Pope Paul II
Pope Paul II, born Pietro Barbo, was Pope from 30 August 1464 to his death in 1471. Paul was born in a nephew of Pope Eugenius IV through his mother. Through his father he was a member of the noble Barbo family, his adoption of the spiritual career, after having been trained as a merchant, was prompted by his uncle's election as pope. His consequent promotion was rapid, he boasted. After having been lay abbot of Santa Maria in Sylvis since 1441, in 1445 he succeeded Giuliano Cesarini as archpriest of the Vatican Basilica. Platina reported that Pius II suggested he should have been called Maria Pietissima, as "when he could not obtain what he aimed at by praying and requesting, he would join tears to his petitions to make them the sooner believed." Some historians have suggested the nickname may have been an allusion either to Paul's propensity to enjoy dressing up in sumptuous ecclesiastical finery, or a lack of masculinity reflecting possible homosexuality. He was elected to succeed Pope Pius II by the accessus in the first ballot of the papal conclave of 1464 with a majority of fourteen of the nineteen cardinals present.
Beforehand, to secure to the cardinals a greater share of power than they had enjoyed under Pius II, a capitulation was subscribed by all except Ludovico Trevisan. It bound the future Pope to continue the Turkish war, but he was not to journey outside Rome without the consent of a majority of the cardinals, nor to leave Italy without the consent of all; the maximum number of cardinals was limited to twenty-four, any new Pope was to be limited to only one cardinal-nephew. All creations of new cardinals and advancements to certain important benefices were to be made only with the consent of the College of Cardinals. Upon taking office, Paul II was to convene an ecumenical council within three years, but these terms of subscription were modified by Paul II at his own discretion, this action lost him the confidence of the College of Cardinals. The justification for setting aside the capitulations, seen to be under way by the Duke of Milan's ambassador as early as 21 September, lay in connecting any abridgement of the Pope's absolute monarchy in the Papal States with a consequent abridgement of his sole authority in spiritual matters.
From his coronation, Paul withdrew and became inaccessible: audiences were only granted at night and good friends waited a fortnight to see him. His suspiciousness was attested, he wore rouge in public. The story of Cardinal Ammanati that he meant to take the name Formosus II, but was persuaded not to, is more repeated than the story that he was dissuaded from Marcus, being Venetian and the Cardinal of San Marco, because it was the war-cry of Venice, he had a papal tiara made for his own use studded with "diamonds, emeralds, large pearls, every kind of precious gem". He built the Palazzo San Marco and lived there as pope, amassing a great collection of art and antiquities. A sore point was his abuse of the practice of creating cardinals in pectore, without publishing their names. Eager to raise new cardinals to increase the number who were devoted to his interests, but restricted by the terms of the capitulation, which gave the College a voice in the creation of new members, in the winter of 1464–65 Paul created two secret cardinals both of whom died before their names could be published.
In his fourth year as Pope, he created eight new cardinals on 18 September 1467. Five were candidates pressed by kings, placating James II of Cyprus, Edward IV of England, Louis XI of France, Matthias Corvinus of Hungary and Ferdinand I of Naples. Two further cardinal-nephews were added on 21 November 1468. In a sign of his increasing secretiveness and paranoia, he added two more cardinals secretly at the same consistory, four more at the beginning of 1471, expecting to reveal them only in his testament. Tensions with the College of Cardinals came to the fore when in 1466, attempting to eliminate redundant offices, Paul II proceeded to annul the College of Abbreviators, whose function it was to formulate papal documents. Bartolomeo Platina, one of these, wrote a threatening letter to the Pope, was imprisoned, but discharged. However, in February 1468, Platina was again imprisoned on the charge of having participated in a conspiracy against the Pope, was tortured along with other abbreviators, such as Filip Callimachus, who fled to Poland in 1478, all of whom had been accused of pagan views.
