Pope Adrian II was Pope from 14 December 867 to his death in 872. He was a member of a noble Roman family who became pope despite his objections, he maintained, but with less energy, the policies of his predecessor Nicholas I. Lothar II, king of Lotharingia, who died in 869, left Adrian to mediate between the Frankish kings with a view to assuring the Holy Roman Emperor Louis II the inheritance of Lothar II, Louis's brother. Adrian sought to maintain good relations with Louis, since the latter's campaigns in southern Italy had the potential to free the papacy from the threat posed by the Muslims. Photius, the Patriarch of Constantinople, shortly after the council in which he had pronounced sentence of deposition against Pope Nicholas I, was driven from the patriarchate by a new emperor, Basil the Macedonian, who favoured his rival Ignatius. An Ecumenical Council was convoked as the Fourth Council of Constantinople to decide this matter. At this council Adrian was represented by legates who presided at the condemnation of Photius as a heretic, but did not succeed in coming to an understanding with Ignatius on the subject of jurisdiction over the Bulgarian church.
Like his predecessor Nicholas I, Adrian was forced to submit in temporal affairs to the interference of the emperor Louis II, who placed him under the surveillance of Arsenius, bishop of Orte, his confidential adviser, Arsenius' nephew Anastasius, the librarian. Adrian had in his youth married a woman named Stephania, by whom he had a daughter, both were still living at his election, following which they lived with him in the Lateran Palace. In 868, they were carried off and murdered by Arsenius' son Eleutherius, who had forcibly married the daughter. Adrian died in 872 after five years as pope. Opera Omnia by Migne Patrologia Latina with analytical indexes List of Catholic saints List of popes Dvornik, Francis; the Photian Schism: History and Legend. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Ostrogorsky, George. History of the Byzantine State. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Siecienski, Anthony Edward; the Filioque: History of a Doctrinal Controversy. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195372045. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Adrian s.v. II". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1. Cambridge University Press. P. 215. Loughlin, James Francis. "Pope Adrian II". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company
The 2007 Madrilenian regional election was held on Sunday, 27 May 2007, to elect the 8th Assembly of the Community of Madrid. All 120 seats in the Assembly were up for election; the election was held with regional elections in twelve other autonomous communities and local elections all throughout Spain. Esperanza Aguirre was re-elected for a second term in office, with the People's Party winning a record absolute majority comprising 56% of the seats in the Assembly; the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party obtained one of the worst party results since 1995, resulting in Rafael Simancas resigning as Secretary-General of the Socialist Party of Madrid shortly thereafter. United Left won 2 additional seats; the Assembly of Madrid was the devolved, unicameral legislature of the autonomous community of Madrid, having legislative power in regional matters as defined by the Spanish Constitution and the Madrilenian Statute of Autonomy, as well as the ability to vote confidence in or withdraw it from a President of the Community.
Voting for the Assembly was on the basis of universal suffrage, which comprised all nationals over eighteen, registered in the Community of Madrid and in full enjoyment of their political rights. All members of the Assembly of Madrid were elected using the D'Hondt method and a closed list proportional representation, with a threshold of 5 percent of valid votes—which included blank ballots—being applied regionally. Parties not reaching the threshold were not taken into consideration for seat distribution; the Assembly was entitled to one member per each 50,000 inhabitants or fraction greater than 25,000. The electoral law provided that parties, federations and groupings of electors were allowed to present lists of candidates. However, groupings of electors were required to secure the signature of at least 0.5 percent of the electors registered in the Community of Madrid. Electors were barred from signing for more than one list of candidates. Concurrently and federations intending to enter in coalition to take part jointly at an election were required to inform the relevant Electoral Commission within ten days of the election being called.
