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Pope Gregory II

Pope Gregory II was Bishop of Rome from 19 May 715 to his death in 731. His defiance of the Byzantine emperor Leo III the Isaurian as a result of the iconoclastic controversy in the Eastern Empire prepared the way for a long series of revolts and civil wars that led to the establishment of the temporal power of the popes. Born into a noble Roman family in the year 669, Gregory was the son of Honesta; as a young man, he was placed in the papal court, was made a subdeacon and sacellarius of the Roman See during the pontificate of Pope Sergius I. He was made a deacon and placed in charge of the Vatican Library. During the pontificate of Pope Constantine, Gregory was made a papal secretary, accompanied him to Constantinople in 711 to deal with the issues raised by Rome’s rejection of the canons of the Quinisext Council; the actual negotiations on the contentious articles were handled by Gregory, with the result that the emperor Justinian II agreed that the Papacy could disregard whichever of the council’s decisions it wished to.

After Constantine’s death on 9 April 715, Gregory was elected pope, was consecrated as Bishop of Rome on 19 May 715. Gregory began the task of repairing the Walls of Rome, beginning at the Porta Tiburtina. Work on this task was delayed in October 716 when the Tiber river burst its banks and flooded Rome, causing immense damage and only receding after eight days. Gregory ordered a number of litanies to be said to stem the floods, which spread over the Campus Martius and the so-called Plains of Nero, reaching the foot of the Capitoline Hill; the first year of his pontificate saw a letter arrive from Patriarch John VI of Constantinople, who attempted to justify his support of Monothelitism, while at the same time seeking sympathy from the pope over the position he was in, with respect to the emperor. Gregory responded by sending a letter outlining the traditional Roman position against Monothelitism. In 716, Gregory received an official visit from Theodo, the Duke of Bavaria, to discuss the continuing conversion of his lands to Christianity.

As a result of this meeting, Gregory gave specific instructions to his delegates who were to travel to Bavaria, coordinate with the duke, establish a local church hierarchy, overseen by an archbishop. Gregory maintained an interest in Bavaria. Gregory next turned his attention to Germany. In 718, he was approached by an Anglo-Saxon missionary, who proposed undertaking missionary work in Germany. Gregory agreed, after changing his name to Boniface, commissioned him in May 719 to preach in Germany. After hearing of the work, done so far, in 722 Gregory summoned Boniface back to Rome to answer rumours concerning Boniface’s doctrinal purity. At this face to face meeting, Boniface complained that he found Gregory’s Latin difficult to understand, a clear indication that Vulgar Latin had started to evolve into the Romance languages. After examining Boniface’s written profession of faith, Gregory was satisfied enough that he made Boniface a bishop in November 722, returned him to Germany to continue his mission.

Continued successes saw Gregory write to Boniface in December 724 to offer his congratulations, followed in November 726 by a response to Boniface’s questions about how to structure the newly emergent churches in Germany. Gregory strengthened papal authority in the churches of Britain and Ireland. In 726 Gregory was visited by Ine, the former King of Wessex, who had abdicated the throne in order to undertake a pilgrimage to Rome and end his life there. Gregory concerned himself with establishing or restoring monasteries, he turned his family mansion in Rome into a monastery, St. Agatha in Suburra, endowing it with expensive and precious vessels for use at the altar, established a new church, dedicated to Sant'Eustachio. In 718 he restored Monte Cassino, which had not recovered from an attack by the Lombards in 584, he intervened in a dispute at the Monastery of St. Vincent on the Volturno over the deposition of the abbot. In 721, Gregory held a synod in Rome, for the purpose of fixing issues around illegitimate marriages.

In 723, the longstanding dispute between the patriarchs of Aquileia and Grado flared up again. Upon the request of the Lombard king, Gregory had given the pallium to Bishop Serenus, granting him the patriarchate of Aquileia. Soon afterwards, Gregory received a letter from Donatus, Patriarch of Grado, complaining that Serenus had overstepped his authority, was interfering within what was Grado’s ecclesiastical jurisdiction. At the same time, Gregory reprimanded Donatus for complaining about Gregory’s decision to grant the pallium to Serenus in the first place. In 725, upon Donatus’ death, the Grado patriarchate was usurped by Peter, the Bishop of Pola. Gregory responded by depriving Peter of both sees, he wrote to the people of the diocese, reminding them to only elect bishops in accordance with church law, whereupon they elected Antoninus, with Gregory’s approval. Gregory mandated a number of practices within the Church, he decreed that in Lent, on the Thursdays, people should fast, just as they were required to do during the other days of the week.

