Pope Pius I
Pope Pius I is said to have been the Bishop of Rome from c. 140 to his death c. 154, according to the Annuario Pontificio. His dates are listed as 146 to 157 or 161, respectively. Pius is believed to have been born in Northern Italy, during the late 1st century, his father was an Italian called "Rufinus", a native of Aquileia according to the Liber Pontificalis. According to the 2nd century Muratorian Canon and the Liberian Catalogue, that he was the brother of Hermas, author of the text known as The Shepherd of Hermas; the writer of the text identifies himself as a former slave. This has led to speculation that both Pius were freedmen; however Hermas' statement that he was a slave may just mean that he belonged to a low-ranking plebeian family. According to Catholic tradition, St Pius I governed the Church in the middle of the 2nd century during the reigns of the Emperors Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius, he is held to be the ninth successor of Saint Peter, who decreed that Easter should only be kept on a Sunday.
Although credited with ordering the publication of the Liber Pontificalis, compilation of that document was not started before the beginning of the 6th century. He is said to have built one of the oldest churches in Rome, Santa Pudenziana. Saint Justin taught Christian doctrine in Rome during the theoretical pontificate of St Pius I but the account of his martyrdom indicates there was no Roman bishop present there; the heretics Valentinus and Marcion visited Rome during that period. Catholic apologists see this as an argument for the primacy of the Roman See during the 2nd century. Pope Pius I is believed to have opposed the Valentinians and Gnostics under Marcion, whom he excommunicated. There is some conjecture that he was a martyr in Rome, a conjecture that entered earlier editions of the Roman Breviary; the study that had produced the 1969 revision of the General Roman Calendar stated that there were no grounds for his consideration as a martyr, he is not presented as such in the Roman Martyrology.
Pius I's feast day is 11 July. In the Tridentine Calendar it was given the rank of "Simple" and celebrated as the feast of a martyr; the rank of the feast was reduced to a Commemoration in the 1955 General Roman Calendar of Pope Pius XII and the General Roman Calendar of 1960. Though no longer mentioned in the General Roman Calendar, Saint Pius I may now, according to the rules in the present-day Roman Missal, be celebrated everywhere on his feast day as a Memorial, unless in some locality an obligatory celebration is assigned to that day. List of Catholic saints List of popes "Lives of the Saints, For Every Day of the Year," edited by Rev. Hugo Hoever, S. O. Cist. Ph. D. New York: Catholic Book Publishing Co. 1955, pp 511
Donatism was a schism in the Church of Carthage from the fourth to the sixth centuries AD. Donatists argued that Christian clergy must be faultless for their ministry to be effective and their prayers and sacraments to be valid. Donatism had its roots in the long-established Christian community of the Roman Africa province in the persecutions of Christians under Diocletian. Named after the Berber Christian bishop Donatus Magnus, Donatism flourished during the fourth and fifth centuries; the Roman governor of North Africa, lenient to the large Christian minority under his rule throughout the persecutions, was satisfied when Christians handed over their scriptures as a token repudiation of faith. When the persecution ended, Christians who did so were called traditors—"those who handed over"—by their critics. Like third-century Novatianism, the Donatists were rigorists. In 311 Caecilian was consecrated by Felix of an alleged traditor, his opponents consecrated Majorinus, a short-lived rival, succeeded by Donatus.
Two years a commission appointed by Pope Miltiades condemned the Donatists. They persisted; because of their association with the Circumcellions, the Donatists were repressed by Roman authorities. Although they had local support, their opponents were supported by Rome; the Donatists were still a force during the lifetime of Augustine of Hippo, disappeared only after the seventh- and eighth-century Muslim conquest. The Donatists refused to accept the sacraments and spiritual authority of priests and bishops who were traditors during the persecution; the traditors had returned to positions of authority under Constantine I. Whether the sacrament of Penance could reconcile a traditor to full communion was questioned, the church's position was that the sacrament could; the church still imposed years- long public penance for serious sins. A penitent would first beg for the prayers of those entering a church from outside its doors, they would next be permitted to kneel inside the church during the Liturgy.
