click links in text for more info

Pope Romanus

Pope Romanus was Pope from August to November 897. His short reign occurred during a period of partisan strife in the Catholic Church, entangled with a period of feudal violence and disorder in central Italy. In November 897, "he was made a monk", a term used to refer to deposing a Pope, confining them to a monastery. Little is known of Romanus's background, his father, of whom nothing is known other than his name, was Constantine. Romanus was installed as the cardinal priest of San Pietro in Vincoli, in Rome, in 867. In his book, The Next Pope, Anura Gurugé says that Romanus was "supposedly the nephew of Pope Marinus I, who had come from Gallese. Towards the end of the ninth century, due to the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire the Catholic Church had to rely upon powerful European nobles for support. Pope Stephen V approached Arnulf of Carinthia to protect Rome from "pagan and evil Christians". After he refused, Stephen V had to rely upon Guy III of Spoleto instead. Guy agreed to protect Rome as long as he was named as the Holy Roman Emperor, to which Stephen V acceded.

After Stephen V's death, Pope Formosus was elected. Formosus and Guy were reluctant allies, Guy forced Formosus to crown him emperor again and to name his son, Lambert, as co-emperor and successor. Formosus did so. Arnulf agreed, Formosus subsequently appointed him as the Holy Roman Emperor in 894. Both Arnulf and Formosus died within a few years of the coronation, the new pope, Stephen VI, crowned Lambert as the new emperor shortly thereafter. In January 897, Stephen VI held what is known as the "Cadaver Synod", he had the body of Formosus dressed in pontifical vestments. The dead pope was charged with "perjury, violating the canons prohibiting the translation of bishops, coveting the papacy." Formosus' defence was provided by a deacon. The synod annulled all of Formosus' ordinations. Formosus' body was reburied in a common grave, thrown in the river Tiber. Supporters of Formosus rebelled, seven months after the synod, Stephen VI was deposed, died soon after in prison. After Stephen VI had been deposed, Romanus was elected as pope on an unspecified day in August 897.

He was considered to be pro-Formosan, annulled all the acts and decrees of his predecessor. This was criticised by the 15th-century historian Bartolomeo Platina, who wrote that "these popelings studied nothing else but to extinguish the memory and honour of their predecessors". During his short reign, he granted the Farfa Abbey Abbot, the pallium, appointed him as the patriarch of Grado, bestowed a privilege upon the See of Grado. Romanus confirmed the possessions of the Spanish bishops of Girona and Elna of their sees, his short rule was regarded as a virtuous one by contemporary historian Flodoard. He had a coin minted, bearing the name of Lambert on the obverse, "Scs. Petrus" and his monogram on the reverse. Romanus' reign as Pope ended in November 897, when it is described that "he was made a monk", a term used when a Pope is deposed, confined to a monastery, it is unknown whether he was deposed by supporters of his predecessor Pope Stephen VI, of an opposing faction, or by pro-Formosan supporters, who wanted to replace him with a Pope who would more vindicate Pope Formosus.

Romanus' date of death is unknown. The power struggle between supporters of Formosus and those of Stephen continued for over ten years; this was reaffirmed by Pope John IX who held synods reaffirming that of Theodore II, he further banned the trial of people after their death. In turn, Sergius III annulled the synods of Theodore II and John IX, reinstated the validity of the "Cadaver Synod". List of Catholic saints List of John. Pope-Pourri: What You Don't Remember From Catholic School. New York: Fireside. ISBN 978-0-671-88615-8. Gurugé, Anura; the Next Pope. Alton, New Hampshire: WOWNH LLC. ISBN 978-0-615-35372-2. Kelly, J. N. D.. Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-929581-4. Mann, Horace Kinder. "Pope Romanus". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 13. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Platina, Bartolomeo; the Lives of the Popes From The Time Of Our Saviour Jesus Christ to the Accession of Gregory VII. I. London: Griffith Farran & Co. Opera Omnia by Migne Patrologia Latina with analytical indexes

