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Pope Benedict VI

Pope Benedict VI was Pope from 19 January 973 to his death in 974. His brief pontificate occurred in the political context of the establishment of the Holy Roman Empire, during the transition between the reigns of German emperors Otto I and Otto II, incorporating the struggle for power of Roman aristocratic families such as the Crescentii and Tusculani; the son of a Roman of German ancestry named Hildebrand, Benedict VI was born in Rome in the region called Sub Capitolio. Prior to his election as pope, he was the Cardinal deacon of the church of Saint Theodore. On the death of Pope John XIII in September 972, the majority of the electors who adhered to the imperial faction chose Benedict to be his successor, he was not consecrated until January 973, due to the need to gain the approval of the Holy Roman Emperor, Otto I. Installed as pope under the protection of Otto I, Benedict was seen as a puppet of the emperor by the local Roman aristocracy who resented the emperor's dominance in Roman civil and ecclesiastical affairs.

Record of Benedict's reign as pope is scant. There is a letter dated to Benedict's reign from Piligrim, Bishop of Passau, asking for Benedict to confer on him the Pallium, make him a Bishop so that he could continue his mission to convert the Hungarian people to Christianity. However, the response from Benedict is considered to be a forgery, he is known to have confirmed privileges assumed by certain monasteries and churches. At the request of King Lothair of France and his wife, Benedict placed the monastery of Blandin under papal protection. There is a papal bull from Benedict in which Frederick, Archbishop of Salzburg and his successors are named Papal vicars in the former Roman provinces of Upper and Lower Pannonia and Noricum. Otto I died soon after Benedict's election in 973, with the accession of Otto II, troubles with the nobility emerged in Germany. With the new emperor so distracted, a faction of the Roman nobility opposed to the interference of the German emperors in Roman affairs, took advantage of the opportunity to move against Benedict VI.

Led by Crescentius the Elder and the Cardinal-Deacon Franco Ferrucci, Benedict was taken in June 974, imprisoned in the Castel Sant'Angelo, at that time a stronghold of the Crescentii. Ferrucci was proclaimed as the new pope, taking the name Boniface VII. Hearing of the overthrow of Benedict VI, Otto II sent an imperial representative, Count Sicco, to demand his release. Unwilling to step down, Boniface ordered a priest named Stephen to murder Benedict whilst he was in prison, strangling him to death. Benedict was succeeded, after the overthrow of the Antipope Boniface VII, by Pope Benedict VII. Norwich, John Julius, The Popes: A History Gregorovius, The History of Rome in the Middle Ages, Vol. III Mann, Horace K; the Lives of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages, Vol. IV: The Popes in the Days of Feudal Anarchy, 891-999 Encyclopædia Britannica


Heringen is a small town in Hersfeld-Rotenburg district in eastern Hesse, Germany lying right at the boundary with Thuringia. The nearest major towns and cities are Bad Hersfeld and Kassel; the town lies on the river Werra, surrounded by outliers of the Thuringian Forest, the Seulingswald and the Anterior Rhön, all mountain or hill ranges. The lowest point in town is found on the Werra floodplain at 210 m above sea level; the highest point within town limits is the Lehnberg at 471 m above sea level. Clockwise from the north, these are Wildeck, Verwaltungsgemeinschaft Berka/Werra, Philippsthal und Friedewald. Heringen's Stadtteile, besides the main centre called Heringen, are Bengendorf, Kleinensee, Lengers, Widdershausen and Wölfershausen. In 1153, Heringen had its first documentary mention; the Fulda Abbey enfeoffed the nobleman Heinrich von Heringen about 1170 with the place. The Heringen court comprised in the early 15th century not only the current town area but the Thuringian centres of Vitzeroda and Abteroda, all of which now belong to the Verwaltungsgemeinschaft Berka/Werra.

In 1432, Margarethe von Heringen sold the court to the Landgraves of Hesse, thereby binding Heringen to Hesse. With the opening of the Wintershall potash works, which began mining in 1903, the community got its first industrial jobs; the Neu-Heringen and Herfa-Neurode potash mines were built. The mine is today the world's biggest potash-mining area and has an area about the same as Greater Munich's. At the end of World War II, the libraries of the German Army's Military Geology Unit and the German Patent Office were removed from Berlin and secretly stored in the deep Wintershall potash mine in Heringen. There they were discovered by the US Third Army in March 1945, removed to the US; the German Patent Library was restored to Germany, but the military geology materials of maps and books stolen from other countries during the invasions, were retained by the US as Nazi materiel. Most of these maps and books remain in the US Geological Survey Library today, with an obscure United States Army Corps of Engineers stamp on each that reads "Heringen Collection".