The practice had been frowned upon by popes of previous centuries, as pagans had fasted on Thursday as part of their worship of Jupiter. He prescribed the offices to be said during church services on Thursdays in Lent, as prior to this, the Mass of the preceding Sunday was said on those Thursdays. Gregory attempted to remain on good diplomat

SMS Siegfried

SMS Siegfried was the lead ship of the six-member Siegfried class of coastal defense ships built for the German Imperial Navy. Her sister ships were Beowulf, Heimdall and Hagen. Siegfried was built by the Germaniawerft shipyard between 1888 and 1890, was armed with a main battery of three 24-centimeter guns, she served in the German fleet throughout the 1890s and was rebuilt in 1903 - 1904. She served in the VI Battle Squadron after the outbreak of World War I in August 1914, but saw no action. Siegfried was used as a barracks ship thereafter, she was broken up for scrap in 1920. In the late 1880s, the German Kaiserliche Marine grappled with the problem of what type of capital ship to build in the face of limited naval budgets. General Leo von Caprivi, the new Chef der Admiralität, requested a series of design proposals, which ranged in size from small 2,500 long tons coastal defense ships to heavily-armed 9,800 long tons ocean-going battleships. Caprivi ordered ten coastal defense ships to guard the entrances to the canal, since opponents of the navy in the Reichstag agreed that such vessels were necessary.

The first six of these, the Siegfried class, were based on the smallest proposal. Siegfried had a beam of 14.90 m and a maximum draft of 5.74 m. She displaced 3,741 long tons at full combat load, her propulsion system consisted of two vertical 3-cylinder triple-expansion engines, making her the first major German warship to be powered by triple-expansion machinery. Steam for the engines was provided by four coal-fired boilers; the ship's propulsion system provided a top speed of 14.9 knots and a range of 1,490 nautical miles at 10 knots. Siegfried had a crew of 256 enlisted men; the ship was armed with three 24 cm K L/35 guns mounted in three single gun turrets. Two were placed side by side forward, the third was located aft of the main superstructure, they were supplied with a total of 204 rounds of ammunition. The ship was equipped with six 8.8 cm SK L/30 guns in single mounts. Siegfried carried four 35 cm torpedo tubes, all in swivel mounts on the deck. One was at the bow, another at the stern, two amidships.

The ship was protected by an armored belt, 240 mm amidships, an armored deck, 30 mm thick. The conning tower had 80 mm thick sides. Siegfried was laid down in 1888 at the Germaniawerft shipyard in Kiel, she was launched on 10 August 1889, completed on 19 April 1890. She was commissioned into the fleet on 29 April, joined the I Division of the German fleet, along with the older ironclads Baden and Oldenburg, under Vizeadmiral Karl Deinhard; the I Division participated in several fleet maneuvers in 1891, where they served as the German side in the war games. Siegfried did not participate in the 1892 maneuvers, having been replaced in the I Division by her recently-commissioned sister ship Beowulf. Over the winter of 1892 - 1893, Siegfried and Beowulf joined the elderly ironclads König Wilhelm and Deutschland for a winter training cruise in the Mediterranean Sea. Siegfried again sat out the 1893 fleet maneuvers, instead of her sister Frithjof, which had just joined the fleet. In the 1897 maneuvers and all five of her sister ships formed the III Division.

In 1898, Siegfried again participated in the annual summer maneuvers in the III Division, along with Beowulf and Hildebrand. Her other three sisters were assigned to the IV Division. During the 1900 summer maneuvers, Siegfried served in the simulated hostile squadron, alongside Heimdall, Ägir. Siegfried served on active duty until 1903. Starting in 1903, she was taken into drydock at the Kaiserliche Werft shipyard in Danzig for an extensive reconstruction; the ship was lengthened to 86.13 m, which increased displacement to 4,237 t. Her old boilers were replaced with eight new Marine type boilers, a second funnel was added, her secondary battery was increased to ten 8.8 cm guns, the 35 cm torpedo tubes were replaced with three 45 cm tubes. Work was completed by 1904, she was brought back on active duty at the outbreak of World War I in August 1914, mobilized into VI Battle Squadron for coastal defense, along with her sister ships and the two Odin-class coastal defense ships. On 31 August 1915, VI Battle Squadron was demobilized, Siegfried's crew was transferred to other warships.

