Pope Eugene IV
Pope Eugene IV, born Gabriele Condulmer, was Pope from 3 March 1431 to his death in 1447. He is the most recent pope to have taken the name "Eugene" upon his election. Condulmer was born in Venice to a rich merchant family, he entered a community of Canons Regular of San Giorgio in Alga in his native city. At the age of twenty-four he was appointed by his maternal uncle, Pope Gregory XII, as Bishop of Siena. In Siena, the political leaders objected to a bishop, not only 24, but a foreigner. Therefore, he resigned the appointment, becoming instead his uncle's papal treasurer and Cardinal Priest of the Basilica of San Clemente. Pope Martin V named him Cardinal Priest of the Basilica di Santa Maria in Trastevere, he served as papal legate at Picenum in the March of Ancona. Condulmer was elected to succeed Martin V in the papal conclave of 1431, he was crowned as Eugene IV at St. Peter's Basilica on 11 March 1431. By a written agreement made before his election he pledged to distribute to the cardinals one-half of all the revenues of the Church and promised to consult with them on all questions of importance, both spiritual and temporal.
He is described as tall, with a winning countenance, although many of his troubles were owing to his own want of tact, which alienated parties from him. Upon assuming the papal chair, Eugene IV took violent measures against the numerous Colonna relatives of his predecessor Martin V, who had rewarded them with castles and lands; this at once involved him in a serious contest with the powerful house of Colonna that nominally supported the local rights of Rome against the interests of the Papacy. A truce was soon arranged. By far the most important feature of Eugene IV's pontificate was the great struggle between the Pope and the Council of Basel, the final embodiment of the Conciliar movement. On 23 July 1431, his legate Giuliano Cesarini opened the council, convoked by Martin V. Canon Beaupère of Besançon, sent from Basel to Rome, gave the pope an unfavourable and exaggerated account of the temper of the people of Basel and its environs. Distrustful of its purposes and emboldened by the small attendance, the Pope issued a bull on 18 December 1431 that dissolved the council and called a new one to meet in eighteen months at Bologna.
The council resisted this expression of papal prerogative. Eugene IV's action gave some weight to the contention that the Curia was opposed to any authentic measures of reform; the council refused to dissolve. A compromise was arranged by the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund, crowned emperor at Rome on 31 May 1433. By its terms, the Pope recalled his bull of dissolution, reserving all the rights of the Holy See, acknowledged the council as ecumenical on 15 December 1433 except for the initial unapproved sessions that contained canons which exalted conciliar authority above that of the pope; these concessions were due to the invasion of the Papal States by the former Papal condottiero Niccolò Fortebraccio and the troops of Filippo Maria Visconti led by Niccolò Piccinino in retaliation for Eugene's support of Florence and Venice against Milan. This situation led to establishment of an insurrectionary republic at Rome controlled by the Colonna family. In early June 1434, disguised in the robes of a Benedictine monk, Eugene was rowed down the center of the Tiber, pelted by stones from either bank, to a Florentine vessel waiting to pick him up at Ostia.
The city was restored to obedience by Giovanni Vitelleschi, the militant Bishop of Recanati, in the following October. In August 1435 a peace treaty was signed at Ferrara by the various belligerents; the Pope moved to Bologna in April 1436. His condottieri Francesco I Sforza and Vitelleschi in the meantime reconquered much of the Papal States. Traditional Papal enemies such as the Prefetti di Vico were destroyed, while the Colonna were reduced to obedience after the destruction of their stronghold in Palestrina in August 1436. Meanwhile, the struggle with the council sitting at Basel broke out anew. Eugene IV at length convened a rival council at Ferrara on 8 January 1438 and excommunicated the prelates assembled at Basel. King Charles VII of France had forbidden members of the clergy in his kingdom from attending the counsel in Ferrara, introduced the decrees of the Council of Basel, with slight changes, into France through the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges; the King of England and the Duke of Burgundy, who felt that the council was partial to France, decided not to recognize the council at Basel.