Not unaccountably, Platina, in his Vitae pontificum, set forth an unfavorable delineation of the character of Paul II. Though Platina's writing after the conflict would tarnish the legacy of Paul II, the conflict would prove to have a greater effect on the intellectual environment of Rome. Peter Partner explains, "Probably its most important result was to convince men of letters that cultural conformity would be enforced in Rome." More tangibly, after the crackdown of Paul II, the Roman Academy took on a more religious flavour, turning in part to theology as a means of legitimizing its pursuits. Pope Paul rejected King George of Poděbrady of Bohemia because he upheld the conventions of the Council of Basel in favor of the Utr
Pope Paul IV
Pope Paul IV, C. R. born Gian Pietro Carafa, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 23 May 1555 to his death in 1559. While serving as papal nuncio in Spain, he developed an anti-Spanish outlook that coloured his papacy. A part of Papal States was invaded by Spain during his papacy and in response to this, he called for a French military intervention. To avoid a conflict at the same time of the Italian War of 1551–1559, the Papacy and Spain reached a compromise with the Treaty of Cave: French and Spanish forces left the Papal States and the Pope adopted a neutral stance between France and Spain. Carafa was appointed bishop of Chieti, but resigned in 1524 in order to found with St. Cajetan the Congregation of Clerics Regular. Recalled to Rome, made Archbishop of Naples, he was instrumental in setting up the Roman Inquisition, was opposed to any dialogue with the emerging Protestant party in Europe. Carafa was elected pope in 1555 through the influence of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese in the face of opposition from Emperor Charles V.
His papacy was characterized by strong nationalism in reaction to the influence of Philip II of Spain and the Habsburgs. He compelled the Jews of Rome to confine themselves to a ghetto; the appointment of Carlo Carafa as Cardinal Nephew damaged the papacy further when Paul was forced to remove him from office following a scandal. He curbed many clerical abuses in Rome. Gian Pietro Carafa was born in Capriglia Irpina, near Avellino, into a prominent noble family of Naples, his father Giovanni Antonio Carafa died in West Flanders in 1516 and his mother Vittoria Camponeschi was the daughter of Pietro Lalle Camponeschi, 5th Conte di Montorio, a Neapolitan nobleman, wife Dona Maria de Noronha, a Portuguese noblewoman of the House of Pereira. He was mentored by Cardinal Oliviero Carafa, his relative, who resigned the see of Chieti in his favour. Under the direction of Pope Leo X, he was ambassador to England and papal nuncio in Spain, where he conceived a violent detestation of Spanish rule that affected the policies of his papacy.
However, in 1524, Pope Clement VII allowed Carafa to resign his benefices and join the ascetic and newly founded Congregation of Clerks Regular, popularly called the Theatines, after Carafa's see of Theate. Following the sack of Rome in 1527, the order moved to Venice, but Carafa was recalled to Rome by the reform-minded Pope Paul III, to sit on a committee of reform of the papal court, an appointment that forecast an end to a humanist papacy and a revival of scholasticism, for Carafa was a thorough disciple of Thomas Aquinas. In December 1536 he was made Cardinal-Priest of S. Pancrazio and Archbishop of Naples; the Regensburg Colloquy in 1541 failed to achieve any measure of reconciliation between Catholics and Protestants in Europe, but instead saw a number of prominent Italians defect to the Protestant camp. In response, Carafa was able to persuade Pope Paul III to set up a Roman Inquisition, modelled on the Spanish Inquisition with himself as one of the Inquisitors-General; the Papal Bull was promulgated in 1542 and Carafa vowed, "Even if my own father were a heretic, I would gather the wood to burn him".
He was a surprise choice as pope to succeed Pope Marcellus II. He accepted because Emperor Charles V was opposed to his accession; as pope his nationalism was a driving force. Like Pope Paul III, he was an enemy of the Colonna family, his treatment of Giovanna d'Aragona, who had married into that family, drew further negative comment from Venice. This because she had long been a patron of writers; as Cardinal-nephew, Carlo Carafa became his uncle's chief political adviser. Having accepted a pension from the French, Cardinal Carafa worked to secure a French alliance. Carlo's older brother Giovanni was made commander of the papal forces and Duke of Paliano after the pro-Spanish Colonna were deprived of that town in 1556. Another nephew, was given command of the Papal guard and made Marquis of Montebello, their conduct became notorious in Rome. However at the conclusion of the disastrous war with Philip II of Spain in the Italian War of 1551–59 and after many scandals, in 1559 the Pope publicly disgraced his nephews and banished them from Rome.
