click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Pope Eugene I

Pope Eugene I known as Eugenius I, was Bishop of Rome from 10 August 654 to his death in 657. He was a native of Rome, born to one Rufinianus. In June 653, in the midst of a dispute with Byzantine Emperor Constans II over Monothelitism, Pope Martin I was seized and carried to Constantinople and subsequently exiled to Cherson in the Crimea. In the pontiff's absence, the church was governed by the archpriest and the primicerius of the notaries. Over a year and with no sign of Martin's return, Eugene was chosen to succeed. If the emperor expected Eugene to take a different approach from that of his predecessor, he was disappointed. Little is known of Pope Eugene's early life other than that he was a Roman from the Aventine and was known for his holiness and charity, he had held various positions within the Church of Rome. On the banishment of Pope Martin I by Byzantine Emperor Constans II, he showed greater deference than his predecessor to the emperor's wishes and made no public stand against the Monothelitism of the patriarchs of Constantinople.

Martin I was carried off from Rome on 18 June 653 and was kept in exile until his death in September 655. Little is known about what happened in Rome after Pope Martin's departure, but it was typical in those days for the Holy See to be governed by the archpriest and archdeacon. After a year and two months, a successor was found to Martin in Eugene. After his election, Eugene was forced to deal with Monothelitism, the belief that Christ had only one will. One of the first acts of the new pope was to send papal legates to Constantinople with letters to Emperor Constans II informing him of his election and professing his faith; the legates were deceived, or bribed, brought back a synodical letter from Patriarch Peter of Constantinople, while the emperor's envoy, who accompanied them, brought offerings for Saint Peter and a request from the emperor that the pope would enter into communion with the Patriarch of Constantinople. Peter's letter proved to be written in a difficult and obscure style and avoided making any specific declaration as to the number of "wills or operations" in Christ.

When its contents were read to the clergy and people in the church of St. Mary Major in 656, they not only rejected the letter with indignation, but would not allow the pope to leave the basilica until he had promised that he would not on any account accept it. So furious were the Byzantine officials at this harsh rejection of the wishes of their emperor and patriarch that they threatened to roast Eugene, just as they had roasted Pope Martin I. Eugene's persecution was averted by the ensuing conquest of the Muslims, who took Rhodes in 654 and defeated Constans himself in the naval battle of Phoenix, it was certainly this pope who received the youthful Wilfrid on the occasion of his first visit to Rome. At Rome he gained the affection of Archdeacon Boniface, a counsellor of the apostolic pope, who presented him to his master. Eugene "placed his blessed hand on the head of the youthful servant of God, prayed for him, blessed him." Nothing more is known of Eugene except that he consecrated twenty-one bishops for different parts of the world, that he was buried in St. Peter's Basilica.

He died in 657 and was acclaimed a saint, his day being the 2nd of June, according to Anastasius, he died on the 1st of that month. List of popes List of Catholic saints The Book of Saints, by the Ramsgate Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine's AbbeyAttribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Eugenius". Encyclopædia Britannica. 9. Cambridge University Press; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Horace Kinder. "Pope St. Eugene I". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 5. New York: Robert Appleton. Saints. SQPN: Pope Eugene I Catholic Online: Pope Eugene I

Busolwe

Busolwe is a town in the Eastern Region of Uganda. It is one of the two municipalities in the other being Butaleja. Busolwe is 48 kilometres, by road, southwest of Mbale, the largest city in the sub-region; this is 11 kilometres, by road, southwest of Butaleja, the location of the district headquarters. The coordinates of the town are 0°50'57.0"N, 33°55'37.0"E. The 2002 national census recorded the population of Busolwe at 6276. In 2010, the Uganda Bureau of Statistics estimated the town's population at 8,300. In 2011, UBOS estimated the mid-year population at 8,500. In 2014, the national population census put the population at 16,730; the following points of interest are found in Busolwe or near its borders: Busolwe General Hospital, a 100-bed public hospital administered by the Uganda Ministry of Health Busolwe central market offices of Busolwe Town Council Busolwe Public Library Lunyole Language Association Hospitals in Uganda Butaleja District Information Portal Busolwe Public Lirary

John McCarten

John McCarten was an American writer who contributed about 1,000 pieces for The New Yorker, serving as the magazine's film critic from 1945 to 1960 and Broadway theatre critic from 1960 to 1967. McCarten was born in Philadelphia to an Irish-American family. After serving in the Merchant Marine he started writing for American Mercury and Time during the 1930s. In 1934 he joined The New Yorker and began contributing satirical short stories and irreverent profiles, he became the magazine's regular film critic in 1945, employing a writing style that tended to be terse and was condescending. He gained a reputation as something of a nemesis of Alfred Hitchcock in particular, whose films McCarten panned; the screenplay for the 1956 British romantic comedy film The Silken Affair was adapted from an idea by McCarten. In 1960 McCarten switched to theatre criticism. In July 1967 McCarten quit reviewing and moved to Ireland; the following year he submitted the first of his "Irish Sketches", a series of light pieces about Irish art and culture that ran in The New Yorker between February 24, 1968 and November 20, 1971.

John McCarten died of cancer at the age of 63. He had two sons; the New Yorker's obituary remembered him as "a witty writer. Yet, given the force of the opinions he would pronounce in conversation, one marvelled to observe his comparative gentleness in print. For, much as he might deplore certain human failings, he could never bear to injure those who embodied them, he learned to tell the truth about people in such a way that, far from feeling savaged, they felt praised."