The term of the Assembly of Madrid expired four years after the date of its previous election. Elections to the Assembly were fixed for the fourth Sunday of May every four years; the previous ordinary election was held on 25 May 2003, setting the election date for the Assembly on Sunday, 27 May 2007. The President of the Community had the prerogative to dissolve the Assembly of Madrid and call a snap election, provided that no motion of no confidence was in process, no nationwide election was due and some time requirements were met: namely, that dissolution did not occur either during the first legislative session or within the legislature's last year ahead of its scheduled expiry, nor before one year had elapsed since a previous dissolution. In the event of an investiture process failing to elect a regional President within a two-month period from the first ballot, the Assembly was to be automatically dissolved and a fresh election called. Any snap election held as a result of these circumstances would not alter the period to the next ordinary election, with elected deputies serving out what remained of their four-year terms.
The table below lists voting intention estimates in reverse chronological order, showing the most recent first and using the dates when the survey fieldwork was done, as opposed to the date of publication. Where the fieldwork dates are unknown, the date of publication is given instead; the highest percentage figure in each polling survey is displayed with its background shaded in the leading party's colour. If a tie ensues, this is applied to the figures with the highest percentages; the "Lead" column on the right shows the percentage-point difference between the parties with the highest percentages in a given poll. When available, seat projections are displayed below the voting estimates in a smaller font. 61 seats were required for an absolute majority in the Assembly of Madrid. Color key: Exit poll The following table lists the elected legislators sorted by order of election. Investiture processes to elect the President of the Community of Madrid required for an absolute majority—more than half the votes cast—to be obtained in the first ballot.
If unsuccessful, a new ballot would be held 48 hours requiring of a simple majority—more affirmative than negative votes—to succeed. If none of such majorities were achieved, successive candidate proposals could be processed under the same procedure. In the event of the investiture process failing to elect a regional President within a two-month period from the first ballot, the Assembly would be automatically dissolved and a snap election called. Opinion poll sources Other
The Medici-Laurentian Atlas known as the Medici Atlas, is an anonymous 14th-century set of maps composed by a Genoese cartographer and explicitly dated 1351, although most historians believe it was composed, or at least retouched, later. The atlas is held by the Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana in Florence, Italy; the author of the Medici-Laurentian atlas is unknown, save that he comes from the Liguria region of Italy, might have composed it for a Florentine owner. The atlas is explicitly dated 1351, but scholars believed it was more composed around 1370 from earlier material, amended further with emendations as late as 1425-50. A 1370 date would place it in between the Pizzigani brothers map of 1367 and the Catalan Atlas of 1375, both of which share elements of the Medici-Laurentian map, although it is impossible to tell if it preceded or followed them, it is contemporaneous with the Libro del Conoscimiento, a fantastical travelogue by an unknown Castilian author, believed to have been written sometime between 1350 and 1399, with which it shares many significant geographic features.
The book's author may have inspired, or have been inspired by, the Medici-Laurentian atlas. The Atlas is held by the Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana in Florence, Italy; the Medici-Laurentian atlas is composed of eight sheets. The first sheet is an astronomical calendar, the second sheet contains an unusual world map, the third and fifth sheets compose a typical 14th-century portolan chart, the sixth and eighth sheets are specialized charts of the Aegean Sea, Adriatic Sea and Caspian Sea; the second sheet, the world map, is the one. If the original date 1351 is true, that would make it the first map to incorporate the travel reports of Marco Polo and Ibn Batuta, it shows Asia up to India, marking places like the Delhi Sultanate and others with reasonable accuracy. The atlas shows the Caspian as a closed sea. Among the most startling features is its depiction of the recognizable shape of the continent of Africa with remarkable prescience. Nearly a century before the Portuguese age of discovery, the Medici atlas draws the bend of the Gulf of Guinea and shows that Africa has a southern end, i.e. that the Atlantic and Indian Oceans are connected to each other below the African continent.
While the remarkable shape of Africa has given rise to speculative theories about ancient sailing and secret voyages, the explanation is more mundane. The probable source of the "Guinea bend" is the legend of the Sinus Aethiopicus, the rumor of a gulf that lay somewhere south of Cape Bojador, said to penetrate into the African continent; this gulf is described in the fantastical travelogue of the Libro del Conoscimiento and finds itself again in the Fra Mauro map, well before it was discovered by Portuguese explorers. The notion that the West African coast did not extend straight south but took a sharp eastward bend, could be a hazy reference to the actual Gulf of Guinea, but more it was just a lucky guess and a bit of wishful thinking; as for the southward extension of the East African coast, uncommon for European maps, this was drawn from Arab sources, who would have known of the commercial traffic down the Muslim Swahili coast to Sofala. The connection between the two oceans under South Africa just ratifies the old assumption that all the world's great water bodies were connected to each other.