With the Protestant Reformation, the Papacy required all Roman Catholic rulers to consider Protestant rulers as heretics, thus making their realms illegitimate under customary international law. Europe's Catholic monarchs considered Ireland a feudal fief of the Papacy, to be granted to any Catholic sovereign who managed to secure the island Kingdom from the control of its Protestant monarchs. Paul IV issued a papal bull in 1555, per quem Reges regnant, recognising Philip and Mary as King and Queen of England and its dominions including Ireland, he angered people in England by insisting on the restitution of property confiscated during the dissolution, rejected the claim of Elizabeth I of England to the Crown. Paul IV was violently opposed to the liberal Giovanni Cardinal Morone whom he suspected of being a hidden Protestant, so much that he had him imprisoned. In order to prevent Morone from succeeding him and imposing what he believed to be his Protestant beliefs on the Church, Pope Paul IV codified the Catholic Law excluding heretics and non-Catholics from receiving or legitimately becoming Pope, in the bull Cum ex apostolatus officio.
Paul IV was rigidly orthodox, aus
Pope Paul V
Pope Paul V, born Camillo Borghese, was pope from 16 May 1605 to his death in 1621. He is best remembered today as the pope. Camillo Borghese was born in Rome on 17 September 1550 into the Borghese family of Siena which had established itself in Rome, he was the eldest son of seven sons of the lawyer and Sienese patrician Marcantonio Borghese and his wife Flaminia Astalli, a Roman noblewoman. In June 1596 Camillo was made the Cardinal-Priest of Sant'Eusebio and the Cardinal Vicar of Rome by Pope Clement VIII, had as his secretary Niccolò Alamanni. During this time, he opted for other titular churches like Santi Giovanni e Paolo. Clement VIII bestowed upon him episcopal consecration in 1597 after his appointment as Bishop of Iesi. Bishop Borghese retained the diocese of Iesi until 1599; when Pope Leo XI died, 1605, Cardinal Borghese became pope over a number of candidates including Caesar Baronius and Roberto Cardinal Bellarmine. In character he was stern and unyielding, a lawyer rather than diplomat, who defended the privileges of the Church to his utmost.
His first act was to send home to their sees the bishops who were sojourning in Rome, for the Council of Trent had insisted that every bishop reside in his diocese. Soon after his accession as Pope Paul V, Borghese determined to humiliate Venice, as his predecessor had done, for attempting to preserve its independence from the papacy in the administration of its government. Paul met with Galileo Galilei in 1616 after Cardinal Bellarmine had, on his orders, warned Galileo not to hold or defend the heliocentric ideas of Copernicus. Whether there was an order not to teach those ideas in any way has been a matter for controversy. A letter from Bellarmine to Galileo states only the injunction that the heliocentric ideas could not be defended or held. Paul V canonised Charles Borromeo on 1 November 1610 and Frances of Rome on 29 May 1608, he canonized Pompejanus in 1615 and canonized Cardinal Albert de Louvain on 9 August 1621. He beatified a number of individuals which included Ignatius Loyola, Philip Neri, Theresa of Avila, Aloysius Gonzaga, Francis Xavier.
The pope created 60 cardinals in ten consistories held during his pontificate. He named his nephew Scipione Borghese as a cardinal and named Alessandro Ludovisi as a cardinal. Paul's insistence of ecclesiastical jurisdiction led to a number of quarrels between the Church and the secular governments of various states, notably Venice, where patricians, such as Ermolao Barbaro of the noble Barbaro family, argued in favor of the exemption of the clergy from the jurisdiction of the civil courts. Venice passed two laws obnoxious to Paul, one forbidding the alienation of real estate in favour of the clergy, the second demanding approval of the civil power for the building of new churches. Two priests charged by the Venetian state with cruelty, wholesale poisoning and licentiousness, were arrested by the Senate and put in dungeons for trial. Having been found guilty, they were committed to prison. Paul V insisted, he demanded the release of the priests as not being amenable to the secular law. When this was refused, the Pope threatened an interdict on account of the property laws and the imprisonment of ecclesiastics, which threat was presented to the Senate on Christmas 1605.
