Untitled from Marilyn Monroe
Untitled from Marilyn Monroe is one of a portfolio of ten 36 x 36 silkscreened prints by the pop artist Andy Warhol, showcasing 1950's controversial film star Marilyn Monroe after her passing in 1962, creating an intersection of art and death. The original image was borrowed by Warhol from a promotional still captured by Gene Kornman and released for the film Niagara featuring Monroe, raising questions on the extent of artistic appropriation; the cropped and untouched images have since been recognised as iconic and influential on contemporary art, forming the foundations of what is now known as pop art. Whilst the portfolio is viewed as one entity, each print has been recognised as a stand-alone and is named after the colours in the work, some of which include "Orange Marilyn", "Lemon Marilyn" and "White Marilyn". After the first prints were made in 1967, they were sold by Warhol for as little as $250. However, with his rise in fame, in 1998 Orange Marilyn sold for $17.3 million and more the White Marilyn sold for $41 million.
Prior to his success as an artist, Warhol used his degree in pictorial design to be employed as a commercial illustrator in New York City, producing advertisements for Glamour fashion magazine whilst exhibiting his work on a small scale. Warhol soon gained popularity as a commercial artist advertising for prestigious magazines such as New York Times and Harper's Bazaar; this exposed him to a circle of many popular figures and encouraged his fascination with celebrities that began when he was a young boy. Whilst he kept his business and personal art pieces separate, his audience-orientated day-job provided him with a backing to manipulate the public's views in Untitled from Marilyn Monroe. In which he immortalises the actress after her death and advertises the star and her fame through her public self; the separation between his art is clear as his commercial work of the 1940-50s period is much lighter due to the addition of ink by hand to drawn images to be pressed onto a blank surface so the wet lines transfer.
Such primitive printing technique exposed Warhol to his appreciation of flawed repetition. Although majorly influenced by Jasper Johns and Robert Rauschenberg, pioneers of the Neo-Dada movement, Warhol embodied the colourful and bold pop-art as the basis of his work, as a rejection of Jackson Pollock's and Willem de Kooning's abstract expressionism. Pop Art allowed Warhol to challenge the need for originality in art, rather preferring to use photographs as the basis of his work. Instead of focusing on emotion and dramatic action, Pop Art sought to represent the dynamics of the world and be inclusive of the state of objects and society in everyday life; this in combination with mass media production, inspired Warhol's future use of automatic reproduction through silk screening. This technique was employed Warhol at a perfect time when America's gross national products quadrupled in 1960's creating an economy based on consumerism. Referring to the slight disturbances to the uniformity of silk screened prints, Warhol said, "I liked the way repetition changes the same image", demonstrating this transformations in the 10 Monroe prints, characteristic of the ink messy process.
His random assortment of subjects, is a "careful selection through elimination", of public events or famous figures which convey historic and meaningful connotations. These distinct artistic choices, catalysed his success and recognition, defining him as an artist through these headlined events whilst creating an anthology of art pieces that reflect his time; such endurance was important to Warhol, "the idea is not to live forever, it is to create something that will". He was successful in this mission by creating a legacy for himself as a pioneer of Pop Art as well as immortalising the subjects of his work. Warhol's most renowned muse was an enduring sex symbol and Westernised beauty. Monroe began as a model under her real name Norma. After being scouted whilst working at a military factory, her pale features and blonde hair gained wide recognition and she signed a seven-year contract with Twentieth Century Fox, she was one of the top paid actresses in 1950's. Her film credits included All about Eve and The Seven Year Itch.