She was used as a barracks ship in Wilhelmshaven, a role she filled until the end of the war. On 17 June 1919, she was stricken from the naval register; the navy planned to convert her into a salvage ship, but the plan was abandoned and she was instead sold for 425,000 marks to H. Peters in Wewelsfleth. Siegfried was broken up for scrap the following year in Kiel-Nordmole. Dodson, Aidan; the Kaiser's Battlefleet: German Capital Ships 1871–1918. Barnsley: Seaforth Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84832-229-5. Gardiner, Robert, ed.. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1860–1905. Greenwich: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 978-0-8317-0302-8. Gardiner, Robert & Gray, eds.. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships: 1906–1921. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-907-3. Gröner, Erich. German Warships: 1815–1945. Vol. I: Major Surface Vessels. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-0-87021-790-6. "Notes on Naval Progress". General Information Series. Government Printing Office

No Night Is Too Long (novel)

No Night is Too Long is a 1994 crime / mystery novel depicting a bisexual love triangle, a possible murder and the aftermath. The book was penned by British writer Ruth Rendell. Set in Alaska and Suffolk, this story is written in three first-person narrations, the first and longest of, the memoir-confession of Tim Cornish. Tim, a would-be novelist of twenty-four, has just received his master's degree, he travels to Alaska for a nature-exploration cruise with his older male lover, Ivo, a paleontologist who will be lecturing during the cruise. Tim has been living with and supported by Ivo, since Ivo's recent declaration of love, Tim has tired of him. Ashore in Juneau while Ivo is elsewhere, Tim meets Isabel, an unhappily married, somewhat older woman, with whom Tim falls in love, he promises to meet her in Seattle after breaking up with Ivo; when Tim tells Ivo their relationship is over, Ivo refuses to accept it. On an excursion to an uninhabited island, the two men tussle. Leaving Ivo for dead, Tim flees the island and rejoins the cruise, saying nothing of what has happened.

Tim helps himself to the cash and credit card Ivo left behind and flies to Seattle, hoping to find Isabel, but his guilt causes him to abandon that plan and he returns to the UK, where he settles into an unchallenging job in his hometown and lives alone in his parents' house. As there has been no word of a police inquiry and no report of the finding of Ivo's body, Tim seems to have committed the perfect crime, though he is haunted by what he has done, believing he sees Ivo everywhere, he begins to receive a series of anonymous letters, each of which describes the island ordeal—and rescue—of a castaway. Isabel's own brief memoir, in the form of a letter of sorts to Ivo, a concluding letter to his wife by a schoolboy friend of Tim's who becomes Tim's solicitor, complete the book, which explores questions of sexual identity and guilt; the BBC produced a film dramatisation of the novel in 2002, starring Marc Warren as Ivo Steadman and Lee Williams as Tim Cornish

2010 Tour de France

The 2010 Tour de France was the 97th edition of the Tour de France cycle race, one of cycling's Grand Tours. It started on 3 July with an 8.9 km prologue time trial in Rotterdam, the first start in the Netherlands since 1996. The race visited three countries: the Netherlands and France, finished on 25 July on the Champs-Élysées in Paris; the total length was 3,642 kilometres including 60.9 kilometres in time-trials. Following an opening prologue time trial, the first three stages passed through the Netherlands and Belgium on routes designed to replicate some features of the spring classic cycle races; this included seven cobblestone sectors totaling 13.2 kilometres, the longest distance of cobblestones in the Tour since 1983, on stage 3. There were six mountain stages, three of them with mountaintop finishes, two medium mountain stages. In the 100th anniversary year of their first inclusion on the Tour, the emphasis was on the Pyrenees, with two ascents of the Col du Tourmalet; the Tour was won by Alberto Contador, revealed to have failed a doping test.