The Venetian position was ably defended by a canon lawyer, Paolo Sarpi, who extended the matter to general principles defining separate secular and ecclesiastical spheres. In April 1606 the Pope excommunicated the entire government of Venice and placed an interdict on the city. Father Sarpi advised the Venetian government to refuse to receive the Pope's interdict, to reason with him while opposing force by force; the Venetian Senate willingly accepted this advice and Fra Paolo presented the case to Paul V, urging from history that the Pope's claim to intermeddle in civil matters was a usurpation. The rest of the Catholic clergy sided with the city, with the exception of the Jesuits, the Theatines, the Capuchins; the dissenting clergy were forthwith expelled from Venetian territories. Masses continued to be said in Venice, the feast of Corpus Christi was celebrated with displays of public pomp and "magnificence", in defiance of the Pope. Within a year the disagreement was mediated by Spain; the Most Serene Republic refused to retract the laws, but asserted that Venice would conduct herself "with her accustomed piety."
The Jesuits, which Venice considered subversive Papal agents, remained banned. No more could be expected. Paul withdrew his censure; the Venetian Republic rewarded Fra Paulo Sarpi, its successful canon lawyer, with the distinction of state counsellor in jurisprudence and the liberty of access to the state archives, which infuriated Pope Paul. In September 1607, after unsuccessfully attempting to lure Father Sarpi to Rome, the Pope responded by putting out a contract on his life. Father Sarpi was the target of at leas
Pope Paul III
Pope Paul III, born Alessandro Farnese, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 13 October 1534 to his death in 1549. He came to the papal throne in an era following the sack of Rome in 1527 and rife with uncertainties in the Catholic Church following the Protestant Reformation. During his pontificate, in the spirit of the Counter-Reformation, new Catholic religious orders and societies, such as the Jesuits, the Barnabites, the Congregation of the Oratory, attracted a popular following, he convened the Council of Trent in 1545. He was a significant patron of the arts and employed nepotism to advance the power and fortunes of his family, it is to Pope Paul III. Born in 1468 at Canino, Alessandro Farnese was the oldest son of Pier Luigi I Farnese, Signore di Montalto and his wife Giovanna Caetani, a member of the Caetani family which had produced Pope Boniface VIII; the Farnese family had prospered over the centuries but it was Alessandro’s ascendency to the papacy and his dedication to family interests which brought about the most significant increase in the family’s wealth and power.
Alessandro's humanist education was at the court of Lorenzo de' Medici. Trained as an apostolic notary, he joined the Roman Curia in 1491 and in 1493 Pope Alexander VI appointed him Cardinal-Deacon of Santi Cosma e Damiano. Farnese’s sister, Giulia was reputedly a mistress of Alexander VI and might have been instrumental in securing this appointment for her brother. For this reason, he was sometimes mockingly referred to as the "Borgia brother-in-law," just as Giulia was mocked as "the Bride of Christ." More disparagingly he was referred to as "Cardinal Fregnese". As Bishop of Parma, he came under the influence of his vicar-general, Bartolomeo Guidiccioni; this led to the future pope breaking off the relationship with his mistress and committing himself to reform in his Parma diocese. Under Pope Clement VII he became Cardinal Bishop of Ostia and Dean of the College of Cardinals, on the death of Clement VII in 1534, was elected as Pope Paul III; as a young cleric, Alessandro lived a notably dissolute life, taking for himself a mistress and having three sons and two daughters with her.
