gules and beaked azure, each supporting an oar proper, the blade of the dexter dark blue and that of the sinister light blue. The portcullis was taken from the arms of the Municipal Borough of Richmond. Red and ermine are the royal livery colours, reflecting Richmond's royal history; the swan represents the River Thames. The oars are from the Oxford University Boat Club and the Cambridge University Boat Club, reflecting the fact that the Boat Race between the two universities ends at Mortlake in the borough. Since its formation, the council has most been led either by the Conservatives or by the Liberal Democrats; the Lib Dems make up the majority in the council. London Heathrow Airport is located a few kilometres west; the borough is served by many Transport for London bus routes. The borough is connected to central London and Reading by the National Rail services of the South Western Railway; the London Underground's District line serves Richmond and Kew Gardens stations: both are served by London Overground tra
Statue of Queen Anne, St Paul's Churchyard
A statue of Queen Anne is installed in the forecourt outside the west front of St Paul's Cathedral, in London, United Kingdom. It became a Grade II listed building in 1972; the statue is a copy of a 1712 sculpture by Francis Bird in Carrara marble which stood at the same location. Queen Anne was the ruling British monarch when the new St Paul's Cathedral was completed in 1710. Bird's statue was unveiled at a thanksgiving service for the Peace of Utrecht, held 7 July 1713; the statue cost £1,130, excluding the marble, provided by the Queen. It was surrounded by an elegant metal railing made by Jean Tijou; the Tijou railings were removed and replaced by heavier railings to match the others around the cathedral. The original statue was attacked at least three times, in 1743, 1768, 1882, with noses and arms damaged, it was badly weathered by the 1880s. Reputedly, the statue was once defaced with the lines "Brandy Nan, left in the lurch. Richard Claude Belt was commissioned in 1885 to create a replacement statue from Sicilian marble, supplied by the Corporation of London at a cost of £1,800.
Belt was imprisoned for obtaining money by false pretences in March 1886, Louis Auguste Malempré completed the sculpture. The building work to install the statue was done by Mowlem and Sons, supervised by the city architect Sir Horace Jones, the new sculpture was unveiled by Reginald Hanson, the Lord Mayor of London, on 15 December 1886, the year before the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria; the Baroque sculpture depicts Queen Anne facing down Ludgate Hill towards Ludgate Circus. She is robed, wearing the collar of the Order of the Garter and a gilded crown, with one hand holding a gilded orb and the other a gilded sceptre; the figure stands on a Portland stone pedestal by architect Christopher Wren, decorated with four symbolic figures, one on each corner: to the west, towards Ludgate Hill, are Britannia with gilded trident and a figure representing France, holding between them a carved representation of the British Royal Coat of Arms, to the east, towards St Paul's Cathedral, are figures representing Ireland and North America.
The pedestal stands on three steps surrounded by heavy cast iron railings. The pedestal bears two inscriptions: on the south side "The Original STATUE / was erected on this spot in the year 1712 / to commemorate the completion of / SAINT PAUL'S CATHEDRAL / FRANCIS BIRD Sculptor." and on the north side: "This Replica / of the Statue of QUEEN ANNE / was erected at the expense of / The CORPORATION of LONDON / In the year 1886 / The Rt. Hon. / SIR REGINALD HANSON M. A. F. S. A. / Lord Mayor / Wm. Braham Esq / Chairman of the City Lands Committee." After they were removed, the original 8-ton weathered sculpture, the four weathered 5-ton stone figures from the base, were rediscovered months abandoned in the yard of a London stonemason. They were acquired by Augustus Hare and installed in the grounds of his house at Holmhurst St Mary near Hastings, with Queen Anne mounted on an elliptical pedestal and the four other seated figures on steps around at the base, similar to the original; the house was Grade II listed in 1976, the statue received a separate Grade II* listing at the same time.