Castile, Aragon and Bavaria withdrew support. The Council of Basel suspended Eugene on 24 January 1438 formally deposed him as a heretic on 25 June 1439. In the following November the council elected the ambitious Amadeus VIII, Duke of Savoy, as antipope under the name of Felix V; the Diet of Mainz had deprived the Pope of most of his rights in the Empire. At Florence, where the council of Ferrara had been transferred as a result of an outbreak of the plague, a union with the Eastern Orthodox Church was effected in July 1439, which, as the result of political necessities, proved but a temporary bolster to the papacy's prestige; this union was followed by others of less stability. Eugene IV signed an agreement with the Armenians on 22 November 1439, with a part of the Jacobites of Syria in 1443, in 1445 he received some of the Nestorians and the Maronites, he did his best to stem the Turkish advance, pledging one-fifth of the papal income to a crusade which set out in 1443, but which met with overwhelmin
Pope Eugene I
Pope Eugene I known as Eugenius I, was Pope from 10 August 654 to his death in 657. He was a native of Rome, born to one Rufinianus. In June 653, in the midst of a dispute with Byzantine Emperor Constans II over Monothelitism, Pope Martin I was seized and carried to Constantinople and subsequently exiled to Cherson in the Crimea. In the pontiff's absence, the church was governed by the archpriest and the primicerius of the notaries. Over a year and with no sign of Martin's return, Eugene was chosen to succeed. If the emperor expected Eugene to take a different approach from that of his predecessor, he was disappointed. Little is known of Pope Eugene's early life other than that he was a Roman from the Aventine and was known for his holiness and charity, he had held various positions within the Church of Rome. On the banishment of Pope Martin I by Byzantine Emperor Constans II, he showed greater deference than his predecessor to the emperor's wishes and made no public stand against the Monothelitism of the patriarchs of Constantinople.
Martin I was carried off from Rome on 18 June 653 and was kept in exile until his death in September 655. Little is known about what happened in Rome after Pope Martin's departure, but it was typical in those days for the Holy See to be governed by the archpriest and archdeacon. After a year and two months, a successor was found to Martin in Eugene. After his election, Eugene was forced to deal with the heresy of Monothelitism, i.e. that Christ had only one will. One of the first acts of the new pope was to send papal legates to Constantinople with letters to Emperor Constans II informing him of his election and professing his faith; the legates allowed themselves to be deceived, or bribed, brought back a synodical letter from Patriarch Peter of Constantinople, while the emperor's envoy, who accompanied them, brought offerings for St. Peter and a request from the emperor that the pope would enter into communion with the Patriarch of Constantinople. Peter's letter proved to be written in a difficult and obscure style and avoided making any specific declaration as to the number of "wills or operations" in Christ.
When its contents were read to the clergy and people in the church of St. Mary Major in 656, they not only rejected the letter with indignation, but would not allow the pope to leave the basilica until he had promised that he would not on any account accept it. So furious were the Byzantine officials at this harsh rejection of the wishes of their emperor and patriarch that they threatened to roast Eugene, just as they had roasted Pope Martin I. Eugene's persecution was averted by the ensuing conquest of the Muslims, who took Rhodes in 654 and defeated Constans himself in the naval battle of Phoenix, it was certainly this pope who received the youthful St. Wilfrid on the occasion of his first visit to Rome. At Rome he gained the affection of Archdeacon Boniface, a counsellor of the apostolic pope, who presented him to his master. Eugene "placed his blessed hand on the head of the youthful servant of God, prayed for him, blessed him." Nothing more is known of Eugene except that he consecrated twenty-one bishops for different parts of the world, that he was buried in St. Peter's Basilica.
He died in 657 and was acclaimed a saint, his day being the 2nd of June, according to Anastasius, he died on the 1st of that month. List of popes List of Catholic saints The Book of Saints, by the Ramsgate Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine's AbbeyAttribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Eugenius". Encyclopædia Britannica. 9. Cambridge University Press; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Horace Kinder. "Pope St. Eugene I". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 5. New York: Robert Appleton. Saints. SQPN: Pope Eugene I Catholic Online: Pope Eugene I
Pope Eugene III
Pope Eugene III, born Bernardo Pignatelli, called Bernardo da Pisa, was Pope from 15 February 1145 to his death in 1153. He was the first Cistercian to become Pope. In response to the fall of Edessa to the Muslims in 1144, Eugene proclaimed the Second Crusade; the crusade failed to recapture Edessa, the first of many failures by the Christians in the crusades to recapture lands won in the First Crusade. He was beatified on 28 December 1872 by Pope Pius IX on the account of his sanctity. Bernardo was born in the vicinity of Pisa. Little is known about his origins and family except. From the 16th century he is identified as member of the family of Paganelli di Montemagno, which belonged to the Pisan aristocracy, but this has not been proven and contradicts earlier testimonies that suggest he was a man of rather humble origins. In 1106 he was a canon of the cathedral chapter from 1115 is attested as subdeacon. 1133–1138 he acted as vicedominus of the archdiocese of Pisa. Between May 1134 and February 1137 he was ordained to the priesthood by Pope Innocent II, who resided at that time in Pisa.