Market rights were granted the community in 1526, in 1977 came town rights to what was a greater community. There are successor buildings of the knightly estate of Vultejus. Between 1968 and 1972 the above-named centres were amalgamated into a greater community, granted town rights in 1977 by the Hesse Land government; the municipal election held on 26 March 2006 yielded the following results: The town's executive is made up of six councillors, with two seats allotted to the SPD, two to the CDU and 2 to the WGH. Manfred Wenk is the first WGH councillor. Mayor Hans Ries was elected on 28 March 2004 with 52.5% of the vote. The town's arms might be described thus: Azure a bend wavy sinister argent between a sledgehammer and a cross-peen hammer per saltire, three fish of the last; the bend wavy sinister, that is, slanted wavy stripe beginning on the sinister side and stretching down across the escutcheon, stands for the river Werra. The three fish come from the arms borne by the Lords of Heringen.

The mining tools are, of course, a traditional miner's symbol. This charge was added to the coat of arms in 2003, as potash had been being mined here for a hundred years; the old arms are shown at right. Rombas, FranceIn 2007, partnership documents were signed with the following towns: Heringen, Thuringia Odolanów, Ostrów Wielkopolski, Poland Werra-Kalibergbaumuseum Potash tailings heap “Monte Kali” Walterskirche church ruins Bodesruh memorial Successor buildings of the knightly estate of Vultejus Rohrlache and Säulingssee Herfa forest botany garden Weekly market It was in Heringen that the groundbreaking invention of the electrostatic salt separation facility was first realized and further developed. After former mining director Prof. Dr.-Ing. Arno Singewald's research and inventions, the German potash-mining industry could introduce a novel, environmentally friendly means of processing the mined salts. Salt-saturated water is avoided; these facilities built at the potash works along the Werra have seen to it that a river, once salted – by East German potash works – has been brought back to life.

K+S Kali GmbH – potash mining Schwabenhaus GmbH + Co. KG – prefabricated buildings Messer Industriemontagen & Apparatebau GmbH – pipeline and special steel construction Uwe Bein, professional footballer and world champion in 1990 Jürgen Gehb, since 1998 Member of the Bundestag and rightwing speaker of the CDU/CSU Bundestag faction. Michael Roth, German SPD politician and Member of the Bundestag Hadden, Robert Lee. 2003. "The Heringen Collection of the US Geological Survey Library" Geological Society of America. Seattle Annual Meeting. Paper No. 94-7. Abstract: "One special collection of German and Russian language books and reports in the US Geological Survey Library has an interesting and unusual history; the “Heringen Collection” came from Nazi Germany. In the last days of the war, these maps

Kiddie ride

A kiddie ride - or kids' ride - is a coin-operated amusement ride for young children. Kiddie rides are available in amusement parks, malls, hotel game rooms, outside supermarkets and discount department stores. Less they may appear in other venues such as restaurants, food courts, grocery shops and auto dealerships; when activated by a coin, a kiddie ride entertains the rider with motion, depending on the ride type. Most rides include sounds and music, some feature flashing lights and buttons. Commercial kiddie rides use simple but colorful equipment, with the driving mechanism hidden under vacuum formed plastic covers; the kiddie ride was first invented in 1930 by James Otto Hahs of Missouri. Called the Hahs Gaited Mechanical Horse, the ride was conceived as a Christmas present for his children. However, Hahs soon realized that he has a potential money-maker in his hands and set about commercializing the toy, he used wooden horses not unlike those found on carousels, commissioned carousel makers to make the horses.

However, he soon found these horses to be heavy, decided that aluminum would be a better material to sculpt his horses out of. When told it couldn't be done, Hahs went ahead and invented a process to form horses out of aluminum; these rides would be manufactured at Hahs Machine Works in Sikeston and went on to win several awards, including most original invention of the year 1932. In 1933, Hahs struck a deal with Exhibit Supply Company to distribute his horses, with a 5% cut going to Hahs; when the patent on the ride ran out, Hahs had retired as a wealthy inventor. In 1953, Billboard magazine called it "1953's fastest growing business"; the rides changed from aluminum to fiberglass. Developed around the same time, the Link Trainer was intended for use as a coin operated entertainment device, in addition to its role as a pilot trainer. Many old rides do not feature music. However, on rides that do feature music, early rides are equipped with simple integrated circuits that continually play back one melody or repeat a set of melodies in sequence.

