The Fátima prayers are five Catholic prayers that originate from the Marian apparitions at Fátima, Portugal, in 1917. The Decade Prayer, as the best known of these five prayers, is added at the end of each decade of the Dominican Rosary, one of the most popular devotional practices in Roman Catholicism. Another two other prayers are associated with the visions and may be classed as Fátima Prayers. However, they did not come in Spain many years later; this brings the number of prayers to seven. In the Spring of 1916, an angel taught the children of Fatima this prayer, repeating it three times: My God, I believe, I adore, I hope, I love You. I ask pardon for all those who do not believe in You, do not adore You, do not hope in You, do not love You; the angel said, "Pray in this way. The hearts of Jesus and Mary are ready to listen to you." To believe, hope and love God is to practice the theological virtues of faith and charity. In the summer of 1916, the same angel told the children to make spiritual sacrifices: In every way you can offer sacrifice to God in reparation for the sins by which He is offended, in supplication for sinners...
Above all and accept with patience the sufferings God will send you. The angel explained "In this way you will bring peace to our country, for I am its guardian angel, the Angel of Portugal." In August 1916, the angel taught the children this prayer repeating it three times: Most Holy Trinity - Father and Holy Spirit - I adore You profoundly, I offer You the Most Precious Body, Blood and Divinity of Jesus Christ, present in all the tabernacles of the world, in reparation for the outrages and indifferences by which He is offended. And by the infinite merits of His most Sacred Heart and the Immaculate Heart of Mary, I beg the conversion of poor sinners. Sacrilege against the Eucharist includes receiving it in mortal sin; that same day, the angel gave the children the Eucharist and told them that Jesus was outraged by the ingratitude of men: Offer reparation for their sakes and console God."Their sakes" refers to the men ungrateful to the Lord, not to the children in particular. On May 13, 1917, Our Lady asked the children to: ffer yourselves to God...and bear all the sufferings He sends you...n atonement for all the sins that offend Him...nd for the conversion of sinnersWhen the children agreed, Our Lady said "then you will have a great deal to suffer, but the grace of God will be with you and will strengthen you."
That same day, when Our Lady bathed the children in light, the children prayed: Oh, Holy Trinity, we adore You. The second half of the above prayer goes as follows: My God, my God, I love You in the Blessed Sacrament, it is not the Trinity, but Jesus, in the Eucharist. On June 13, 1917, Our Lady taught the children to pray after each decade of the Rosary: O my Jesus, pardon us, save us from the fire of hell. Take all holy souls to heaven those who are most in need. Our Lady encouraged the children to continue to pray the Rosary. On July 13, 1917, Our Lady taught the children to pray when making a spiritual sacrifice: O Jesus, this is for love of You, for the conversion of sinners, in reparation for offenses committed against the Immaculate Heart of Mary. After that, Our Lady revealed the three secrets of Fatima; these prayers were taught by Jesus to Sister Lucia in 1931. The alleged revelations of Christ have not been approved by the Church. By thy pure and Immaculate Conception, O Mary, obtain the conversion of Russia, Portugal and the whole world!
Sweet Heart of Mary, be the salvation of Russia, Portugal and the whole world. Blue Army of Our Lady of Fátima Catholic devotions Consecration of Russia Marian apparition Our Lady of Fátima Three Secrets of Fátima Official Vatican Statement releasing the Third Secret of Fátima
Presentation of Jesus at the Temple
The Presentation of Jesus at the Temple is an early episode in the life of Jesus, describing his presentation at the Temple in Jerusalem in order to induct him into Judaism, celebrated by many Christian Churches on the holiday of Candlemas. It is described in the Gospel of Luke of the New Testament in the Christian Bible. Within the account, "Luke's narration of the Presentation in the Temple combines the purification rite with the Jewish ceremony of the redemption of the firstborn."In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Presentation of Jesus at the temple is celebrated as one of the twelve Great Feasts, is sometimes called Hypapante. In Western Christianity, the additional name for the Service the day, Candlemas, is added; this Feast-day is known as the Feast of the Purification of the Virgin or the Meeting of the Lord. In some liturgical churches, Vespers on the Feast of the Presentation marks the end of the Epiphany season. In the Church of England, the Mother Church of the Anglican Communion, the Presentation of Christ in the Temple is a Principal Feast celebrated either on 2 February or on the Sunday between 28 January and 3 February.