By Silvia Ruffini, he fathered Pier Luigi Farnese. The elevation to the cardinalate of his grandsons, Alessandro Farnese, aged fourteen, Guido Ascanio Sforza, aged sixteen, displeased the reform party and drew a protest from the emperor, but this was forgiven when, shortly after, he introduced into the Sacred College Reginald Pole, Gasparo Contarini, Jacopo Sadoleto, Giovanni Pietro Caraffa, who became Pope Paul IV; the fourth pope during the period of the Protestant Reformation, Paul III became the first to take active reform measures in response to Protestantism. Soon after his elevation, 2 June 1536, Paul III summoned a general council to meet at Mantua in the following May. Paul III first deferred for a year and discarded the whole project. In 1536, Paul III invited nine eminent prelates, distinguished by learning and piety alike, to act in committee and to report on the reformation and rebuilding of the Church. In 1537 they turned in their celebrated Consilium de emendenda ecclesia, exposing gross abuses in the Curia, in the church administration and public worship.
This report was printed not only at Strasbourg and elsewhere. But to the Protestants it seemed far from thorough, yet the Pope was in earnest. He perceived that Emperor Charles V would not rest until the problems were grappled with in earnest, a council was an unequivocal procedure that should leave no room for doubt of his own readiness to make changes, yet it is clear that the Concilium bore no fruit in the actual situation, that in Rome no results followed from the committee's recommendations. As a consequence of the extensive campaign against "idolatry" in England, culminating with the dismantling of the shrine of St. Thomas Becket at Canterbury, the Pope excommunicated Henry VIII on 17 December 1538 and issued an interdict. On the other hand, serious political complications resulted. In order to vest his grandson Ottavio Farnese with the dukedom of Camerino, Paul forcibly wrested the same from the duke of Urbino, he incurred virtual war with his own subjects and vassals by the imposition of burdensome taxes.
Perugia, renouncing its obedience, was besieged by Paul's son, Pier Luigi, forfeited its freedom on its surrender. The burghers of Colonna were duly vanquished, Ascanio was banished. After this the time seemed ripe for annihilating heresy. In 1540, the Church recognized the new society forming about Ignatius of Loyola, which became the Society of Jesus; the second visible stage in the process becomes marked by the institution, or reorganization, in 1542, of the Congregation of the Holy Office of the Inquisition. On another side, the Emperor was insisting that Rome should forward his designs towards a peaceable recovery of the German Protestants. Accordingly, the Pope despatched Giovanni Morone (not yet a cardi
Pope Paul VI
Pope Saint Paul VI was head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 21 June 1963 to his death in 1978. Succeeding John XXIII, he continued the Second Vatican Council which he closed in 1965, implementing its numerous reforms, fostered improved ecumenical relations with Eastern Orthodox and Protestant churches, which resulted in many historic meetings and agreements. Montini served in the Holy See's Secretariat of State from 1922 to 1954. While in the Secretariat of State and Domenico Tardini were considered as the closest and most influential advisors of Pius XII, who in 1954 named him Archbishop of Milan, the largest Italian diocese. Montini became the Secretary of the Italian Bishops' Conference. John XXIII elevated him to the College of Cardinals in 1958, after the death of John XXIII, Montini was considered one of his most successors. Upon his election to the papacy, Montini took the name Paul VI, he re-convened the Second Vatican Council, which had automatically closed with the death of John XXIII.
After the Council had concluded its work, Paul VI took charge of the interpretation and implementation of its mandates walking a thin line between the conflicting expectations of various groups within Catholicism. The magnitude and depth of the reforms affecting all fields of Church life during his pontificate exceeded similar reform programmes of his predecessors and successors. Paul VI spoke to Marian conventions and mariological meetings, visited Marian shrines and issued three Marian encyclicals. Following Ambrose of Milan, he named Mary as the Mother of the Church during the Second Vatican Council. Paul VI described himself as a humble servant for a suffering humanity and demanded significant changes from the rich in North America and Europe in favour of the poor in the Third World, his positions on birth control, promulgated famously in the 1968 encyclical Humanae vitae, were contested in Western Europe and North America. The same opposition emerged in reaction to the political aspects of some of his teaching.
