click links in text for more info

Pope Adrian III

Pope Adrian III or Hadrian III was Pope from 17 May 884 to his death. According to Jean Mabillon, his birth name was Agapitus, he served for little more than a year, during which he worked to help the people of Italy in a troubled time of famine and war. He was born at Rome, he laboured hard to alleviate the misery of the people of Italy, prey to famine and to continuous war. He is known to have written a letter condemning the Christians of both Muslim-ruled and Christian-ruled parts of Spain for being too friendly with the Jews in these lands, he died in July 885 at San Cesario sul Panaro not long after embarking on a trip to Worms, in modern Germany. The purpose the journey was to attend an Imperial Diet after being summoned by the Frankish King Charles III, the Fat, to settle the succession to the Holy Roman Empire and discuss the rising power of the Saracens, his death and subsequent burial in the church of San Silvestro Nonantola Abbey near Modena is commemorated in the sculpted reliefs that frame the doorway of this church.

His relics are found near the high altar, his tomb at once became a popular place of pilgrimage. His cult was confirmed in 1891, his feast day is 8 July. List of Catholic saints List of Francis; the Photian Schism: History and Legend. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Opera Omnia Hadriani III by Migne, Patrologia Latina, with analytical indexes

The End (Irish TV programme)

The End is an Irish adult comedy late night television strand on Network Two/RTÉ Two in the Republic of Ireland. It was first broadcast September 1993, last aired in May 1996; the End was aired on Saturday night from 11 pm to 2 am. RTÉ used this show to test the audience appetite for late night TV; the End was presented by Sean Moncrieff on Saturday nights. The End had a cult following of "drunks and teenagers" who would ring into the show leaving bizarre late night messages for the presenters. Sean Moncrieff would be joined by a puppet called Septic in seasons. Barry Murphy would use The End to launch many of his Apres Match characters such as Frank Stapleton. Sean Moncrieff would get a new chat show on RTÉ One called Good Grief Moncrieff, however this was not a success due in part to the conservative and mainstream RTÉ One audience, he would go on to present the RTÉ Two series Don't Feed the Gondolas. Barry Murphy presented Friday Nights with a mix of his surreal comedy and introductions to the classic BBC comedy series The Fall and Rise of Reginald Perrin and the US sitcom 3rd Rock from the Sun.

Sean Moncrieff presented Saturday Nights with a mix of interviews and introductions to classic BBC comedy series Fawlty Towers and Yes, Minister. Colin Murnane who had moved on from RTÉ young people's JMTV and Plastic Orange, appeared on both nights as a reporter; the End would help to launch the careers of its two presenters, Sean Moncrieff now hosts his own daytime radio show on Newstalk, while Barry Murphy continues to be a successful Irish comedian, while starring in and writing Apres Match for RTÉ Sport. The End's reporter Colin Murnane had appeared first on RTÉ's youth show JMTV moved to London to present for TCC, BBC, Sky1 and others, to forge a career as one of the most successful Irish voice-overs in Soho, it would begin RTÉ's 24-hour services, up to this point both RTÉ One and Two aired until about midnight each night. The Network Two Night Shift strand would take over from The End. Night Shift would use the catchphrase "2 until 2" noting that Network Two would be on the air until 2 am.

Each night would have a specific theme, Sci-Fi on Mondays with shows like Stargate: SG1, Crime on Tuesdays with shows like Millennium and Profiler etc.

George Montagu, 1st Duke of Montagu

George Montagu, 1st Duke of Montagu KG, PC, FRS styled Lord Brudenell until 1732 and known as The Earl of Cardigan between 1732 and 1766, was a British peer. He was born George Brudenell at Cardigan House, Lincoln's Inn Fields, in London, the eldest son of George Brudenell, 3rd Earl of Cardigan and his wife Lady Elizabeth Bruce, daughter of Thomas Bruce, 3rd Earl of Elgin, he was baptised on 1 August 1712 at St Giles-in-the-Fields. He was the elder brother of James Brudenell, 5th Earl of Cardigan, the Honourable Robert Brudenell and Thomas Brudenell-Bruce, 1st Earl of Ailesbury, he matriculated at Queen's College, Oxford, on 1 July 1726 and graduated from there on 31 January 1729 with a Master of Arts degree. Brudenell succeeded his father in the earldom 1732. In 1742 he was appointed Justice in Eyre north of the Trent, a post he held until 1752, he inherited the estates of his father-in-law, the 2nd and last Duke of Montagu, in 1749, assumed the surname "Montagu" for himself and his children on 15 July 1749.

In 1752 he was made a Knight of the Garter and made Constable and Governor of Windsor Castle, which he remained until his death. In 1766 he was created Marquess of Monthermer and Duke of Montagu, revivals of the titles which had become extinct on his father-in-law's death, his only son, John Montagu, Marquess of Monthermer, had been created a peer in his own right in 1762 as Baron Montagu of Boughton, but died unmarried in 1770, with no male heirs, Montagu was created Baron Montagu of Boughton, of Boughton in the County of Northampton, in 1776, with a special remainder to the younger sons of his daughter Elizabeth, who had married Henry Scott, 3rd Duke of Buccleuch. He was sworn of the Privy Council the same year, he served as Master of the Horse from 1780 to 1790 and as Lord Lieutenant of Huntingdonshire from 1789 to 1790. Montagu married Lady Mary Montagu, daughter of John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu, on 7 July 1730 at St Giles-in-the-Fields, they had two children who survived infancy: John Montagu, Marquess of Monthermer and 1st Baron Montagu of Boughton Lady Elizabeth Montagu, who married Henry Scott, 3rd Duke of Buccleuch and had issue.