In the Catholic Church since the time of Pope Gelasius I who in the fifth century contributed to its expansion, the Presentation is celebrated on 2 February and is the fourth Joyful Mystery of the Rosary. In the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion and the Lutheran Church, the episode was reflected in the once-prevalent custom of churching new mothers forty days after the birth of a child; the event is described in the Gospel of Luke. According to the gospel and Joseph took the Infant Jesus to the Temple in Jerusalem forty days after his birth to complete Mary's ritual purification after childbirth, to perform the redemption of the firstborn son, in obedience to the Torah. Luke explicitly says that Joseph and Mary take the option provided for poor people, sacrificing "a pair of turtledoves, or two young pigeons." Leviticus 12:1–4 indicates that this event should take place forty days after birth for a male child, hence the Presentation is celebrated forty days after Christmas.
Upon bringing Jesus into the temple, they encountered Simeon. The Gospel records that Simeon had been promised that "he should not see death before he had seen the Lord's Christ". Simeon uttered the prayer that would become known as the Nunc Dimittis, or Canticle of Simeon, which prophesied the redemption of the world by Jesus: “Lord, now let your servant depart in peace, according to your word. Simeon prophesied to Mary: "Behold, this child is set for the fall and rising of many in Israel, for a sign, spoken against, that thoughts out of many hearts may be revealed.. The elderly prophetess Anna was in the Temple, offered prayers and praise to God for Jesus, spoke to everyone there of His importance to redemption in Jerusalem; the event forms a usual component of extensive cycles of the Life of Christ and of the Life of the Virgin. Either the Presentation of Jesus or the visually similar Circumcision of Jesus was shown, but by the late Middle Ages the two were sometimes combined. Early images concentrated on the moment of meeting with Simeon shown at the entrance to the Temple, this is continued in Byzantine art and Eastern Orthodox icons to the present day.
In the West, beginning in the 8th or 9th century, a different depiction at an altar emerged, where Simeon by the Late Middle Ages came to be shown wearing the elaborate vestments attributed to the Jewish High Priest, conducting a liturgical ceremony surrounded by the family and Anna. In the West, Simeon is more already holding the infant, or the moment of handover is shown. Many motets and anthems have been composed to celebrate this feast and are performed as part of the liturgy, among them an anthem by 16th century German composer Johannes Eccard, Maria wallt zum Heiligtum translated in English as "When Mary to the Temple went"; the Lutheran church of the Baroque observed the feast as "Mariae Reinigung". Johann Sebastian Bach composed several cantatas to be performed in the church service of the day, related to Simeon's canticle Nunc dimittis as part of the prescribed readings. Erfreute Zeit im neuen Bunde, BWV 83, 1724 Mit Fried und Freud ich fahr dahin, BWV 125, 1725 Ich habe genug, BWV 82, 1727 In addition to being known as the Feast of the Presentation of Jesus at the Temple, other traditional names include Candlemas, the Feast of the Purification of the Virgin, the Meeting of the Lord.
The date of Candlemas is established by the date set for the Nativity of Jesus, for it comes forty days afterwards. Under Mosaic law as found in the Torah, a mother who had given birth to a boy was considered unclean for seven days. Candlemas therefore corresponds to the day on which Mary, according to Jewish law, should have attended a ceremony of ritual purification; the Gospel of Luke 2:22–39 relates that Mary was purified according to the religious law, followed by Jesus' presentation in the Jerusalem temple, this explains the formal names given to the fe
The Angelus is a Catholic devotion commemorating the Incarnation. As with many Catholic prayers, the name Angelus is derived from its incipit—the first few words of the text: Angelus Domini nuntiavit Mariæ; the devotion is practised by reciting as versicle and response three Biblical verses narrating the mystery, alternating with the prayer "Hail Mary". The Angelus exemplifies a species of prayers called the "prayer of the devotee"; the devotion was traditionally recited in Roman Catholic churches and monasteries three times daily: 6:00 am, 6:00 pm. The devotion is used by some Anglican and Lutheran churches; the Angelus is accompanied by the ringing of the Angelus bell, a call to prayer and to spread goodwill to everyone. The angel referred to in the prayer is Gabriel, a messenger of God who revealed to Mary that she would conceive a child to be born the Son of God. According to Herbert Thurston, "The history of the Angelus is by no means easy to trace with confidence, it is well to distinguish in this matter between what is certain and what is in some measure conjectural."