Following the standard procedures that lead to sainthood, Pope Benedict XVI declared that the late pontiff had lived a life of heroic virtue and conferred the title of Venerable upon him on 20 December 2012. Pope Francis beatified him on 19 October 2014 after the recognition of a miracle attributed to his intercession, his liturgical feast was celebrated on the date of his birth on 26 September until 2019 when it was changed to the date of his sacerdotal ordination on 29 May. Pope Francis canonised Paul VI on 14 October 2018. Giovanni Battista Montini was born in the village of Concesio, in the province of Brescia, Italy, in 1897, his father Giorgio Montini was a lawyer, director of the Catholic Action and member of the Italian Parliament. His mother was Giudetta Alghisi, from a family of rural nobility, he had two brothers, Francesco Montini, who became a physician, Lodovico Montini, who became a lawyer and politician. On 30 September 1897, he was baptised with the name Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini.
He attended the Cesare Arici school, run by the Jesuits, in 1916 received a diploma from the Arnaldo da Brescia public school in Brescia. His education was interrupted by bouts of illness. In 1916, he entered the seminary to become a Catholic priest, he was ordained priest on 29 May 1920 in Brescia and celebrated his first Holy Mass in Brescia in the Basilica of Santa Maria delle Grazie. Montini concluded his studies in Milan with a doctorate in Canon Law in the same year. Afterwards he studied at the Gregorian University, the University of Rome La Sapienza and, at the request of Giuseppe Pizzardo at the Accademia dei Nobili Ecclesiastici. In 1922, at the age of twenty-five, again at the request of Giuseppe Pizzardo, Montini entered the Secretariat of State, where he worked under Pizzardo together with Francesco Borgongini-Duca, Alfredo Ottaviani, Carlo Grano, Domenico Tardini and Francis Spellman, he never had an appointment as a parish priest. In 1925 he helped found the publishing house Morcelliana in Brescia, focused on promoting a'Christian-inspired culture'.
Montini had just one foreign posting in the diplomatic service of the Holy See as Secretary in the office of the papal nuncio to Poland in 1923. Of the nationalism he experienced there he wrote: "This form of nationalism treats foreigners as enemies foreigners with whom one has common frontiers. One seeks the expansion of one's own country at the expense of the immediate neighbours. People grow up with a feeling of being hemmed in. Peace becomes a transient compromise between wars." He described his experience in Warsaw as "useful, though not always joyful". When he became pope, the Communist government of Poland refused him permission to visit Poland on a Marian pilgrimage, his organisational skills led him to a career in the papal civil service. In 1931, Pacelli appointed him to teach history at the Pontifical Academy for Diplomats In 1937, after his mentor Giuseppe Pizzardo was named a cardinal and was succeeded by Domenico Tardini, Montini was named Substitute for Ordinary Affairs under Cardinal Pacelli, the Secretary of State.
His immediate supervisor was Domenico Tardini. Pacelli became Pope Pius XII in 1939 and confirmed Montini's appointment as Substitute under the new Cardinal Secretary of State Luigi Maglione. In that role that of a chief of staff, he met the pope every morning until 1954 and developed a rather close relationship with him. Of his service to two popes he w
Paul Pope is an American alternative comic book writer/artist. Pope describes his own influences as Daniel Torres, Bruno Premiani, Jack Kirby, Alex Toth, Tony Salmons, Hugo Pratt, Silvio Cadelo, Vittorio Giardino, Hergé. Born in Philadelphia, Pope grew up in Bowling Green, with stops in Columbus, San Francisco, Toronto in between. Pope introduced THB in the same year he began work for Kodansha, Japan's manga publisher. Pope developed the manga Supertrouble for Kodansha, which mined the "cutie-pie" girl adventure vein that THB exists in. Pope has self-published some of his work through his own Horse Press, with other work such as One-Trick Ripoff coming from Dark Horse Comics and Heavy Liquid and 100% published under DC Comics' Vertigo imprint. Pope's work combines the precision and romance of the European artists he studies with the energy and page design of the manga tradition, his storytelling narratives continue to mature with well-paced, deftly-shaded combinations of science fiction, hardboiled crime stories and the Romeo and Juliet archetype.