An Africa surrounded by water is found on other maps. Long before the Medici map, the Vivaldi brothers of Genoa, in 1291, had tried to sail down the west African coast, with the explicit objective of trying to find a sea route to Asia; the imaginary nature of Africa's shape in the Medici map is proven by noticing there are no names or details given below Cape Bojador. The great exception is the "western Nile" of Arab sources; this is the same Palolus river as in the Pizzigani brothers map of 1367. If one elects to date the Medici Atlas before the Pizzigani this is the first European map depicting that all-important river; the Medici Atlas is important for the history of the north Atlantic islands. It is the first map to benefit from the 1341 mapping expedition to the Canary Islands, sponsored by King Afonso IV of Portugal and commanded by the Florentine Angiolino del Tegghia de Corbizzi and the Genoese Nicoloso da Recco; the expedition is said to have visited thirteen Canary islands. The Medici Atlas shows most of the main Canary islands, excellently delineated improving upon the couple in the 1339 Angelino Dulcert map.
The Medici Atlas shows for the first time, correctly placed, the Madeira archipelago, with their modern nam
John Bloom was an English entrepreneur, best known for his role in the "Washing Machine Wars" of 1962–64 when he drastically reduced prices by direct sales that cut out the retailers. His company Rolls Razor made great inroads into the market but several manufacturers obtained injunctions to stop them selling at below the fixed retail price, his operation was hit by a long postal strike and the withdrawal of a major backer, forcing the company into liquidation. Bloom was a controversial figure whose aggressive techniques shook up a complacent market but who gave new power to the consumer, his often-repeated motto "it's no sin to make a profit" became the title of his memoirs. Bloom was born John Bloomstein in Hackney. Bloom's father, was born in Austria and was a tailor, his mother Dora was of Sephardic background. He attended Hackney Downs School which he left aged 16, he tried a number of jobs before National Service in the Royal Air Force. Bloom was posted to No.3 Radio School at RAF Compton Bassett near Calne, Wiltshire for training as a signalman.
It was there. He noticed that a local coach company, Cards Coaches of Devizes, provided coaches to the RAF under contract. On Saturday afternoons these took airmen from the base to London on 36-hour passes. With a friend who ran a coach company in Stoke Newington, Bloom undercut Cards Coaches by half. Cards took Bloom to court but the judge sided with Bloom who declared that "it's no sin to make a profit", which became his motto. Bloom was posted to Bletchley Park and Bush House in the Aldwych, London, on the grounds that his mother was unwell. After the RAF, he worked as a salesman for a company selling Dutch-made washing machines door-to-door. After a while, he tried to buy machines from the Netherlands. With little money or credit this was difficult, but he made a deal with a factory in Utrecht, he advertised them under the name "Electromatic". They were twin-tub machines with a washer and separate spin-drier, priced at 39 guineas; this was about half the price of shop-bought machines. In 1958 Bloom placed an advert in the Daily Mirror offering home demonstrations of washing machines.
This generated 7,000 responses via postal coupons. Bloom's unorthodox marketing, direct sales to the public and low prices gave him 10% of the market taken from the main manufacturers Hoover and Hotpoint, he was soon selling 500 machines a week, financed through affordable hire purchase agreements. Bloom realised that he could cut overheads by manufacturing in Britain, he did a deal with the moribund Rolls Razor Company to make 25,000 twin-tub washing machines. He merged the two companies, becoming Managing Director with a majority of the shares. In early 1962 he formed an alliance with the Colston company. In September 1962 he took over sales of the Prestcold Refrigerator business and the newly named Rolls Prestcold cut prices to half of those sold by retail outlets. In retaliation in October 1962 the Retail Trade Retailers association launched a £100,000 campaign to combat direct selling. Hotpoint pledged £10,000 towards the campaign and other manufacturers followed suit; this was known in the media as the Washing Machine War.
