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Pope Severinus

Pope Severinus was Bishop of Rome two months, from 28 May until his death on 2 August. He became caught up in a power struggle with the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius over the ongoing Monothelite controversy. Severinus was a Roman, his father was named Avienus, according to the Liber Pontificalis. The name of the father suggests descent from members of the Roman Senate. A previous Avienus was Roman consul in 501. Severinus was elected on the third day after the death of his predecessor, Honorius I, the papal apocrisiarii went to Constantinople to obtain imperial confirmation of his election in October 638. Before his death, Patriarch Sergius I of Constantinople had drawn up the Ecthesis in response to the orthodox synodical letter of Sophronius, the Patriarch of Jerusalem, on learning of the death of Pope Honorius had convinced the Emperor to issue this document as an imperial edict in December 638, thus valid across the entire empire. Given directly to Eustachius, the magister militum, he carried it to the Exarch Isaac at Ravenna with instructions that he was to ensure the Pope’s acceptance.

With its declaration of Jesus Christ only possessing one will, Severinus refused to sign it. The exarch therefore refused to confirm the papal election in the Emperor’s name, a situation that endured for over eighteen months. In the meantime, Isaac was determined to achieve his aim, so he commissioned Maurice, the chartoularios, to plunder the Lateran palace and force Severinus to agree to the Ecthesis. Maurice gathered together a party of local discontented nobles and approached the local soldiers, the exercitus Romanus, convinced them that the Pope had withheld their pay and was keeping the arrears in the Lateran. A mob soon formed and they rushed en masse to the palace. Severinus managed to keep the hostile forces out of the palace. Maurice tried another tactic and three days he was admitted into the palace with the city judges whom he won over to his side, they sealed up the treasures, Maurice sent word to the Exarch that he was free to come to the palace and help himself to the accumulated riches.

Isaac soon appeared, after exiling the leading clergy within the Lateran, spent the next eight days looting the palace, prudently sending a share to the Emperor at Constantinople to prevent his displeasure. Meanwhile, at Constantinople, the papal envoys had continued to seek the confirmation of Severinus. Emperor Heraclius still refused to grant his confirmation unless Severinus signed his Ecthesis, a Monothelite profession of faith. At first they were told that unless they would go back and persuade the Pope to accept the Ecthesis, they were wasting their time; the legates sought to persuade an unwell and dying Heraclius that they were not there to make professions of faith, but to transact business. The envoys were unwilling to agree to this demand, but they were unwilling to allow the Roman See to remain vacant indefinitely, so they offered to show Severinus the document and ask him to sign it if he thought it was correct, they made it clear that if the emperor was going to force Severinus to sign it, that all the clergy of the See of Rome would stand together, such a route would only end in a lengthy and destructive stalemate.

This offer was satisfactory, imperial recognition of the papal election was granted. Over the following year the legates stood firm, at last a tired Heraclius backed down, broken by opposition both at Constantinople and at Rome against his Monothelite compromise; the emperor granted the envoys their request, the legates returned to Rome with the news, Severinus was installed as pope on 28 May 640. Isaac withdrew to Ravenna. During the short time he was pope, Severinus condemned the Ecthesis. Convening a synod, he decreed that “as there were two natures in Christ, so there were two natural operations.” He renewed the mosaics in the apse of Saint Peter’s Basilica. Severinus was quite old when his election was confirmed, his reign was only two months long when he died on 2 August 640. In the Liber Pontificalis, Severinus was described as a kind and mild holy man, a benefactor to the clergy, a friend to the poor. Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Pope Severinus". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

Martindale, John R.. H. M.. ISBN 0-500-01798-0. Mann, Horace K; the Lives of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages, Volume 1: The Popes Under the Lombard Rule, from St Gregory I to Leo III, Part 1

Władysław Niegolewski

Władysław Niegolewski was a Polish liberal politician and member of Prussian House of Representatives, insurgent in Greater Poland Uprising 1846, Greater Poland Uprising 1848 and January Uprising 1863, cofounder of Central Economic Society in 1861 and People's Libraries Society in 1880. Central Economic Society for the Grand Duchy of Poznań - promotion of modern agriculture People's Libraries Society promotion of education among the people Witold Jakóbczyk, Przetrwać na Wartą 1815-1914, Dzieje narodu i państwa polskiego, vol. III-55, Krajowa Agencja Wydawnicza, Warszawa 1989

Canton of Villers-Bocage, Somme

The Canton of Villers-Bocage is a former canton situated in the department of the Somme and in the Picardie region of northern France. It was disbanded following the French canton reorganisation which came into effect in March 2015; the canton is organised around the commune of Villers-Bocage in the arrondissement of Amiens. The altitude varies from 20m to 154m for an average of 92m; the canton of Villers-Bocage comprised a total of 12,386 inhabitants. Somme Arrondissements of the Somme department Cantons of the Somme department Communes of the Somme department Le canton de Villers-Bocage on the Insee website This article is based on the equivalent article from the French Wikipedia, consulted on March 21st, 2008


Sidolówka was an unofficial, yet common, name of the R wz. 42 hand grenade, produced by the Polish resistance organization Armia Krajowa in occupied Poland during World War II. The name of the grenade came from Sidol, a metal-cleaning agent from Henkel sold in Poland at the time; the first grenades used the Sidol bottles as the casing. On the casing was purposely modelled after the bottle in order to allow for easier hiding of the weapon. Sidolówka was first produced in Warsaw in 1942, by the professors of the Warsaw University of Technology under the leadership of Jan Czochralski, it was based on an earlier design of the Filipinka grenade of underground construction, which in turn was based on a pre-war Polish ET-38 anti-tank grenade. The primer and the detonator were designed by two engineers of the pre-war Polish munition works in Warsaw, pyrotechnician Władysław Pankowski and engineer Józef Michałowski, it was a fragmentation grenade with a 4.5 second delay time. Until the end of World War II, an estimate of 350,000 R-42 were produced in Polish underground factories.