List of public art in the City of London List of statues of British royalty in London Statue of Queen Anne in Forecourt of St Paul's Cathedral, National Heritage List for England, Historic England Statue of Queen Anne South East of Holmhurst St Mary's School, National Heritage List for England, Historic England Holmhurst St Mary's School, National Heritage List for England, Historic England Holmhurst St Mary Statue of Queen Anne, Public Sculptures of Sussex 10 London artworks that have been damaged or vandalised, Footprints of London Queen Anne, St. Paul Churchyard, Public Monuments & Sculpture Association Queen Anne in front of St. Paul's Cathedral at Waymarking Statue: Queen Anne statue, St Paul's at London Remembers Sculpture trivia: The statue of Queen Anne at St Paul's at Secret London
Worcestershire is a county in the West Midlands of England. Between 1974 and 1998, it was merged with the neighbouring county of Herefordshire as Hereford and Worcester; the cathedral city of Worcester is county town. Other major towns in the county include Bromsgrove, Evesham, Malvern and Stourport-on-Severn; the north-east of Worcestershire includes part of the industrial West Midlands. The county is divided into six administrative districts: Worcester, Wychavon, Malvern Hills, Wyre Forest, Bromsgrove; the county borders Herefordshire to the west, Shropshire to the north-west, Staffordshire only just to the north, West Midlands to the north and north-east, Warwickshire to the east and Gloucestershire to the south. The western border with Herefordshire includes a stretch along the top of the Malvern Hills. At the southern border with Gloucestershire Worcestershire meets the northern edge of the Cotswolds. Two major rivers flow through the county: the Avon; the geographical area now known as Worcestershire was first populated at least 700,000 years ago.
The area became predominantly agricultural in the Bronze Age, leading to population growth and more evidence of settlement. By the Iron Age, hill forts dominated the landscape. Settlement of these swiftly ended with the Roman occupation of Britain; the Roman period saw establishment of the villa system in the Vale of Evesham. Droitwich was the most important settlement in the county in this period, due to its product of salt. There is evidence for Roman settlement and industrial activity around Worcester and King's Norton. Worcestershire was the heartland of the early English kingdom of the Hwicce, it was absorbed by the Kingdom of Mercia during the 7th century and became part of the unified Kingdom of England in 927. It was a separate ealdormanship in the 10th century before forming part of the Earldom of Mercia in the 11th century. In the years leading up to the Norman conquest, the Church, supported by the cathedral, Evesham Abbey, Pershore Abbey, Malvern Priory, other religious houses dominated the county.
During the Middle Ages, much of the county's economy was based on the wool trade. Many areas of its dense forests, such as Feckenham Forest, Horewell Forest and Malvern Chase, were royal hunting grounds subject to forest law; the last known Anglo-Saxon sheriff of the county was Cyneweard of Laughern, the first Norman sheriff was Urse d'Abetot who built the castle of Worcester and seized much church land. On 4 August 1265, Simon de Montfort was killed in the Battle of Evesham in Worcestershire. In 1642, the Battle of Powick Bridge was the first major skirmish of the English Civil War; the county suffered from being on the Royalist front line, as it was subject to heavy taxation and the pressing of men into the Royalist army, which reduced its productive capacity. The northern part of the county, a centre of iron production, was important for military supplies. Parliamentarian raids and Royalist requisitioning both placed a great strain on the county. There were tensions from the participation of prominent Catholic recusants in the military and civilian organisation of the county.
Combined with the opposition to requisitioning from both sides, bands of Clubmen formed to keep the war away from their localities. The Battle of Worcester in 1651 ended the third civil war. There was little enthusiasm or local participation in the Scottish Royalist army, whose defeat was welcomed. Parliamentarian forces ransacked the city of Worcester, causing heavy damage and destruction of property. Around 10,000 Scottish prisoners were sent into forced labour in the New World or fen drainage schemes; the small bands of Scots that fled into Worcestershire's countryside were attacked by local forces and killed. In the 19th century, Worcester was a centre for the manufacture of gloves. Droitwich Spa, situated on large deposits of salt, was a centre of salt production from Roman times, with one of the principal Roman roads running through the town; these old industries have since declined. The county is home to the world's oldest continually published newspaper, the Berrow's Journal, established in 1690.
Malvern was one of the centres of the 19th century rise in English spa towns due to Malvern water being believed to be pure, containing "nothing at all". The 2011 census found the population of Worcestershire to be 566,169, an increase of 4.4% from the 2001 population of 542,107. Though the total number of people in every ethnic group increased between 2001 and 2011, the White British share of Worcestershire's population decreased from 95.5% to 92.4%, as did the share of white ethnic groups as whole, which went from 97.5% to 95.7%. While this change is in line with the nationwide trend of White British people's share of the population shrinking, Worcestershire is still much more ethnically homogeneous than the national average. In 2011 England as a whole was 79.8% White British, much lower than Worcestershire's figure of 92.4%. Local government in Worcestershire has changed several times since the middle of the 19th centiry. Worcestershire had several exclaves, which were areas of land cut off from the main geographical area of Worcestershire and surrounded by the nearby counties of Warwickshire, Gloucestershire and Oxfordshire.
The most notable were Dudley, th