The Duchess of Montagu died in May 1775. The Duke of Montagu died at Privy Gardens, London, in May 1790, aged 77, without surviving male issue; the marquessate and dukedom became extinct, the earldom of Cardigan and its associated titles passed to his brother, Lord Brudenell, the barony of Montagu passed to his grandson, Lord Henry Scott

Joseph Gayetty

Joseph C. Gayetty was an American inventor credited with the invention of commercial toilet paper, it was the first and remained only one of the few commercial toilet papers from 1857 to 1890 remaining in common use until the invention of splinter-free toilet paper in 1935 by the Northern Tissue Company. United States Census records from 1860 show, he first marketed toilet paper on December 8, 1857. Each sheet of pure Manila hemp paper was watermarked "J C Gayetty N Y"; the original product contained aloe as a lubricant and was marketed as an anti-hemorrhoid medical product. Gayetty was attacked as a quack by at least one medical society, yet his advertisement of the same year called his product "The Greatest Necessity of the Age" and warned against the perils of using toxic inked papers on sensitive body parts. A different advertisement printed in 1859, says his business was located at 41 Ann Street, he was selling 1,000 sheets for one dollar; the Gayetty name and product were involved in a lawsuit, filed in 1891, when B.

T. Hoogland's Sons, toilet paper dealers, filed suit against the Gayetty Paper Company Harry K. Gayetty, for trademark infringement. B. T. Hoogland and Son's claim was that they were entitled to the use of the Gayetty name due to an unpaid debt. A paper dated December 5, 1866, was given to a creditor in lieu of $25 debt and subsequently sold to B. T. Hoogland for one dollar. However, on January 1, 1866, J. C. Gayetty had entered a ten-year contract for the exclusive right to sell and vend in his name with Demas Barnes and Company, which had taken out a copyright on the product on October 27, 1891; the suit was dismissed in 1894. B. T. Hoogland's Sons next sued to stop Harry K. Gayetty and the Diamond Mills Paper Company from using the Gayetty name, in this case they were successful. Harry Gayetty lost at the Appellate Court. In July 1900, the New York Supreme Court permanently enjoined the Diamond Mills Paper Company and Harry K. Gayetty from using the name on any similar paper product labels. In 1900, an advertisement shows that B.

T. Hoogland's Sons of New York were distributing the watermarked "Papel Medicado De Gayetty" and giving credit to the invention of the paper in 1857 by Joseph C. Gayetty, Inventor. Nearly the same advertisement was run in English in 1907; the product continued to be marketed until the 1920s. Joseph Gayetty at Find a Grave

Breath (novel)

Breath is the twentieth book and the eighth novel by Australian author Tim Winton. His first novel in seven years, it was published in 2008, in Australia, New Zealand, the UK, the US, the Netherlands and Germany; the novel is set in a small Western Australian logging village named Sawyer, near the fictional coastal town of Angelus, which has featured in several of Winton's works, including Shallows and The Turning. It is narrated by Bruce "Pikelet" Pike, a divorced, middle-aged paramedic and takes the form of a long flashback in which he remembers childhood experiences of friendship with another boy, of surfing under the mentorship an older male surfing champion, of repeated woman-boy statutory rape by the older surfer's wife; the main action of the novel takes place in the 1970s. The narrator, Bruce "Pikelet" Pike recounts his boyhood friendship with Ivan "Loonie" Loon, they first meet when eleven-year-old Pikelet stumbles across Loonie pretending to drown in a river in order to frighten a young family sitting nearby.

The boys bond over their love for dangerous stunts, regardless of being the polar opposites of each other. They form a tight friendship and spend the majority of their time together, despite going to different schools; the two boys witness a group of young men surfing a gigantic wave and are inspired to pick-up surfing as a hobby. They meet a professional surfer named Bill "Sando" Sanderson, who encourages them to pursue this ambition and offers to teach them both how to surf; the trio bond and the boys are over at Sando's house, a treehouse in the middle of the Australian bush, shared by Sando's American wife Eva Sanderson. After teaching them the basics, Sando encourages the two now-teenage boys to attempt dangerous stunts in the ocean, although he's aware of how irresponsible his behavior is and pointedly uses his strong influence over the boys to manipulate them. At first, Pikelet has plenty of fun with the others, though he soon becomes tired of how Sando would put Loonie and himself against each other - and how the older man showed favoritism towards Loonie.