This is an old devotion, well established 700 years ago. The Angelus originated with the 11th-century monastic custom of reciting three Hail Marys during the evening, or Compline, bell; the first written documentation stems from the Italian Franciscan friar Sinigardi di Arezzo. Franciscan friaries in Italy document the use in 1263 and 1295; the current form of the Angelus prayer is included in a Venetian Catechism from 1560. The older usages seem to have commemorated the resurrection of Christ in the morning, his suffering at noon, the annunciation in the evening. In 1269, St Bonaventure urged the faithful to adopt the custom of the Franciscans of saying three Hail Marys as the Compline bell was rung; the Angelus is not identical to the "Noon Bell" ordered by Pope Calixtus III in 1456, who asked for a long midday bell-ringing and prayer for protection against the Turkish invasions of his time. In his 1956 Apostolic Letter Dum Maerenti Animo about the persecution of the Catholic church in Eastern Europe and China, Pope Pius XII recalls the 500th anniversary of the "Noon Bell", a prayer crusade ordered by his predecessors against what they considered to be dangers from the East.
He again asks the faithful throughout the world, to pray for the persecuted Church in the East during the mid-day Angelus. The custom of reciting it in the morning grew from the monastic custom of saying three Hail Marys while a bell rang at Prime; the noon time custom arose from the noon time commemoration of the Passion on Fridays. The institution of the Angelus is by some ascribed to Pope Urban II, by some to Pope John XXII in the year 1317; the triple recitation is ascribed to Louis XI of France, who in 1472 ordered it to be recited three times daily. The form of the prayer was standardized by the 17th century; the manner of ringing the Angelus—the triple stroke repeated three times, with a pause between each set of three, sometimes followed by a longer peal as at curfew—seems to have been long established. The 15th-century constitutions of Syon monastery dictate that the lay brother "shall toll the Ave bell nine strokes at three times, keeping the space of one Pater and Ave between each three tollings".
The pattern of ringing on Irish radio and television consists of three groups of three peals, each group separated by a pause, followed by a group of nine peals, for a total of eighteen rings. In his Apostolic Letter Marialis Cultus, Pope Paul VI encouraged the praying of the Angelus considering it important and a reminder to faithful Catholics of the Paschal Mystery, in which by recalling the incarnation of the son of God they pray that they may be led "through his passion and cross to the glory of his resurrection." It is common practice that during the recital of the Angelus prayer, for the lines "And the Word was made flesh/And dwelt among us", those reciting the prayer bow or genuflect. Either of these actions draws attention to the moment of the Incarnation of Christ into human flesh. During Paschaltide, the Marian antiphon Regina Cœli with versicle and prayer, substitutes for the Angelus. In some Catholic schools, the Angelus is recited periodically. In most Franciscan and contemplative monasteries, the Angelus continues to be prayed three times a day.
In Germany, particular dioceses and their radio stations ring the Angelus. In addition, Roman Catholic churches ring the Angelus bell thrice daily. In Ireland, the Angelus is broadcast every night before the main evening news at 6:00 pm on the main national TV channel, RTÉ One, on the broadcaster's sister radio station, Radio 1, at noon and 6:00 pm. In 2015, in advertising for a commission to independent film makers to produce versions of the Angelus, RTÉ described the playing of the Angelus as follows: The daily "Angelus" broadcast on RTÉ One is by far RTÉ's longest-running and most watched Religious Programme. It's possibly, the most controversial. For some, the reflective slot, which airs for just one minute in every 1440 per day and on only one RTÉ TV channel, is as much part of Ireland's unique cultural identity as the harp on your passport. RTÉ Audience Research finds that a clear majority of Irish viewers still favours keeping the "Angelus" broadcasts and all, its appeal is summarised by one audience member as follows: "To the person of faith, it's a moment of grace.