A Rolls washing machine is featured in the Science Museum London in the "Birth of High-Tech Britain" Section. He moved into holidays with an exclusive deal to market the country of Bulgaria in the UK, he sold a two-week all-in holiday at £59, once again cutting out travel agent retailers and reducing the price by more than half. The Bulgarian Black Sea coast was sunny and littered with modern functional hotels. Bulgaria was a communist part of the Soviet bloc, it needed western currency and was prepared to sell Bloom cheap hotel accommodation and food in return. After the washing machine collapse, the Royal Arsenal Co-operative Society formed Balkan Holidays with the Bulgarian state-owned tourist organisation; the company was listed on the London Stock Exchange in mid-1962 at $3.50 and double that year. By the end of 1963 Rolls-Colston was selling over 200,000 machines a year; however it was running out of people to buy the machines. Bloom's business had expanded relying on the most aggressive marketing campaign of his time.
In 1963 Bloom was the a household name in the early 1960s. Bloom appeared in a debate on BBC's That Was The Week; the Sunday Telegraph had reported on the debate that Bloom had been the victor and it was the first time Bernard Levin had lost a debate. Bloom had come across as the housewife's friend. Bloom was symbol of free enterprise; the listing of Rolls Razor on the Stock Exchange made Bloom a millionaire with a Rolls Royce Phantom and a flat in Park Lane, he rented the fabulous Villa La Fiorentina on Cap Ferrat on The French Riviera as a sales incentive scheme for his top salesmen to visit for holidays. He purchased a 376-ton 150-foot motor yacht Ariane for $1 million, sold after the crash to Charles Revson the head of the Revlon Company, to Kirk Kerkorian, was owned by Adnan Khashoggi for 20 years, but the retailers and UK manufacturers were unhappy with Bloom's direct sales methods of cutting out the retailer, his two-for-one schemes giving a free refrigerator when you bought a washing machine.
They didn't like his efforts to a
Oko Jumbo was an important chief in the Kingdom of Bonny, a state in the Niger Delta, now part of Rivers State, Nigeria. For many years in the 19th century he was the effective ruler of Bonny; the Kingdom of Bonny called Ubani, is a traditional state based on the town of Bonny in Rivers State, Nigeria. The kingdom was inhabited by the Ijoid and Igbo people. Bonny rose to power beginning in the 15th century with the coming of the Portuguese and the Atlantic slave trade, acting as a depot for slaves brought from the interior. In the 19th century, the kingdom was forced by the British to end the slave trade. Trade in palm oil replaced trade in slaves. Oko Jumbo was the son of a slave who became a lesser chief in Bonny, but managed to amass considerable wealth and thus power through astute trading, he became one of the leaders of a group of chiefs who dominated the ruling Manilla Pepple house. On the death of King Dapho of Bonny on 13 August 1855, the acting British Consul in the Bight of Biafra, J.
W. B. Lynslager, signed a document on 11 September 1855 appointing the chiefs Anne Pepple, Ada Allison, Captain Hart and Manilla Pepple as a regency, required to consult with Banigo and Oko Jumbo, "two gentlemen of the river"; the arrangement, which gave the Manilla Pepple house control of the regency, caused immediate disputes with the rival Anna Pepple house. When Lynslager's replacement arrived, he reported that "the four regents never lived in unity or unanimity... civil war was ripe around and about them... leading to immense loss of British property". When the official leader of the Manilla house died in 1863, Banigo and Oko Jumbo could not agree, to succeed, so appointed a figurehead named Warribo while continuing to control the house. In an attempt to restore calm, the British restored William Dappa Pepple I as king on 18 August 1861, on his death on 30 September 1866 installed his son George Oruigbiji Pepple as king. However, Oko Jumbo remained a leading power in the kingdom. On 6 March 1866, Bishop Crowther described Oko Jumbo as the "most sensible and wealthy" man in Bonny, noted that he had learned to read the first chapter of St. Matthew.