After being allowed to stand with the congregation, the penitent would be allowed to receive the Eucharist again. According to the Donatists, serious sin would permanently disqualify a man from leadership; the validity of sacraments administered by priests and bishops, traditors was denied by the Donatists. According to Augustine, a sacrament was from ex opere operato. A priest or bishop in a state of mortal sin could continue to administer valid sacraments; the Donatists believed. Some towns had orthodox congregations; the sect developed and grew in North Africa, with unrest and threatened riots in Carthage connected to the bishop controversy. Constantine, hoping to defuse the unrest, gave money to the non-Donatist bishop Caecilian as payment for churches damaged or confiscated during the persecution. Nothing was given to the Donatists; the Donatists appealed to Rome for equal treatment. The Donatists refused to abide by the decision of the Roman council, demanding that a local council adjudicate the dispute and appealing directly to Constantine.
In a surviving letter, a frustrated Constantine called for what became the first Council of Arles in 314. The council ruled against the Donatists; the emperor ordered all parties to Rome for a hearing, ruled in favor of Caecilian and warned against unrest. A delegation from Rome traveled to Carthage in a vain attempt to seek compromise; the Donatists fomented protests and street violence, refusing to compromise in favor of the Catholic bishop. After the Constantinian shift, when other Christians accepted the emperor's decision, the Donatists continued to demonize him. After several attempts at reconciliation, in 317 Constantine issued an edict threatening death to anyone who disturbed the imperial peace. Donatus refused to surrender his buildings in Carthage, the local Roman governor sent troops to deal with him and his followers. Although the historical record is unclear, some Donatists were killed and their clergy exiled. Outside Carthage, Donatist churches and clergy were undisturbed. Constantine's efforts to unite the church and the Donatists failed, by 321 he asked the bishops to show moderation and patience to the sect in an open letter.
Laws against the Donatists were decreed by Valentinian I after the defeat of the Donatist usurper, Firmus, in North Africa. Augustine of Hippo campaigned against Donatism as bishop. According to Augustine and the church, the validity of sacraments was a property of the priesthood independent of individual character. Influenced by the Old Testament, he believed in discipline as a means of education. In his letter to Vincentius, Augustine used the New Testament Parable of the Great Banquet to justify using force against the Donatists: "You are of opinion that no one should be compelled to follow righteousness.
Pope Alexander I
Pope Alexander I was the Bishop of Rome from c. 107 to his death c. 115. The Holy See's Annuario Pontificio identifies him as a Roman who reigned from 108 or 109 to 116 or 119; some believe he suffered martyrdom under the Roman Emperor Trajan or Hadrian, but this is improbable. According to the Liber Pontificalis, it was Alexander I who inserted the narration of the Last Supper into the liturgy of the Mass. However, the article on Saint Alexander I in the 1907 Catholic Encyclopedia, written by Thomas Shahan, judges this tradition to be inaccurate, a view shared by both Catholic and non-Catholic experts, it is viewed as a product of the agenda of Liber Pontificalis—this section of the book was written in the late 5th century—to show an ancient pattern of the earliest bishops of Rome ruling the church by papal decree. The introduction of the customs of using blessed water mixed with salt for the purification of Christian homes from evil influences, as well as that of mixing water with the sacramental wine, are attributed to Pope Alexander I.
Some sources consider these attributions unlikely. It is possible, that Alexander played an important part in the early development of the Church of Rome's emerging liturgical and administrative traditions. A tradition holds that in the reign of Emperor Hadrian, Alexander I converted the Roman governor Hermes by miraculous means, together with his entire household of 1,500 people. Saint Quirinus of Neuss, Alexander's supposed jailer, Quirinus' daughter Saint Balbina were among his converts. Alexander is said to have seen a vision of the infant Jesus, his remains are said to have been transferred to Freising in Bavaria, Germany in AD 834. Some editions of the Roman Missal identified with Pope Alexander I the Saint Alexander that they give as commemorated, together with Saints Eventius and Theodulus, on 3 May. See, for instance, the General Roman Calendar of 1954, but nothing is known of these three saints other than their names, together with the fact that they were martyred and were buried at the seventh milestone of the Via Nomentana on 3 May of some year.