What's not to like?"
Mary, Mother of Grace
Mary, Mother of Grace is a Roman Catholic prayer to the Blessed Virgin Mary. Mary,Mother of grace,Mother of mercy, Shield me from the enemyAnd receive me at the hour of my death. Amen; this prayer is a fragment from within the DEVOTION IN MEMORY OF THE AGONY OF JESUS found in Section VI of the Raccolta. It was declared by Pope Pius VII as part of a Rescript dated August 26, 1814, issued through the Cardinal-Prefect of the Sacred Congregation of Rites. Pope Pius gave his approbation to the devotion in memory of the Agony of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. Since the "Mary, Mother of Grace" prayer is only a partial recitation of the Devotion, only a partial indulgence is granted the prayer; the original Rescript is preserved amongst the acts of the Sacred Congregation of Rites, an authentic copy of it is kept in the Segretaria of the Sacred Congregation of Indulgences. The title, "Mary, Mother of Grace" is a misnomer. In the text of the Racollta containing the prayer, the title reads: "Prayer to the Holy Virgin, Mother of Sorrows" The entire section within which the fragment originates from the overall Devotion reads: PRAYER TO THE HOLY VIRGIN, MOTHER OF SORROWS.
Most Holy Mother of sorrows, by that intense martyrdom which thou didst suffer at the foot of the cross during the three hours of the agony of Jesus. Maria mater gratiae,Mater misericordiae,Tu nos ab hoste protege,Et mortis hora suscipe. Maria, mater gratiae, gracious mother, Dulcis parens clementiae, Sweet fount of mercy, Tu nos ab hoste protege, Protect us from the foe, Et mortis hora suscipe, and receive us in our hour of death. Jesu, tibi sit gloria, glory be to Thee, Qui natus es de Virgine, Born of the Virgin, Cum Patre et almo Spiritu, With the Father and the Holy Spirit, In sempiterna saecula. Amen. For and ever. Amen. Roman Catholic Mariology Raccolta Marian devotions Blessed Virgin Mary
Catholic Mariology refers to Mariology—the systematic study of the person of Mary, mother of Jesus, of her place in the Economy of Salvation—within Catholic theology. Mary is seen as having a singular dignity above the saints; the Catholic Church teaches that she was conceived without original sin, therefore receiving a higher level of veneration than all other saints. Catholic Mariology thus studies not only her life but the veneration of her in daily life, hymns, art and architecture in modern and ancient Christianity throughout the ages; the four dogmas of perpetual virginity, Mother of God, Immaculate Conception and Assumption form the basis of Mariology. However, a number of other Catholic doctrines about the Virgin Mary have been developed by reference to sacred scripture, theological reasoning and Church tradition; the development of Mariology is ongoing and since the beginnings it has continued to be shaped by theological analyses, writings of saints, papal statements, e.g. while two Marian dogmas are ancient, the other two were defined in the 19th and 20th centuries.
In parallel to the traditional views, since the late 19th century, a number of other perspectives have been presented as a challenge to Catholic Mariology. Other Christian views see Mariology as unbiblical and a denial of the uniqueness of Christ as redeemer and mediator to modern psychological interpretations of Mary as the equivalent of mythical Goddesses ranging from Diana to Guan Yin; the study of Mary and her place in the Catholic Church has been undertaken from a number of perspectives and within a number of contexts, in his address to the 2012 Mariological congress, Pope Benedict XVI stated that this study must be "understood and examined from different and complementary viewpoints". Pope Benedict XVI emphasized that the study of Mary cannot be performed in isolation from other disciplines and that Mariology is inherently related to the study of Christ and of the Church, expresses the inner coherence of these disciplines. Pope Benedict XVI has stated that Marian studies have three separate characteristics: first personalizing the Church so it is not seen just as a structure but as a person, secondly the incarnational aspect and the relation to God, third Marian piety which involves the heart and the emotional component.