Pope's two protagonist types are the silent, lanky outsider male of One-Trick Ripoff and Heavy Liquid, or the resourceful, humorous young teenage girls of THB. In 2006, Pope received an Eisner Award for Best Short Story for his work, "Teenage Sidekick", published in Solo #3. In 2007, Pope won two additional Eisners, Best Writer/Artist and Best Limited Series, for his Batman mini-series, Batman: Year 100. Discussing the story, set in 2039, one hundred years after the first appearance of the caped crusader, Pope said: "I wanted to present a new take on Batman, without a doubt a mythic figure in our pop-psyche. My Batman is not only science fiction, he's a physical superhero: he bleeds, he sweats, he eats. He's someone born into an overarching police state; the story, colored by José Villarrubia, was presented in a four-part prestige format in 2006. DC Comics published a trade paperback collecting Batman: Year 100 in early 2007; the trade includes Pope's "Berlin Batman" story from The Batman Chronicles No. 11.
"Berlin Batman" involves a version of Batman who lives in the German Weimar Republic on the eve of World War II. The Weimar Batman helps keep the papers of Austrian School economist Ludwig von Mises from falling into Nazi hands. Both Batman stories in the collection reflect implicit libertarian themes that appear in Pope's work, he wrote Endgame for Toonami's website and came up with the character Orcelot Rex. Aside from comics, in the fall of 2006 Pope worked with Italian clothing company Diesel on a big store installation during their fall fashion week campaign, a screenprint series based on their'Chelsea Hotel' campaign as a 51st birthday present to Diesel's founder, Renzo Rosso. In the fall of 2008, Pope went a step further by partnering with DKNY to create the DKNY:2089 collection. Pope's first art book titled Pulphope: The Art of Paul Pope came out in June 2007. A collection of his most representative work, the 224 page hardcover was published by AdHouse Books. Pope has announced the pending publication of two original graphic novels, Battling Boy from First Second Books, La Chica Bionica from French publisher Dargaud.
Other books in the Battling Boy series include The Fall of the House of West and The Rise of Aurora West. In 2009, Pope was featured in The Cartoonist, a documentary film on the life and work of cartoonist Jeff Smith. Paul spoke at 2006 Sydney Semi-Permanent creative conference. 2014 Eisner Award for Best Publication for Teens: Battling Boy 2007 Eisner Award for Best Limited Series: Batman: Year 100 2007 Eisner Award for Best Writer/Artist: Batman: Year 100 2006 Eisner Award for Best Short Story: "Teenaged Sidekick" in Solo #3 2000 Friends of Lulu"Lulu of the Year' Nomination Sin Titulo The Corruptor The Ballad of Doctor Richardson THB: Volume 1 #1-5 Giant THB Parade P-City Parade Giant THB Circus Mars' Mightiest Mek Mek-Power #6a-6d Volume 2 #1 PulpHope 96/7 Buzz Buzz Comics Magazine Escapo The Big Book of...: "Harry Reichenbach: Hollywood's King of Ballyhoo!!" "Glam Rock" Vertigo: Winter's Edge #1: "Tell Me" Batman: The Batman Chronicles #11: "The Berlin Batman" Batman: Gotham Knights #3: "Broken Nose" collected in Black & White Volume 2 Batman: Turning Points #5: "Old as the Stars" collected in Turning Points Batman: Year 100 #1-4 collected as Year 100 Heavy Liquid #1-5 collected as Heavy Liquid 100% #1-5 collected as 100% Weird War Tales Special: "Mind Field" Young Heroes: Fall Fashion 2000 The Dreaming #55: "The Further Adventures of Danny Nod, Heroic Library Assistant" (a, with Bill Willingham, amon
Pope John Paul I
Pope John Paul I was head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City from 26 August 1978 to his death 33 days later. He was the first pope to have been born in the 20th century, his reign is among the shortest in papal history, resulting in the most recent year of three popes, the first to occur since 1605. John Paul I remains the most recent Italian-born pope, the last in a succession of such popes that started with Clement VII in 1523, he was declared a Servant of God by his successor, John Paul II, on 23 November 2003, the first step on the road to sainthood. Pope Francis named him as Venerable. Before the papal conclave that elected him, he expressed his desire not to be elected, telling those close to him that he would decline the papacy if elected, upon the cardinals electing him, he felt an obligation to say yes, he was the first pontiff to have a double name, choosing "John Paul" in honour of his two immediate predecessors, John XXIII and Paul VI. He explained that he was indebted to John XXIII and to Paul VI for naming him a bishop and a cardinal, respectively.