After a series of events, the CAS decided in February 2012 that Contador lost his results from 2010, declaring Andy Schleck the new winner. Schleck won the young riders' competition for the third time running. France's Anthony Charteau won the polkadot jersey as the King of the Mountains whilst the Italian sprinter Alessandro Petacchi won the green jersey for victory in the points classification. Twenty-two teams accepted invitations to participate in the 2010 Tour de France. Sixteen of the teams were covered by a September 2008 agreement with the Union Cycliste Internationale, including two no longer part of the UCI ProTour; the sixteen teams were: Six other teams, including the four ProTour teams not guaranteed a place, accepted their invitations. The teams entering the race were:Qualified teams Invited teams: Teams not part of the ProTour. Before the start of the race, Contador was the overall race favourite. Among the other favourites were Andy Schleck, Cadel Evans, Lance Armstrong; the US media, led by the US Tour broadcaster Versus, pitched the race as a showdown between Contador and Armstrong, both multi-tour champions going in.

It has been since pointed out, that Armstrong's chances were exaggerated prior to the race. The official Tour presentation was held on 14 October 2009, it was the third consecutive Grand Tour to begin in the Netherlands, as the 2009 Vuelta a España began in Assen, the 2010 Giro d'Italia in Amsterdam. The race consisted of nine flat stages, six mountain stages, four medium mountain stages, two individual time trials, one of them being the opening prologue in Rotterdam; the race started in Rotterdam with a 9 km prologue won by Fabian Cancellara. Sylvain Chavanel claimed the lead from Cancellara on Stage 2, after a massive crash which involved many riders, most notably Andy Schleck, a contender for overall victory, Alessandro Petacchi; the riders in the peloton chose to wait for the fallen riders. However, on the cobbles of Stage 3, Cancellara retook the overall lead. Fränk Schleck had to retire from the race, having sustained a collarbone fracture on a crash which delayed many of the riders in the peloton, including Contador and Armstrong who were hopeful of finishing high in the general classification.

A number of their rivals, including Cancellara, Andy Schleck, Cadel Evans and Thor Hushovd, were ahead of the crash and so were able to gain a time advantage. On the same stage, Tony Martin, wearing the white jersey since the prologue, lost it to Geraint Thomas, after winning the stage, Thor Hushovd took the lead in the points On Stage 7 Chavanel again raced away from the field to take his second stage win and maillot jaune of the 2010 edition of the race, whilst Andy Schleck took the young riders' classification lead from Thomas. Evans took the yellow jersey from Chavanel the following day on Stage 8, in turn lost the lead to Schleck on Stage 9 following a rest day. In Stage 11, Petacchi took the green jersey from Hushovd. On Stage 15 Schleck was race leader and pressing the pace over the day's final climb of Port de Bales when he threw his chain. Contador and Denis Menchov moved to the front and attacked, pressing the advantage over the crest of the climb and all the way back down into Bagneres-de-Luchon.

They were aided by Sammy Sanchez and two others making a group of five riders, all looking to gain time. Schleck had no other riders to help bridge the gap. By stage's end, he had lost 39 seconds to Contador. Contador, who now had an eight-second lead in the race, met with a mixed reception as he received the yellow jersey on the podium at the end of the stage. Contador said that he did not know that Schleck had technical trouble, that he had launched an attack by but review of the race shows that he was chasing an attack by Schleck, that he nearly struck Schleck as he moved past him, that he looked back on the climb while Schleck struggled to close down the gap. Hours he apologised for the incident. Although he was criticised by Sean Kelly and a number of riders both past and current, he found support from the likes of Bernard Hinault, Miguel Indurain, Eddy Merckx and Laurent Jalabert. Cervélo team owner Gerard Vroomen commented: "Contador just gained a great chance to win, but he lost the chance to win greatly."