These have evolved in the sense that the earliest musically-enabled rides played back only a single monophonic melody repetitively, while ones played multiple polyphonic melodies, whilst sometimes including short sound or speech samples. Rides could use a tape deck, while more recent rides may have a solid state audio playback device akin to flash-based MP3 players; the music chosen is generic children's songs, while on licensed rides the theme song for the character licensed would be used. However, in rare cases, there are rides that play standard pop music, for private rides the owner may request a song that has personal relevance to be programmed into the ride. Many modern rides are programmed to play multiple melodies with the music changing each time the ride is used, the logic being to prolong the interest of the child on the ride. However, some modern rides, in particular licensed character ones, are programmed to play a single melody or song, the theme song of the character's television show or film.

There are some exceptions where there are licensed rides playing unrelated pieces of music or non-licensed rides that play only one particular tune, for example a song about cars on a car-themed ride, the Thomas theme tune on a Thomas the Tank Engine ride, the Postman Pat theme tune on a Postman Pat ride and the Fireman Sam theme tune on a Fireman Sam ride. Certain rides exist that do not emphasize music, but play a running narration or tell a story instead, they have generic instrumental music running in the background while the story is being told. Newer, more advanced rides do not start as soon as coins are inserted; these rides will play a message before movement begins and may play an ending message once the ride ends, to let the rider know that it is safe to disembark. Other safety precautions found in more advanced rides include: allowing use of the start button to pause the ride, so the rider can reposition themselves or disembark safely if desired. To attract attention, most rides flash their lights or play a sound, or both, at set intervals, although many older rides, as well as low-cost, or knockoff, rides do not have an attract mode.

Some rides may, as mentioned above, narrate a story through sound or using a video monitor, the latter providing limited interaction with the video displayed. Batmobile Bumble Bee Boat Bunny / Rabbit Bus Miniature carousel Campervan Cifford the Big Red Dog Dinosaur Digger Dolphin Dog Elephant Fire truck Helicopter Garfield Horse or pony - Perhaps the most popular kiddie ride. Ice cream truck Jeep Jumbo jet or other airplane Ladybug or Caterpillar Larrymobile Mickey Mouse Motorcycle Panda Pea

Conservation finance

Conservation Finance is the practice of raising and managing capital to support land and resource conservation. Conservation financing options vary by source from public and nonprofit funders. Conservationists have traditionally relied upon private, philanthropic capital in the form of solicited donations, foundation grants, etc. and public, governmental funds in the form of tax incentives, ballot measures, agency appropriations, etc. to fund conservation projects and initiatives. Although governments and philanthropists provide a moderate amount of funds, conservationist believe there is a shortage in the capital required to preserve global ecosystems. On an annual basis, they estimate in 2018 that investors must allocate $300 to $400 billion to meet worldwide conservation needs. From this amount, funders only provide $52 billion per year to conservation finance. Conservationists are embracing a broader range of funding and financing options, leveraging traditional “philanthropic and government resources with other sources of capital, including that from the capital markets."

These non-traditional sources of conservation capital include debt-financing, emerging tax benefits, private equity investments, project financing. These additional sources of leverage serve to enlarge the pool of financial capital available to fund conservation work worldwide and, as this financial capital is invested, the asset portfolio of conserved land and natural resources is grown. Governments finance various forms of conservation finance. One such method involves establishing debt-for-nature swaps that aid environmental sustainability efforts in developing nations. Originated in the 1980s, this concept allows for public and private interests to purchase debt from a developing country; that nation's purchased debt is discharged in part or in full. The government spends the money on domestic conservation projects. While developed nations participate in these transactions, private institutions purchase this debt as well. For example, commercial banks buy this debt and sell the portfolio at discounted prices to other investors or financial firms.

Third-party organizations NGOs, participate in these swaps to secure currency or help develop governmental programs using the newly acquired funds. In 1987, Bolivia implemented the first debt-for-nature swap; the Bolivian government sold $650,000 of its debt for $100,000. In exchange, Bolivia agreed to provide funding for sustainability efforts in Beni's wildlife reserve. Since the world's most indebted nations contain diverse ecosystems, debt-for-nature swaps draw significant attention towards conservation efforts in the most fragile parts of the biosphere. Foreign aid is instrumental in implementing global conservation finance efforts; the USAID is a federal agency within the United States committed to foreign aid and emphasizes conservation for developmental purposes. The agency allocates $200 million per year towards worldwide efforts to conserve species. One focus is developing conservation zones in coastal wetlands; these zones preserve fish species, thus strengthening both the local ecosystem and the fishing industry's profitability.