Mary's position in Church can be compared to the aspect of the Petrine office in a dual sense. This perspective on the duality of the roles of Mary and Peter highlights the subjective holiness of the heart and the holiness of the structure of the Church. In this duality, the Petrine office logically examines the charisms for their theological soundness, while the Marian dual provides a balance in the spiritual and emotional sense via the service of love that the office can never encompass. Mariology and the doctrine of office are thus not "side chapels" in Roman Catholic teachings, but are central and integrating elements of it; as referenced in the encyclical on the Mystical Body of Christ, Pius XII, 1943, her fiat gave consent for a spiritual marriage between the Son of God and human nature, thus giving humanity the means to salvation. Mary's rights, Mary's love are essential to salvation. Mariology is a field in which felt pious beliefs of the faithful and hagiography may conflict with theological and critical historical reviews of beliefs and practices.
This conflict was recognized as early as the year 1300 by William of Ware who described the tendency of some believers to attribute everything to Mary. Bonaventura warned against Marian maximalism. "One has to be careful as to not to minimize the honour of our Lord, Jesus Christ." Both minimalist and maximalist have always seen in Mary a sign of the Church and viewed her as a model for all Catholics. In the 20th century, Pope Pius XII, "the most Marian Pope in Church history" warned against both exuberant exaggerations and timid minimalism in the presentation of Mary; the Vatican II dogmatic constitution Lumen gentium was written in 1964 to avoid both Marian maximalism and minimalism. Pope John Paul II was careful to avoid both maximalism and minimalism in his Mariology and avoided taking personal positions on issues which were subject to theological debate. Mariology has been related to Christology and in the Roman Catholic theological and papal writings has been viewed as interwoven with the mystery of Christ.
Pope John Paul II discussed the "precise place of Mary" in the plan of salvation in the encyclical Redemptoris Mater and stated: "Following the line of the Second Vatican Council, I wish to emphasize the special presence of the Mother of God in the mystery of Christ and his Church. For this is a fundamental dimension emerging from the Mariology of the Council". Roman Catholic theologians have explored the interwoven natures of Mariology and Christology. Pope Benedict XVI characterized the relationship by stating that "Christology and Mariology are inseparably interwoven" from their beginnings. In his view, Mariology underscores the nexus of the mysteries of Christology and ecclesiology, reflects they are intrinsically interwoven. Early Christians and numerous saints focused on this connection and popes highlighted the inner link between Marian doctrines and a fuller understanding of Christological themes. Given the Catholic perspective that the Church lives in its relation to Christ, being the Body of Christ, it has a relation to his mother, whose study is the subject of Roman Catholic Mariology.
Pope Saint Pius X in Ad diem illum stated: "there is no more direct road than by Mary for uniting all mankind in Christ."In Roman Catholic theology the study of Mary, while contributing to the study
Immaculate Heart of Mary
The Immaculate Heart of Mary is a devotional name used to refer to the interior life of the Blessed Virgin Mary, her joys and sorrows, her virtues and hidden perfections, above all, her virginal love for God the Father, her maternal love for her son Jesus, her compassionate love for all people. The Eastern Catholic Churches utilize the image and theology associated with the Immaculate Heart of Mary. However, this is a cause of some seeing it as a form of liturgical latinisation; the Roman Catholic view is based on Mariology, as exemplified by Pope John Paul II's Apostolic Letter Rosarium Virginis Mariae. Traditionally, the heart is depicted pierced with seven wounds or swords, in homage to the seven dolors of Mary. Roses or another type of flower may be wrapped around the heart; the veneration of the Heart of Mary is analogous to the worship of the Sacred Heart of Jesus. There are, differences in this analogy as devotion to the heart of Jesus is directed to the "divine heart" as overflowing with love for humanity.