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Glen Drover

Glen Drover is a Canadian heavy metal guitarist from Ontario, Canada. Drover is best known as the former lead guitarist in Megadeth and King Diamond, along with his brother Shawn Drover who performed with Megadeth. Glen Drover began playing guitar as a child, was joined at age 10 by his brother Shawn on drums; the Drover brothers formed the band Eidolon in 1994. In 1998, Drover joined King Diamond, completed two North American tours, appeared on the House of God album. In October 2004, Drover joined the heavy metal band Megadeth. Following an extensive world tour, Drover contributed to Megadeth's 2007 release, United Abominations as the lead guitarist and with co-writing credits for one song. In January 2008 Drover left Megadeth to focus on family life, his last show with Megadeth was on November 2007 in Brisbane, Australia. Commenting on leaving the band, Drover said "I am aware of the rumors that I left Megadeth to focus on family life and my family life has always been my priority. In the end, I was unhappy with the situation, which magnified me wanting to spend more time with my family and realizing that it's time for me to move on to the next chapter in my musical career, I have a lot of great memories and met a ton of great people along the way, both fans and people in the industry."

Drover recorded a 10 track instrumental CD. The album, titled Metalusion, was recorded sporadically over a 2-plus-year period, it was released on April 5, 2011. The album contained cover versions of songs from Al Dimeola, Jean Luc Ponty, Frank Zappa, as well as original material written by members Jim Gilmour and Paul Yee. On October 22, 2008, Testament announced that they had recruited guitarist Glen Drover to fill in on their upcoming Mexican tour dates with Judas Priest, due to Alex Skolnick's prior commitment to the Trans-Siberian Orchestra. In March 2010, during the time of him trying to finish his album, Glen Drover played with Testament on the Megadeth, Exodus tour in the US and Canada, due to Alex Skolnick being away again during this time. After lead singer Geoff Tate was fired from the band Queensrÿche in June 2012, Tate announced his own lineup on September 1, 2012, which included Drover, but on November 23, 2012, Drover left the band, stating: "I was excited about doing this gig but learned in the past week or so that it's in my best interest not to do this right now.

I sincerely wish the Geoff and the band all the luck on what they do in the future." Drover would explain that: "he musical direction of where Geoff wanted to go wasn't what I wanted to go forward with. I'm more into the original template of the band. For me, when I think of the band, I think of those records."In 2014, Drover collaborated with La Torre on a single called "Discordia". Eidolon 1993–2007 King Diamond 1998–2000 Megadeth 2004–2008 Testament 10/27/2008 – October 31, 2008, 3/1/10–3/31/10 Geoff Tate 09/01/2012 – November 23, 2012 Sacred Shrine Zero Hour Seven Spirits NightMare World Hallowed Apparition Coma Nation Apostles of Defiance The Parallel Otherworld Northern Light Orchestra House of God Arsenal of Megadeth That One Night: Live in Buenos Aires United Abominations Metalusion Walls Of Blood

Swiftia comauensis

Swiftia comauensis species of gorgonian-type octocoral in the family Plexauridae, only found in the Comau fiords of Huinay in the Hualaihué province of the region of Los Lagos, Chile. Like the other cold corals, the stony corals of the Comau fiord region, Desmopyhllum dianthus, Caryophyllia huinayensis and Tethocyathus endesa they found in unusually shallow water on fiord walls 15m down and below, its complex network of fiords and islands has made it popular with industrial salmon aquaculture, as well as significant mussel farms. It is threatened with extinction from aquaculture dropping faeces, or nutrients firstly causing sedimentation, secondly supporting the conditions for harmful algal blooms through primary production and eutrophication; this is supplemented by internationally significant use of antibiotics, copper from antifouling, abandoned gear and invasive salmon species escapees. It is threatened by sedimentation and smothering from a new road proposed close to the fiord walls where the remaining population is found.

Historic overfishing from long lines and shellfish diving has been a concern. The marine indigenous community of Mañihueico-Huinay are concerned for its future and are looking for international support in its preservation, as well as those other cold coral species threatened listed above. Breedy, O. Cairns, S. D. & Haeussermann, V.. A new alcyonacean octocoral from Chilean fjords. Zootaxa, 3919: 327–334. Försterra, G. Häussermann, V. Laudien, J. Jantzen, C. Sellanes, J. & Muñoz, P.. Mass die-off of the cold-water coral Desmophyllum dianthus in the Chilean Patagonian fjord region. Bulletin of Marine Science, 90, 895-899. Försterra, G. Häussermann, V. & Laudien, J.. Animal Forests in the Chilean Fjords: Discoveries and Threats in Shallow and Deep Waters. Marine Animal Forests: The Ecology of Benthic Biodiversity Hotspots, 277-313