Singapore Land Authority

The Singapore Land Authority is a statutory board under the Ministry of Law of the Singapore Government. The SLA was formed on 1 June 2001 when the Land Office, Singapore Land Registry, Survey Department and Land Systems Support Unit were merged; as of November 2011, SLA has a staff strength of 550 employees. SLA's focus is on land resource optimization and it has 2 main roles: developmental and regulatory. In its developmental role, SLA oversees the management of State land and buildings, land sales, leases and allocation, developing and marketing land-related information and maintaining the national land information database. In its regulatory role, SLA is the national land registration authority and is responsible for the management and maintenance of the national land survey system. Singapore Land Authority Official Website State Property Information Online

The Slaves of Solitude

The Slaves of Solitude is a novel by Patrick Hamilton. It was published in 1947 and reissued by New York Review Books Classics in 2007; the novel is set in 1943 in the fictional town of Thames Lockden, follows the experiences of Miss Roach who lives in the Rosamund Tea Rooms, a guest house, having left London during the Blitz. Residing at the guest house are Mr Thwaites, Miss Steele, Miss Barrett and Mr Prest. Miss Roach works in other capacities' in London; the opening sequence describes London as a great monster respiring, drawing workers into the city through its lungs in the morning and expelling them in the evening. It follows Miss Roach to the Rosamund Tea Rooms and she is presented as leading a dull and uncomplicated life, she is, oppressed by Mr Thwaites who takes every opportunity to mock her at meal times. Mr Thwaites, revealed to be a Nazi Sympathiser, insists that Miss Roach is a'friend of the Russians', is shown to be overbearing and a bore and forces the shared meals the guests partake in to be conducted in an oppressive atmosphere.

Soon after this, two American servicemen appear at dinner. Miss Roach becomes romantically involved with one of them, Lieutenant Pike, beginning a relationship centred on the local pub and kissing on a bench; this relationship becomes disrupted by the arrival of Miss Roach's German friend Vicki Kugelmann, who soon becomes Miss Roach's love rival. Miss Kugelmann moves into the Rosamund Tea Rooms, charms Mr Thwaites and there soon begins a sort emotional struggle between the two spinsters; the poet John Betjeman said in a contemporary Daily Herald review, that "I think Mr Hamilton is one of the best living novelists, that this is the best book he has yet written."David Lodge described the book as'one of the best novels about the second world war' On 5 November 2019 BBC News included The Slaves of Solitude on its list of the 100 most influential novels

Orvil Township, New Jersey

Orvil Township was a township that existed in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States, from 1886 to 1919. The township was created on January 1, 1886, from the western portion of Washington Township and the southern portion of Hohokus Township; the township straddled both sides of the Saddle River, extending north to the New York state border and south to Ridgewood Township. The township was named for a journalist and author who lived in the area. Boroughitis hit Orvil hard in 1894, with five new boroughs created from the nascent township. Montvale and Woodcliff were both formed on August 31, 1894. Allendale was incorporated on November 10, 1894, from portions of Orvil and from Franklin and Hohokus Townships. Saddle River was created by a referendum held on November 19, 1894 and incorporated on November 22, 1894. Upper Saddle River formed on November 22, 1894 from area taken from both Orvil and Hohokus Townships. A further portion of the township was taken to create the borough of Orvil on March 8, 1905.

On April 7, 1919, a council of citizens voted to incorporate as the borough of Waldwick from the remaining portions of Orvil Township. With the creation of the borough of Waldwick, Orvil Township was dissolved, after 33 years in existence. Clayton, W. Woodford. History of Bergen and Passaic Counties, New Jersey, with Biographical Sketches of Many of its Pioneers and Prominent Men. Philadelphia: Everts and Peck, 1882. Van Valen, James M. History of Bergen County, New Jersey. New York: New Jersey Publishing and Engraving Co. 1900. Westervelt, Frances A. 1858-1942, History of Bergen County, New Jersey, 1630-1923, Lewis Historical Publishing Company, 1923. Municipal Incorporations of the State of New Jersey prepared by the Division of Local Government, Department of the Treasury. Bergen County Townships and Municipalities Dutch Door Genealogy: Bergen County New Jersey Municipalities