For this reason, the Pope John XXIII's 1960 revision of the calendar returned to the presentation, in the 1570 Tridentine Calendar of the three saints as "Saints Alexander and Theodulus Martyrs" with no suggestion that any of them was a pope. The Roman Martyrology lists them as Eventius and Theodulus, the order in which their names are given in historical documents. List of Catholic saints List of popes Benedict XIV; the Roman Martyrology. Gardners Books, 2007. ISBN 978-0-548-13374-3. Chapman, John. Studies on the Early Papacy. Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press, 1971. ISBN 978-1-901157-60-4. Fortescue and Scott M. P. Reid; the Early Papacy: To the Synod of Chalcedon in 451. Southampton: Saint Austin Press, 1997. ISBN 978-1-901157-60-4. Jowett, George F; the Drama of the Lost Disciples. London: Covenant Pub. Co, 1968. OCLC 7181392 Loomis, Louise Ropes; the Book of Popes. Merchantville, NJ: Evolution Publishing. ISBN 1-889758-86-8Pope St. Alexander IEncyclopædia Britannica: Saint Alexander I
Papal selection before 1059
There was no fixed process for papal selection before 1059. Popes, the bishops of Rome and the leaders of the Catholic Church, were appointed by their predecessors or secular rulers. While the process was characterized by some capacity of election, an election with the meaningful participation of the laity was the exception to the rule as the popes' claims to temporal power solidified into the Papal States; the practice of papal appointment during this period would give rise to the jus exclusivae, a veto right exercised by Catholic monarchies into the twentieth century. The lack of an institutionalized process for papal succession was prone to religious schism, several papal claimants before 1059 are regarded by the Church as antipopes. Furthermore, the frequent requirement of secular approval of elected popes lengthened periods of sede vacante and weakened the papacy. In 1059, Pope Nicholas II succeeded in limiting future papal electors to the cardinals with In nomine Domini, creating standardized papal elections that would evolve into the papal conclave.
There is no scholarly consensus on when and on what terms Saint Peter arrived in Rome, but most agree that he died there in 64 or 67. Moreover, Peter was never contemporaneously referred to as a "pope" or a "bishop". Unlike the selection process for a deacon, outlined in Acts 6:1-6, there is no biblical method for the selection of a bishop other than by simple apostolic appointment. Although the election of bishops in other early Christian communities is described in contemporary sources, the earliest Roman sources date from 400, claiming that Peter himself appointed Linus and Clement—in that order—as his successors; the early official lists of Bishops of Rome are considered problematic by scholars because of their bias towards enhancing papal authority and anachronistically imposing continuity. Eusebius relates a legend of the election of Fabian in 236: a dove landed on Fabian's head and "thereupon the people, all as if impelled by one divine spirit, with one united and eager voice cried out that he was worthy, they set him on the episcopal seat".
This anecdote makes clear that "the choice of bishop was the public concern for the entire Christian community of Rome". Fabian can reliably be regarded as a victim of the persecution of Emperor Decius, after which there was no election for fourteen months; the next available evidence comes from the schism between Novatian and Cornelius, both elected bishop by their own factions, both writing to Cyprian, bishop of Carthage for support. Cyprian sided with Cornelius, writing that: Moreover, Cornelius was made bishop by the choice of God and of His Christ, by the favorable witness of all of the clergy, by the votes of the laity present, by the assembly of bishops. Cyprian remarks that Cornelius had been ordained by sixteen bishops from the surrounding region, while Novatian had only been ordained by three, the first definite evidence of a true schism in the Roman church. Mark was the first to designate the bishop of Ostia as the first among the consecrators of the new bishop of Rome. However, the influence of Emperor Constantine I, a contemporary of Sylvester I and Mark, would help solidify a strong role for the Roman emperor in the selection process: Constantine chose Julius I for all intents and purposes, his son Constantius II exiled Liberius and installed Felix II as his successor.
Felix and Liberius were succeeded in schism by Ursinus and Damasus the latter of whom managed to prevail by sheer bloodshed, he is the first bishop of Rome who can non-anachronistically be referred to as a "Pope". Damasus persuaded the Emperor to decree him "bishop of bishops", a claim that antagonized Eastern bishops, leading to the First Council of Constantinople in 381, which dealt in part with the issue of supremacy. With this new title, the method of selection of the bishop of Rome remained much the same. Both the clergy and the laity continued to participate in the selection, along with local and imperial politics. Other trends can be observed, as well, such as father-to-son succession between Pope Anastasius I and Pope Innocent I. Emperor Honorius stepped in to resolve the schism between Eulalius and Pope Boniface I, siding with Eulalius first and Boniface I. Honorius decreed. Elections of the same manner continued undisputed until Pope Simplicius, terminally ill for enough of his papacy to devote time to succession issues, who decreed that the minister of Germanic general Odoacer, a Roman nobleman, would have the power of approval over his successor: the result was Pope Felix III, the first patrician pope.
The next electoral schism of note developed between Symmachus and Laurentius, who both appealed to Theodoric the Great, the Ostrogoth king of Italy.