Harold Hobson

Sir Harold Hobson was an English drama critic and author. He was born in Thorpe Hesley near Rotherham in England, he attended Sheffield Grammar School, from where he gained a scholarship to Oriel College at Oxford University, graduating with a second-class degree in Modern History in 1928. In 1931 he began to write London theatre reviews for the Christian Science Monitor and in 1935 he was employed on the paper's staff, remaining its London drama critic until 1974, he was an assistant literary editor for the Sunday Times from 1944 and became its drama critic. He was the only drama critic to recognise the early Harold Pinter's talent as a dramatist and wrote of The Birthday Party: "I am willing to risk whatever reputation I have as a judge of plays by saying... that Mr Pinter, on the evidence of this work, possesses the most original and arresting talent in theatrical London." During his career, he was to champion many other new playwrights John Osborne, Samuel Beckett and Tom Stoppard. Hobson wrote for Drama and The Listener and was a regular member of the BBC radio programme The Critics.

In the 1960s, he was invited by Peter Hall to join the board of the National Theatre. Hobson wrote a number of books relating to British and French theatre, including his autobiography, entitled Indirect Journey, a personal history based on his work as a drama critic, Theatre in Britain. Harold Hobson received a knighthood from Queen Elizabeth II in 1977

Argentina and the International Monetary Fund (IMF)

Argentina joined the International Monetary Fund on September 20, 1956 and has since participated in 21 IMF Arrangements. The first Stand-By Arrangement began on December 2, 1958, the most recent Stand-By Arrangement began on June 20, 2018, will expire on June 19, 2021; the most recent arrangement approved Argentina to borrow SDR 40,714.00 million, of which Argentina has borrowed SDR 31,913.71 million as of December 10, 2019. Over the past 63 years, Argentina has used the resources of the IMF and holds the record for the largest loan distributed, reaching nearly $57 billion in 2018. However, in 2006 under the leadership of Néstor Kirchner, Argentina was able to pay off its debts, thus escaping Article IV IMF surveillance. In 2016 under the leadership of Mauricio Macri relations between the IMF and Argentina were reestablished due to the continuous decline of the country's GDP, leading to the 2018 arrangement. November 30th marks the beginning of the 2001 economic crisis in Argentina caused by the rising fear at how the Argentinian peso was being devalued.

This crisis was caused in part by the extensive borrowing Argentina implemented during the presidency of Carlos Menem, the governments dwindling tax revenue. On December 5th, 2001 the IMF made an announcement that they would no longer provide aid due to Argentina's inability to meet the conditionality set by the IMF to receive loans. President Aldolfo Rodriguez Saá resigned shortly after the announcement of Argentina’s default; the 2018 Arrangement allowed Argentina the option to purchase US$15 billion while the remainder of the funds would be disbursed at the discretion of the Executive Board's quarterly review throughout the three year arrangement period. As of 2018, Argentina is ranked the 24th largest economy with a GDP of US$518,475 million, the GDP has continued to decline throughout the Macri presidency; the goals of the 2018 Stand-By Arrangement are "to strengthen the country’s economy by restoring market confidence via a consistent macroeconomic program that lessens financing needs, puts Argentina’s public debt on a firm downward trajectory, strengthens the plan to reduce inflation by setting more realistic inflation targets and reinforcing the independence of the central bank".

Furthermore, the goal of the Arrangement is intended to bolster social spending and continue on the trajectory of spending for healthcare, implemented. As of October 27, 2019, Alberto Fernández won the presidency in the general election against Mauricio Macri among others. Fernández's presidential term begins December 10, 2019. In a 2019 press briefing with the IMF, it is stated that Alberto Fernández "hopes the IMF will help Argentina pay down its debt". Many account Fernández's victory to the economic failures of his predecessor Mauricio Macri and the fear that Argentina may default on their 2018 SBA as they did in 2001 after mass economic decline within their economy; as of 2019 in Argentina, 25.4% of households live under the poverty line and 35.4% of the general population is living in poverty. Recent telephone communication between the IMF Managing Director, Kristalina Georgieva, president-elect Alberto Fernández indicate that both parties hope to “pursue an open dialogue for the benefit of the Argentinian people”

Rue Saint-Séverin, Paris

The rue Saint-Séverin is a sometimes boisterous street running parallel to the river in the north of Paris' Latin Quarter. Lined with restaurants and souvenir shoppes, much of its commerce is dedicated to tourism. One of Paris' oldest churches, the Église Saint-Séverin, lies midway along this street's length; the rue Saint-Séverin is one of Paris' oldest streets, as it dates from its quarter's creation in the early 13th century. At first existing only between the rue de la Harpe and the rue Saint-Jacques, it was extended westwards from the former street to join the Rue Saint-André-des-Arts; the rue Saint-Séverin reclaimed the remnants of the ancient rue du Macon upon the construction of the boulevard Saint-Michel from 1867, but from 1971 this isolated westward portion was renamed the Rue Francisque-Gay. Former Names: Between the rue de la Harpe and the rue Saint-Jacques, this street was called the "rue Colin Pochet" in the 16th century. 7, 9, 11 - Buildings dating from the 17th century. 13 - Building still having its "name sign" that predated addresses - this one "Le Cygne de la Croix".

4 - Engraving of streetname on building corner. "St" scratched away. 6 - Alleyway existing in 1239. 8 - Door and alleyway dating from the 16th century. 20 - 17th-century "rotisserie". 22 - 17th century hotel. 24-26 - Street name engraved on building corners. 34 - Building dating from the 17th century. Remarkable doorway, arch engravings and stairway. 36 - Building known as l'auberge de "l'Étoile" in 1660. The Great Cat Massacre Hillairet, Jacques. Connaissance du Vieux Paris. Rivages. ISBN 2-86930-648-2. Mairie de Paris - "Nomenclature des Voies: rue Saint-Séverin". Retrieved February 17, 2006