Brown-brown is a purported form of cocaine or amphetamine insufflation mixed with smokeless gunpowder. This powder contains nitroglycerin, a drug prescribed for heart conditions, which might cause vasodilation, permitting the cocaine or amphetamine insufflation to move more through the body. This, in turn, is believed to allow for a more intense high; the term may refer to heroin. Brown-brown is given to child soldiers in West African armed conflicts. One former child soldier, Michel Chikwanine, has written a graphic novel with Jessica Dee Humphreys called Child Soldier, about the experience of being captured at the age of 5 by rebel fighters in the Democratic Republic of Congo, including being given brown-brown. "The rebel soldier who had hit me used a long, jagged knife to cut my wrist and rubbed powder into the wound. They called it Brown Brown – a mixture of gunpowder and a drug called cocaine. Right away, I began to feel like my brain was trying to jump out of my head." The fictional character Yuri Orlov uses the drug in Liberia in the film Lord of War.

It is portrayed being used by Liberian child soldiers during their preparations for a combat/assault mission in the French/Liberian film Johnny Mad Dog. Several characters in the film Beasts of No Nation are seen snorting a substance cocaine heroin, mixed with gunpowder and burned. In the novel Beasts of No Nation and its 2015 film adaptation, brown-brown is used by many of the child soldiers and the Commandant. Ishmael Beah describes using brown-brown and other drugs while he was a child soldier in Sierra Leone, in his memoir A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier. In 1000 Ways to Die episode 4.5, titled "Killing Them Softly", Tomo, a Sierra Leonean warlord, dies after snorting brown-brown with diamond dust in it, which cut through the lining of his lungs, breaching arteries and blood vessels. In the Funimation dub for the anime series Crayon Shin-Chan, the character Musae Koyama is renamed Bitzi Nohara and is presented as a photographer, recovering from a brown-brown addiction after traveling to Africa and becoming romantically involved with a gun runner who trained child soldiers.

Appears in the riverdale show. In the video game Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty, Raiden divulges his experience as a child soldier and references the use of brown-brown. According to Brendan I. Koerner, the use of cocaine mixed with gunpowder may be less prevalent than reports indicate, as cocaine would be difficult to source during armed conflicts in the African continent. Brown pills that were referred to as cocaine were most amphetamine; the first actual documentation of the term "brown-brown" was a 2005 Norwegian NGO report that stated the term refers to heroin. Brown

Negri bodies

Negri bodies are eosinophilic outlined, pathognomonic inclusion bodies found in the cytoplasm of certain nerve cells containing the virus of rabies in pyramidal cells within Ammon's horn of the hippocampus. They are often found in the purkinje cells of the cerebellar cortex from postmortem brain samples of rabies victims, they consist of ribonuclear proteins produced by the virus. They are named for Adelchi Negri. Adelchi Negri, an assistant pathologist working in the laboratory of Camillo Golgi, observed these inclusions in rabbits and dogs with rabies; these findings were presented in 1903 at a meeting of the Società Medico-Chirurgica of Pavia. The American pathologist Anna Wessels Williams made the same discovery, but because Negri published his results first, the bodies bear his name. Negri was convinced the inclusions were the etiologic agent of rabies; that same year, Paul Remlinger and Rifat-Bey Frasheri in Constantinople and, Alfonso di Vestea in Naples showed that the etiologic agent of rabies is a filterable virus.

Negri continued until 1909 to try to prove that the intraneuronal inclusions named after him corresponded to steps in the developmental cycle of a protozoan. In spite of his incorrect etiologic hypothesis, Negri's discovery represented a breakthrough in the rapid diagnosis of rabies, the detection of Negri bodies, using a method developed by Anna Wessels Williams, remained the primary way to detect rabies for the next thirty years. Slide at – see bottom See pathology video of Negri bodies