Pope Soter was the Bishop of Rome from c. 167 to his death c. 174. According to the Annuario Pontificio, the dates may have ranged from 162–168 to 170–177, he was born in Fondi, today Lazio region, Italy. Soter is known for declaring that marriage was valid only as a sacrament blessed by a priest and for formally inaugurating Easter as an annual festival in Rome, his name, from Greek Σωτήριος from σωτήρ "saviour", would be his baptismal name, as his lifetime predates the tradition of adopting papal names. Saint Soter's feast day is celebrated on 22 April; the Roman Martyrology, the official list of recognized saints, references Soter: "At Rome, Saint Soter, whom Dionysius of Corinth praises for his outstanding charity towards needy exiled Christians who came to him, towards those, condemned to the mines."It has been supposed that all the earliest Popes suffered martyrdom, but the Roman Martyrology does not give Pope Soter the title of martyr. The book detailing the 1969 revision of the General Roman Calendar states: "There are no grounds for including Saint Soter and Saint Caius among the martyrs."
The Montanist movement, which originated in Asia Minor, made its way to Rome and Gaul in the second half of the 2nd century, during the reign of Eleuterus. Its nature did not diverge so much from the orthodoxy of the time for it to be labeled heresy. During the violent persecution at Lyon, in 177, local confessors wrote from their prison concerning the new movement to the Asiatic and Phrygian communities as well as to Pope Eleuterus; the bearer of their letter to the pope was the presbyter Irenaeus. It appears from statements of Eusebius concerning these letters that the Christians of Lyon, though opposed to the Montanist movement, advocated patience and pleaded for the preservation of ecclesiastical unity; when the Roman church took its definite stand against Montanism is not known. Tertullian records that a Roman bishop sent some conciliatory letters to the Montanists, but based on the complaints of Praxeas "concerning the prophets themselves and their churches, by insistence on the decisions of the bishop's predecessors" forced the pontiff to recall these letters.
Another ancient source states that "Holy Soter, Pope of the City, wrote against them a book, as did the master, Apollonius of Ephesus. Against these wrote the priest Tertullian of Carthage. Who in all ways wrote well, wrote first and wrote incomparably, in this alone did reprehensibly, that he defended Montanus". At Rome, the Gnostics and Marcionites continued to preach against the Catholic Church. List of Catholic saints List of popes
Christianity has used symbolism from its beginnings. Each saint has a reason why they led an exemplary life. Symbols have been used to tell these stories throughout the history of the Church. A number of Christian saints are traditionally represented by a symbol or iconic motif associated with their life, termed an attribute or emblem, in order to identify them; the study of these forms part of iconography in art history. They were used so that the illiterate could recognize a scene, to give each of the Saints something of a personality in art, they are carried in the hand by the Saint. Attributes vary with either time or geography between Eastern Christianity and the West. Orthodox images more contained inscriptions with the names of saints, so the Eastern repertoire of attributes is smaller than the Western. Many of the most prominent saints, like Saint Peter and Saint John the Evangelist can be recognised by a distinctive facial type – as can Christ. In the case of saints their actual historical appearance can be used.
Some attributes are general, such as the palm frond carried by martyrs. The use of a symbol in a work of art depicting a Saint reminds people, being shown and of their story; the following is a list of some of these attributes. Mary is portrayed wearing blue, her attributes include a blue mantle, crown of 12 stars, pregnant woman, woman with child, woman trampling serpent, crescent moon, woman clothed with the sun, heart pierced by sword, Madonna lily and rosary beads. Delaney, John P.. Dictionary of Saints. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-13594-7. Lanzi, Fernando. Saints and their Symbols: Recognizing Saints in Art and in Popular Images. Translated by O'Connell, Matthew J. ISBN 9780814629703. Post, W. Ellwood. Saints and Symbols. SPCK Publishing. ISBN 9780281028948. Walsh, Michael. A New Dictionary of Saints: East and West. Liturgical Press. ISBN 978-0-8146-3186-7. Whittemore, Carroll E.. Symbols of the Church. Abingdon Press. ISBN 0687183014. Calendar of saints Christian symbolism Christianization of saints and feasts Doctor of the Church Iconography List of canonizations, for a list of Catholic canonizations by date Martyrology Patron saint Weather saints "Christian Iconography".
Augusta State University. Archived from the original on 2014-03-18. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown "Hagiographies and icons for many Orthodox saints". Orthodox Church in America. "Catholic Forum Patron Saints Index". Archived from the original on 2005-05-31. "Saints' Badges or Shields". "On the Canonizations of John Paul II". Archived from the original on 2007-09-28