Under the influence of Bernard of Clairvaux he entered the Cistercian Order in the monastery of Clairvaux in 1138. A year he returned to Italy as leader of the Cistercian community in Scandriglia. In Autumn 1140, Pope Innocent II named him abbot of the monastery of S. Anastasio alle Tre Fontane outside Rome; some chronicles indicate that he was elevated to the College of Cardinals, but these testimonies resulted from a confusion because Bernardo is not attested as cardinal in any document and from the letter of Bernard of Clairvaux addressed to the cardinals shortly after his election appears that he was not a cardinal. Bernardo was elected pope on 15 February 1145, the same day as the death of his predecessor Lucius II who had unwisely decided to take the offensive against the Roman Senate and was killed by a "heavy stone" thrown at him during an attack on the Capitol, he took the pontifical name of "Eugene III". He was "a simple character and retiring - not at all, men thought, the material of which Popes are made".
He owed his elevation to the fact that no one was eager to accept an office the duties of which were at the time so difficult and dangerous and because the election was "held on safe Frangipani territory". His election was assisted by being a friend and pupil of Bernard of Clairvaux, the most influential ecclesiastic of the Western Church and a strong assertor of the pope's temporal authority; the choice did not have the approval of Bernard, who remonstrated against the election, writing to the entire Curia:"May God forgive you what you have done!... What reason or counsel, when the Supreme Pontiff was dead, made you rush upon a mere rustic, lay hands on him in his refuge, wrest from his hands the axe, pick or hoe, lift him to a throne?"Bernard was forthright in his views directly to Eugene, writing:"Thus does the finger of God raise up the poor out of the dust and lift up the beggar from the dunghill that he may sit with princes and inherit the throne of glory."Despite these criticisms, Eugene seems to have borne no resentment to Bernard and notwithstanding these criticisms, after the choice was made, Bernard took advantage of the qualities in Eugene III which he objected to, so as to rule in his name.
During nearly the whole of his pontificate, Eugene III was unable to reside in Rome. Hardly had he left the city to be consecrated in the monastery of Farfa, when the citizens, under the influence of Arnold of Brescia, the great opponent of the Pope's temporal power, established the old Roman constitution, the Commune of Rome and elected Giordano Pierleoni to be Patrician. Eugene III appealed for help to Tivoli, Italy, to other cities at feud with Rome, to King Roger II of Sicily, with their aid was successful in making such conditions with the Roman citizens as enabled him for a time to hold the semblance of authority in his capital, but as he would not agree to a treacherous compact against Tivoli, he was compelled to leave the city in March 1146. He stayed for some time at Viterbo, at Siena, but went to France. On hearing of the fall of Edessa to the Turks, which occurred in 1144, he had, in December 1145, addressed the bull Quantum praedecessores to Louis VII of France, calling on him to take part in another crusade.
At a great diet held at Speyer in 1146, King of the Romans Conrad III and many of his nobles were incited to dedicate themselves to the crusade by the eloquence of Bernard who preached to an enormous crowd at Vézelay. In the end, the Second Crusade was "an ignominious fiasco" and, after travelling for a year, the army abandoned their campaign after just five days of siege "having regained not one inch of Muslim territory." The crusaders suffered immense losses in both men and materiel and suffered, in the view of one modern historian, "the ultimate humiliation which neither they, nor their enemies, would forget". Eugene III held synods in northern Europe at Paris and Trier in 1147 that were devoted to the reform of clerical life, he considered and approved the works of Hildegard of Bingen. In June 1148, Eugene III took up his residence at Viterbo, he was unable to return to Rome due to the popularity of Arnold of Brescia, who opposed Papal temporal authority, in the city. He established himself at Prince Ptolemy's fortress in Tusculum, the closest town to Rome at which he could safely install himself, on 8 April 1149.
There he met the returning Crusader