The next year he had learned to write, enrolled thirteen of his children in school. He gave his support to the Christian missionaries, on Easter Day 1867 joined King George in declaring that the Iguana, the traditional deity of Bonny, was no longer "Bonny Juju". Tension continued between the Manilla Pepple house and the Annie Pepple house, led by a chief named Jubo Jubogha, known as Ja-Ja to the British. A truce was agreed in 1865, banning the use of firearms, but on 2 March 1867 a brawl between Manilla Pepple and Anna Pepple supporters engulfed the town, with all the men fighting on one side or other using "matchets and gin bottles, there being no stone in the town"; the young King George intervened, armed with a pistol, managed to calm things down. In 1869, after Jaja had decided to relocate outside the city, the dispute flared up into civil warfare, in which the Manilla Pepple's gained the advantage through acquisition of some old 32 lb carronades. Many of the Annie Pepple supporters were killed during and in the aftermath of the main battle, the town was devastated.
Jaja left Bonny and established a rival settlement at Opobo, which controlled the river that supplied three-quarters of the palm oil of the district. The British trading firm of Stuart & Douglas supported Jaja, as did others, who relocated to Opobo. A peace treaty was concluded between Bonny and Opobo in 1873, Oko Jumbo visited Ja-Ja and assured him of his friendship. Oko Jumbo soured against Christianity when he realised that King George was using the influence of the missionaries to undermine the power of the chiefs and increase his own influence, he imposed various bans on the practice of the religion. In 1879 King George visited England, where he was well received, given great attention in the press and presented with a steam launch; these reports alarmed Oko Jumbo and Jaja, who became concerned that the British were planning to annexe both Bonny and Opobo, although on George's return the British consul managed to calm the situation down. However, on 14 December 1883 the chiefs deposed King George Pepple.
The friendship between Jumbo and Jaja broke down, both began arming. An 1883 book said that "Oko Jumbo has under his command some 7,000 or 8,000 men, all armed with breech-loading rifles and well supplied with ammunition. In 1884, Oko Jumbo fell out with other chiefs in Bonny. There were rumours that he wanted to place one of his sons on the throne, although a planned coup attempt in January 1885 came to nothing. Another son, Herbert Jumbo, educated in England, quarrelled with his father and placed himself under the protection of the British consul. In 1885, Oko Jumbo made a trip to England, arriving in Liverpool in May accompanied by two of his sons and James; the Times described him as "King of Bonny" when reporting the visit. On his return trip, the ship was wrecked off the west coast of Africa but he managed to escape. In February 1886 a protectorate treaty was concluded between Bonny and Britain. A ruling council was established, King George Pepple was reestablished on his throne. Oko Jumbo was publicly degraded, his bans on Christianity were repealed and afterwards he was a spent force in Bonny politics.
In June 1886, refuting rumours that Oko Jumbo had drowned in the shipwreck, a reporter said he had retired 40 miles into the interior, leaving all his affairs in the hands of his son Herbert. In 1887 Ja-Ja was arrested and exiled to Tenerife, dying there in 1891, Oko Jumbo died around the same time. In John Whitford's book on th
Francesco di Tommaso Soderini was a major diplomatic and Church figure of Renaissance Italy, brother of Piero Soderini. He was an adversary of the Medici family. On 27 Mar 1486, he was ordained a priest by Archbishop of Florence, he became Bishop of Volterra in 1478, by nomination, resigning in 1509. In 1487, he was received his cardinalate in 1503, supported by Louis XII of France, he was Bishop of Cortona from held further church posts. He was complicit in the plot of fellow Cardinals Bandinello Sauli and Alfonso Petrucci against Leo X for the benefit of Cardinal Riario. K. J. P. Lowe and Politics in Renaissance Italy: The Life and Career of Cardinal Francesco Soderini, 1453-1524Cheney, David M. "Francesco Cardinal Soderini". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. Retrieved January 31, 2019. Biography