The two boys’ friendship becomes toxic when Loonie breaks a bone and is unable to join the others for another infamous stunt, causing him to become jealous of Pikelet and treat him with increasing hostility. The final straw is when Sando invites Loonie on a trip to Indonesia with him, but purposely excludes Pikelet; this puts a heavy strain on Pikelet and Loonie's broken friendship, ruining it forever. While the others are gone, Pikelet finds comfort in Eva and discovers that she was an elite skier whose career came to an abrupt halt after she crippled one of her legs. Eva is psychologically-tortured by watching her husband continue to do what he loved every day while she is forced to wither away. Eva commits repeated statutory rape on Pikelet, unbeknownst to Pikelet's parents, to Sando and/or to Loonie. Sometime before the other two return from overseas, Pikelet takes it upon himself to surf a wave he had been too afraid to attempt whilst with the others. Once back in Australia, Sando hears of Pikelet's actions from another surfer and congratulates Pikelet.

Loonie finds out too and asks Pikelet begrudgingly if it's true, to which Pikelet confirms that it is. Pikelet realizes that their friendship was over and watches the now sixteen-year-old Loonie walk away without saying goodbye, not knowing that he would never see Loonie again. Sando informs Pikelet that Eva is pregnant and that they are moving back to the United States to raise the baby, the baby is, in fact, Pikelets; the Sandersons leave. Years Pikelet finds out that Eva Sanderson committed suicide shortly after her child was born, that around the same time Loonie was murdered in a bar after a drug deal gone wrong; as Pikelet reflects on his time with the Sandersons and Loonie, he admits that surfing was the only activity he could do without any reason and that the sport was still dear to his heart after all those years. In his 50s, as he reflects on his life after Eva's repeated statutory rapes, he notes that his bond with his mother never recovered, that his marriage broke apart, that he had himself committed, that he considered himself'creepy', that he was celibate, but that he was able to perform quite competently in his role as a paramedic.

Bruce "Pikelet" Pike Ivan "Loonie" Loon Bill "Sando" Sanderson Eva Sanderson Reviewer Cathleen Schine describes Winton as "a writer who values themes, a practitioner of what might be called the school of Macho Romanticism, or better, Heroic Sensitivity". She writes that Winton's characters "tend to flirt with death, long for death, while at the same time bravely suffering physical hardship in order to escape death". In a somewhat similar vein, Aida Edemariam contrasts Winton to Hemingway, writing that in Winton "Land and sea are too implacable for such triumphalism, too capable of the sudden knock-out blow" and she goes on to say that "Winton's books are stalked by the possibility of the fatal undertow, on sea, on land, emotionally, it is a book about risk, about finding a balance between being ordinary. The imagery Winton uses to explore these concepts is that of "breathing and gasping for breath"; the boys' friendship is established through their daring each other to hold their breath under water, but breath appears in other forms in the novel: in Pikelet's father's snoring, in the loss of breath when being knocked over in the surf, in games that toy with asphyxiation, in the resuscitation, crucial to Pike's work as a paramedic.

In Winton's conception, the ordinary act of breathing can take

Josiah Thompson

Josiah "Tink" Thompson is an American writer, professional private investigator, former philosophy professor. He wrote Six Seconds in Dallas: A Micro-Study of the Kennedy Assassination, he wrote a biography of the early 19th-Century Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard in 1974, a well-received book about his own, post-academic life as a private detective, Gumshoe: Reflections in a Private Eye in 1988. Thompson was raised in East Liverpool, Ohio; as of November 2013, he lived in California. Thompson graduated from Yale University in 1957, he entered the Navy, serving in Underwater Demolition Team 21. He returned to Yale for his M. A. in 1962 and Ph. D. in 1964. After receiving his doctorate, he taught at Yale as Instructor of Philosophy and moved on to teach at Haverford College, where he remained until 1976, resigning to begin a career as a private detective. In 1967 he published The Lonely Labyrinth, a study of Kierkegaard's thought, in 1972, Kierkegaard: A Collection of Critical Essays. In 1973 he published, Kierkegaard, a biography of the Danish thinker.

In Six Seconds in Dallas: A Micro-Study of the Kennedy Assassination, Thompson argued that the available physical evidence, corroborating eye-witness accounts, showed that multiple shots were fired at President Kennedy in Dallas on November 22, 1963 implying the existence of an assassination conspiracy. Based on an examination of the Zapruder film, Thompson's book contends that three individuals fired four shots at Kennedy in Dealey Plaza: the first shot was fired from the Texas School Book Depository and struck Kennedy in the back. In November 1967, prior to the publication of the book, Fred Winship of the AP wrote that "some of Thompson's conclusions are based on original research in the National Archives and photos not seen by the Warren Commission and interviews with eyewitnesses."In 1991, Bob Hoover of the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette wrote that Six Seconds in Dallas "remains one of the most plausible explanations for the line of fire in Dealey Plaza."Thompson and his publisher were sued by Time, Inc. for infringement of copyright because of Zapruder frames sketched in the book.

A federal court gave summary judgment to Thompson and his publisher ten months in a landmark decision stressing fair use rights In 2011, The New York Times posted a short documentary film by Errol Morris featuring Thompson's commentary about the "Umbrella Man", a man holding a black umbrella during the assassination of Kennedy