Foreign aid directly provides resources to countries helps to facilitate conservation finance projects. Climate business is a private-sector strategy for conservation finance that some organizations advocate for; this would allow businesses to adopt clean technologies and services that promote efficiency standards. These standards consist of managing capital and using those funds to implement multiple business practices. Examples include investing in low carbon energy generation for office buildings; such infrastructure would drastically let alone carbon. According to the World Bank Group, climate business would require accurate and scalable models to address a firm's environmental impact. In order for such models to remain relevant to firms, it is suggested that businesses remain cognizant of solutions throughout the global markets. One group that advocates this private-sector strategy is the International Finance Corporation, a member of the World Bank Group that facilitates private-sector investment in developing nations.

The institution argues. According to the IFC, widespread adoption of climate business would lead to decreasing technological costs and favorable financial incentives for both the developing and developed world. A payment for ecosystem services broadly refers to any payment, aimed to incentivize conserving and restoring ecological systems; these systems could include any ecosystem, such as a river or forest, that facilitates vital environmental processes. For instance, forests serve multiple functions in this regard, they provide environmental goods, such as food, facilitate nutrient cycling and other biological processes. Due to environmental degradation, these ecological systems are threatened. PES is a form of conservation finance that rewards people for maintaining these ecosystem services using financial incentives. In order to facilitate these transactions, the service provider must define the service and secure an ecosystem which needs those particular resources. In addition, service purchasers monitor the providers to ensure that conversation is efficiently carried out.

Many developing countries implement this market-based mechanism to address conservation needs in different ways. Nations that rely on PES to improve conservation efforts include Vietnam and Costa Ri

South Greeley, Wyoming

South Greeley is a census-designated place in Laramie County, United States. It is part of Wyoming Metropolitan Statistical Area; the population was 4,217 at the 2010 census. South Greeley is located at 41°5′49″N 104°48′19″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 1.7 square miles, all of it land. At the 2000 census, there were 4,201 people, 1,553 households and 1,091 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 2,489.6 per square mile. There were 1,679 housing units at an average density of 995.0/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 84.86% White, 2.31% African American, 1.50% Native American, 0.33% Asian, 7.19% from other races, 3.81% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14.90% of the population. There were 1,553 households of which 42.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.6% were married couples living together, 14.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.7% were non-families. 22.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.15. 32.1% of the population were under the age of 18, 10.9% from 18 to 24, 33.8% from 25 to 44, 17.8% from 45 to 64, 5.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.2 males. The median household income was $31,729 and the median family income was $34,015. Males had a median income of $28,468 vand females $19,696; the per capita income was $13,925. About 14.0% of families and 16.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.4% of those under age 18 and 12.2% of those age 65 or over. Public education in the community of South Greeley is provided by Laramie County School District #1

Gayle Manning

Gayle Manning is a member of the Ohio House of Representatives, serving since 2019. She was a member of the Ohio Senate, serving the Thirteenth District from 2011 to 2018. Manning taught elementary school students in North Olmsted City Schools for 37 years, winning numerous awards and citations for her accomplishments in education, she was named Educator of the Year by the North Olmsted Council of PTA and received the Teacher in American Enterprise Award from the Ohio Council on Economic Education. Senator Manning co-sponsored legislation in 2013 that the Lorain Morning Journal hailed as “life-saving.” The legislation allows law enforcement officers quicker access to cell phone records of people who are believed to be kidnapped or missing and in danger. Senator Manning drew criticism after a report published by the League of Women Voters of Ohio on May 6, 2019 released a 2011 email from the Senator to Ray DiRossi, a Republican operative contracted for $105,000 to draw new district lines for state elections after the 2010 census.

After mentioning that “ knows they are looking for Republicans in Lorain County” Senator Manning listed several individual streets within the city of Lorain where she had “gained a good response from the people.” Another email from the same report detailed a meeting between DiRossi and Senator Manning in “the bunker”, the name DiRossi and his staff described a Double Tree hotel room just outside the statehouse. The report concluded that this taxpayer-funded hotel room was used “to ensure no one could gain access to the redistricting plans”. According to the League of Women Voters, for meetings like Senator Manning’s “every effort was made to conduct deliberations in private”. Gayle, official campaign website Project Vote Smart- Gayle Manning Gayle Manning- Ohio GOP