Furthermore, he was the first pope to add the regnal number "I", designating himself "the First". His two immediate successors, John Paul II and Benedict XVI recalled the warm qualities of the late pontiff in several addresses. In Italy, he is remembered with the appellatives of "Il Papa del Sorriso" and "Il Sorriso di Dio". TIME magazine and other publications referred to him as The September Pope, he is known in Italy as "Papa Luciani". In his town of birth, Canale d'Agordo, there is a museum, made and named in his honour, dedicated to his life and his brief papacy. Albino Luciani was born on 17 October 1912 in Forno di Canale in Belluno, a province of the Veneto region in Northern Italy, he was the son of Giovanni Luciani, a bricklayer, Bortola Tancon. Albino was followed by two brothers and Edoardo, a sister, Antonia, he was baptised on the day he was born by the midwife because he was considered to be in danger of death, the solemn rites of baptism were formalised in the parish church two days later.
Luciani was a restless child, in 1922, aged 10, he was awestruck when a Capuchin friar came to his village to preach the Lenten sermons. From that moment he decided that he wanted to become a priest and went to his father to ask for his permission, his father agreed and said to him: "I hope that when you become a priest you will be on the side of the workers, for Christ Himself would have been on their side". Luciani entered the minor seminary of Feltre in 1923, where his teachers found him "too lively", went on to the major seminary of Belluno. During his stay at Belluno, he attempted to join the Jesuits but was denied by the seminary's rector, Bishop Giosuè Cattarossi. Ordained a priest on 7 July 1935, Luciani served as a curate in his native Forno de Canale before becoming a professor and the vice-rector of the Belluno seminary in 1937. Among the different subjects, he taught canon law and sacred art. In 1941, Luciani started to work on a Doctorate of Sacred Theology from the Pontifical Gregorian University.
This required at least one year's attendance in Rome. However, the Belluno seminary's superiors wanted him to continue teaching during his doctoral studies; the situation was resolved by a special dispensation by Pope Pius XII on 27 March 1941. His thesis attacked Rosmini's theology and earned him his doctorate magna cum laude in 1947. In 1947, he was named chancellor to OFM Cap, of Belluno. In 1954, he was named the vicar general for the Belluno diocese. Luciani was nominated for the position of Bishop several times but he was passed down each time due to his poor health and his resigned appearance. In 1949, he published; this book, his first, was about teaching the truths of the faith in a simple way and comprehensible to all people. On 15 December 1958, Luciani was appointed Bishop of Vittorio Veneto by Pope John XXIII, he received his episcopal consecration on the following 27 December from Pope John XXIII himself, with Bishops Bortignon and Gioacchino Muccin serving as the co-consecrators. In his first address to the people of his new diocese, Luciani stated: "I would like to be a bishop, a teacher and a servant".
As a bishop, he participated in all the sessions of the Second Vatican Council. In 1958, he had taken Humilitas as his episcopal motto, he took possession of the diocese on 11 January 1959. On 18 April 1962, Luciani issued a pastoral letter, entitled "Notes on the Council", in order to alert the faithful to the structure of the proceedings and the overall purpose of the Council, the doctrinal and practical issues. In 1966, he visited Burundi in East Africa. Between 1965 and 1969 he faced the schism of Montaner: all the residents of Montaner, a frazione of Sarmede, decided to renounce Catholicism and embrace the Orthodox religion, because they had great disagreement with their bishop Monsignor Luciani; the people did not agree with Luciani's decision to appoint John Gava as a new priest in 1966 since the people wanted their own choice, rather than the one Luciani had settled on. The people wanted a compromise: make their choice the parish's vice-rector if not parish priest, but Monsignor Luciani said the small village needed only one priest, that he was the sole authority