In the devotion to Mary, the attraction is the love of her heart for Jesus and for God. The second difference is the nature of the devotion itself: in the devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus, the Roman Catholic venerates in a sense of love responding to love, in the devotion to the Heart of Mary and imitation hold as important a place as love; the aim of the devotion is to unite humankind to God through Mary's heart, this process involves the ideas of consecration and reparation. The object of the devotion being to love God and Jesus better by uniting one's self to Mary for this purpose and by imitating her virtues. In Chapter 2 of St. Luke's gospel, the evangelist twice reports that Mary kept all things in her heart, that there she might ponder over them. Luke 2:35 recounts the prophecy of Simeon; this image is the most popular representation of the Immaculate Heart. St. John's Gospel further invited attention to Mary's heart with its depiction of Mary at the foot of the cross at Jesus' crucifixion.
St. Augustine said of this that Mary was not passive at the foot of the cross. St. Leo said that through faith and love she conceived her son spiritually before receiving him into her womb, St. Augustine tells us that she was more blessed in having borne Christ in her heart than in having conceived him in the flesh. Devotion to the Heart of Mary began in the Middle Ages with saints like Anselm of Canterbury, Bernard of Clairvaux, it was developed by Mechtilde, Gertrude the Great and Bridget of Sweden. Evidence is discernible in the pious meditations on the Ave Maria and the Salve Regina attributed either to Saint Anselm of Lucca or Saint Bernard. A little earlier it had been included by Saint Thomas Becket in the devotion to the joys and sorrows of Mary, by Saint Hermann in his devotions to Mary, somewhat it appeared in Bridget of Sweden's "Book of Revelations". Saint Bernardine of Siena, is sometimes called "Doctor of the Heart of Mary", from him the Church has borrowed the lessons of the second nocturn for the feast of the Heart of Mary.
Saint Francis de Sales speaks of the perfections of this heart, the model of love for God, dedicated his "Theotimus" to it. During this same period one finds occasional mention of devotional practices to the Heart of Mary, e.g. in the "Antidotarium" of Nicolas du Saussay, in Pope Julius II, in the "Pharetra" of Lanspergius. In the second half of the sixteenth century and the first half of the seventeenth, ascetic authors dwelt upon this devotion at greater length, it was, Saint John Eudes who propagated the devotion, to make it public, to have a feast celebrated in honor of the Heart of Mary, first at Autun in 1648 and afterwards in a number of French dioceses. He established several religious societies interested in upholding and promoting the devotion, of which his large book on the Coeur Admirable, published in 1681, resembles a summary. Jean Eudes' efforts to secure the approval of an office and feast failed at Rome, notwithstanding this disappointment, the devotion to the Heart of Mary progressed.
Eudes began his devotional teachings with the Heart of Mary, extended it to the Sacred Heart of Jesus. However, it was only in 1805 that Pope Pius VII allowed a feast to honor the Immaculate Heart of Mary. In 1699 Father Pinamonti published a short work on the Holy Heart of Mary in Italian, in 1725, Joseph de Gallifet combined the cause of the Heart of Mary with that of the Heart of Jesus in order to obtain Rome's approbation of the two devotions and the institution of the two feasts. In 1729, his project was defeated, in 1765, the two causes were separated, to assure the success of the principal one. In its principal object this feast is identical with the feast of the "Inner Life of Mary", celebrated by the Sulpicians on 19 October, it commemorates the joys and sorrows of the Mother of God, her virtues and perfections, her love for God and her Divine Son and her compassionate love for mankind. As early as 1643, St. John Eudes and his followers observed 8 February as the feast of the Heart of Mary.
In 1799 Pius VI in captivity in Florence, granted the Bishop of Palermo the feast of the Most Pure Heart of Mary for some of the churches in his
Marian devotions are external pious practices directed to the person of Mary, mother of Jesus, by members of certain Christian traditions. They are performed in Roman Catholicism and Orthodox Christianity, but rejected in Protestant denominations; such devotional prayers or acts may be accompanied by specific requests for Mary's intercession with God. There is significant diversity of form and structure in Marian devotions practiced by different groups of Christians. Orthodox Marian devotions are well-defined and linked to liturgy, while Roman Catholic practices are wide-ranging – they include multi-day prayers such as novenas, the celebration of Canonical coronations granted by the Pope, the veneration of icons in Eastern Christianity, pious acts which do not involve prayers, such as the wearing of scapulars or maintaining a Mary garden. Marian devotions are important to the Roman Catholic and Anglican traditions, but most Protestant views on Mary do not accept them, because such devotions are not recorded or promoted in the Bible.