A large number of such grenades were used in the Warsaw Uprising and other battles of the Operation Tempest. Armed Forces Museum's Movie about Polish hand grenades between 1930 and 1945

Valdeorras (DO)

Valdeorras is a Spanish Denominación de Origen Protegida for Galician wines located on the banks of the river Sil in the south of the province of Ourense. Valdeorras, whose name means “Valley of Gold”, may have been the first grape-growing and wine-producing region in Galicia. After the ancient Romans had finished mining the area for gold, they planted vines, the wines produced were mentioned in several inscriptions in Latin. During the Middle Ages the vineyards were managed by the religious orders. After a centuries-long period of decline, the 19th century saw. In the 20th century, in the 1970s experiments were conducted to reintroduce the native Godello grape variety; the area acquired its official DO status in 1945. The vineyards of the Valdeorras DOP are on the banks of the river Sil, which flows westwards from Castile and León to the province of Ourense. In general the landscape is flat or rolling; as most of the vineyards are on the river Sil valley floor, the soils are alluvial and quite fertile, with good moisture retaining properties.

The vines are planted at a height of between 240 320 m above sea level. The climate in Valdeorras is a combination of Atlantic, continental and a specific micro-climate in the Sil valley; these factors ensure that the vines receive enough heat during the short summer. Rainfall is high, between 1,000 mm per year. Temperatures can drop to below zero during the winter. In addition to this, there are risks of late frosts and hailstones in spring, excessive heat in summer, violent storms caused by the mixture of the sea breezes and the dry air of the Castilian plain; the Recommended white grapes are Godello, Treixadura Albariño, Torrontés, Dona Branca. The Recommended red grapes are Mencía, Merenzao, Sousón, Brancellao, Caíño Tinto, Ferrón, Espadeiro. D. O. Valdeorras official website Spanish wine: Wine regions and their wine Information about Spanish DOCa and DOP wine regions Food and wines from Spain website

Academy of Design Australia

LCI Melbourne is a higher education institute based in Collingwood, specialising in the design arts. A Government-recognised Higher Education Provider, it is one of only two Australian higher education institutions to deliver a Bachelor of Design Arts, offers major studies in Communication Design, Fashion & Costume Design, Filmmaking & Photography, Graphic & Digital Design, Interior Design and Visual Arts. LCI Melbourne is part of the global LCI Education Network, which encompasses 22 campuses specialising predominately in tertiary-level design education around the world. LCI Melbourne was inaugurated as the Australian Academy of the Arts in 1998, it was renamed to the Academy of Design Australia, has adopted the institutional business name of LCI Melbourne in January 2018. In 1999 the Academy was recognised by the Office of Training and Tertiary Education as a Registered Training Organisation, the following year it was included on the Commonwealth Register of Cultural Organisations. Between 2001 and 2006, the Academy delivered undergraduate and postgraduate degrees through an affiliation with Charles Sturt University.

After this it was registered as a Non-Self Accrediting Higher Education Institution, able to offer degrees in its own right. This coincided with the accreditation of the Bachelor of Design Arts, developed in association with the Australian Academy of the Arts, now offered by the Academy. In 2015, the Academy of Design Australia became the 22nd campus in the La Salle College International Education Network. From January 2016 - December 2017, the university was located in a temporary residence, shared with Melbourne Polytechnic on Otter Street, after residing in Port Melbourne for seventeen years. In January 2018, the Academy rebranded its business name as LCI Melbourne and retained its institutional name for TESQA registration and moved to a new, purpose built art and design education, permanent residence in Oxford Street, Collingwood in the heritage-listed Foy & Gibson warehouse. Students attending LCI Melbourne are able to join a study period abroad at any one of LCI Education Network's 21 other campuses.

LCI Melbourne has international study agreements with a number of international design institutions, including Utrecht School of the Arts, Northumbria University, Politecnico di Milano and Design Academy Eindhoven. Opened in January 2018, the LCI Melbourne campus is located in the heritage-listed Foy & Gibson warehouse precinct in Collingwood; the area is a well-known creative hub, surrounded by art galleries, fashion houses and design studios, which provide many local professional placement opportunities for students. The building was remodelled by Gray Puksand and features state-of-the-art facilities including a public art gallery, editing suites, industry-standard studios. All original features and materials of the building have been reused. Alumni include Michael Halford. In 2011 the Academy was invited to join Cumulus, the International Association of Universities and Colleges of Art and Media, it is only the fourth Australian institution to receive such recognition, the first non-Government funded institution.

LCI Melbourne website