They believe. According to practitioners, devotion to the Virgin Mary does not amount to worship, reserved for God. Both the Catholic and Orthodox traditions view Mary as subordinate to Christ, but uniquely so, in that she is seen as above all other creatures. In 787 the Second Council of Nicaea affirmed a three-level hierarchy of latria and dulia that applies to God, the Virgin Mary and to the other saints. There is no single church with universal authority within the Anglican Communion. Within the Anglican Communion and the Continuing Anglican movement, devotions to the Virgin Mary have more emphasis within High Church and Broad Church parishes than others; the emphasis placed on Marian devotions changed over the history of Anglicanism. In the 16th century, following the independence of the Church of England from Rome, a movement away from Marian themes took place. However, in the 17th century, there was a gradual return to Marianism and by 1662 there were five Marian feasts. British devotion to the Virgin Mary has been expressed in poetry, Marian hymns, Carols, e.g. in the 17th-century poems of John Donne and George Herbert, or in the 18th-century works of Thomas Ken such as Saint Mary the Virgin.
Anglican devotion for the Virgin Mary was revived during the 19th century Oxford Movement of Anglo-Catholicism and by the activities of prominent figures such as John Henry Newman. British theologians such as Father Frederick Faber took an enthusiastic approach to the promotion of Marian devotions towards the end of the 19th century. In the liturgical renewal of the 20th century, Mary gained new prominence, in most Anglican prayer books she is mentioned by name in the Eucharistic prayers; the gradual increase in Marian devotions among Anglicans has been manifested within the higher levels of the clergy in the Anglican Communion. Archbishop of Canterbury Rowan Williams wrote a book on how to pray with the icons of the Virgin Mary. Anglican devotions to Mary include the Anglican Rosary, votive candles, pilgrimages to Walsingham and Lourdes; some Anglicans and Anglo-Catholics pray the rosary itself. For centuries, Our Lady of Walsingham has been a centerpiece in Anglican devotions to the Virgin Mary and its feast is celebrated on October 15, as well as a Catholic feast on September 24.
Common in Anglican cathedrals, Anglo-Catholic parishes, certain Anglican shrines are chapels or side altars dedicated to the Virgin Mary called Lady chapels. Discussions between Roman Catholics and Anglicans within frameworks such as the Anglican—Roman Catholic International Commission, with the 2005 publication of the joint statement: Mary: Grace and Hope in Christ, have started a movement towards closer agreement of Mary and Marian devotions between Catholics and Anglicans. A deep devotion to the "Aeipartenos" Mary is one of the key themes of Orthodox liturgy and spirituality. Devotion to the Virgin Mary is "taken for granted" in Eastern Orthodoxy, it permeates the entire life of the Church and required no academic development as in the Western Church. In the Orthodox view, devotion to Mary is considered an important element of Christian spirituality, indifference to her by other Christian denominations is troubling to the Orthodox. Orthodox theologian Sergei Bulgakov called denominations that do not venerate the Virgin Mary "another type of Christianity".
The Theotokos title for Mary is important in Eastern Orthodoxy and is seen as an affirmation of the fullness of God's incarnation. The Orthodox approach to Marian devotions is characterized by three elements: Orthodox understandings of Mary have for centuries been doxological and devotional rather than academic: they have been expressed in Marian hymns, liturgical poetry and the veneration of icons, rather than formal treatises. Marian devotions thus form the nucleolus of Orthodox Mariology. Devotions to Mary are far more ingrained and integrated within Orthodox liturgy than any other Christian traditions, e.g. there are many more hymns to Mary within the Eastern Orthodox yearly cycle of liturgy than in Roman Catholic liturgy. Feasts and hymns are combined, e.g. the Theotokos Iverskaya "wonder-working" icon is used on its own feast day, the Akathist