During this time Niagara was released. A promotional still from the film and captured by Gene Kornman is the basis of Untitled from Marilyn Monroe. However, not everything was as glamorous as it looked to the viewers, as Monroe struggled with casting in serious movie roles, due to Hollywood's depiction of her as a vacant and sexualised female. Throughout her triumphs, Monroe struggled with mental health breakdowns, searching for happiness and love and the pressure to embody the housewife stereotype, it was believed, managing her public life and the seductive yet mysterious "Monroe legend" began her toxic behaviour of alcohol and drug abuse. In the early 1960s Monroe's life took a tumultuous turn after pressure to fulfil her contract took its toll, resulting in her death on August 5, 1962, ruled a probable suicide. After her death, the media drew attention to complexity of her character and the façade concealing the true nature of Monroe's insecure and melancholic self; as a pioneer of the Pop Art movement endorsing pop culture and materialism, Warhol rejects Abstract Expressionism celebrating independent art that holds true to consumeristic aesthetic.
This was done through borrowing by Warhol from a promotional still of the film Niagara, raising questions on the extent of artistic appropriation. In Untitled from Marilyn Monroe, Warhol deconstructs her artificial media typecast. Warhol transformed Monroe's ubiquitous typecast as an enduring sex icon and femme
A memoir is a collection of memories that an individual writes about moments or events, both public or private, that took place in the subject's life. The assertions made in the work are understood to be factual. While memoir has been defined as a subcategory of biography or autobiography since the late 20th century, the genre is differentiated in form, presenting a narrowed focus. A biography or autobiography tells the story "of a life", while a memoir tells a story "from a life", such as touchstone events and turning points from the author's life; the author of a memoir may be referred to a memorialist. Memoirs have been written since the ancient times, as shown by Julius Caesar's Commentarii de Bello Gallico known as Commentaries on the Gallic Wars. In the work, Caesar describes the battles that took place during the nine years that he spent fighting local armies in the Gallic Wars, his second memoir, Commentarii de Bello Civili is an account of the events that took place between 49 and 48 BC in the civil war against Gnaeus Pompeius and the Senate.
The noted Libanius, teacher of rhetoric who lived between an estimated 314 and 394 AD, framed his life memoir as one of his literary orations, which were written to be read aloud in the privacy of his study. This kind of memoir refers to the idea in ancient Greece and Rome, that memoirs were like "memos", or pieces of unfinished and unpublished writing, which a writer might use as a memory aid to make a more finished document on; the Sarashina Nikki is an example of an early Japanese memoir, written in the Heian period. A genre of book writing, Nikki Bungaku, emerged during this time. In the Middle Ages, Geoffrey of Villehardouin, Jean de Joinville, Philippe de Commines wrote memoirs, while the genre was represented toward the end of the Renaissance, through the works of Blaise de Montluc and Margaret of Valois, that she was the first woman to write her Memoirs in modern-style; until the Age of Enlightenment encompassing the 17th and 18th centuries, works of memoir were written by Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury.
While Saint-Simon was considered a writer possessing a high level of skill for narrative and character development, it wasn't until well after his death that his work as a memoirist was recognized, resulting in literary fame. Over the latter half of the 18th through the mid-20th century, memoirists included those who were noted within their chosen profession; these authors wrote as a way to publish their own account of their public exploits. Authors included politicians or people in court society and were joined by military leaders and businessmen. An exception to these models is Henry David Thoreau's 1854 memoir Walden, which presents his experiences over the course of two years in a cabin he built near Walden Pond. Twentieth-century war memoirs became a genre of their own, from the First World War, Ernst Jünger and Frederic Manning's Her Privates We. Memoirs documenting incarceration by Nazi Germany during the war include Primo Levi's If This Is a Man, which covers his arrest as a member of the Italian Resistance Movement, followed by his life as a prisoner in Auschwitz.
In the early 1990s, memoirs written by ordinary people experienced a sudden upsurge, as an increasing number of people realized that their ancestors’ and their own stories were about to disappear, in part as a result of the opportunities and distractions of technological advances. At the same time and other research began to show that familiarity with genealogy helps people find their place in the world and that life review helps people come to terms with their own past. With the advent of inexpensive digital book production in the first decade of the 21st century, the genre exploded. Memoirs written as a way to pass down a personal legacy, rather than as a literary work of art or historical document, are emerging as a personal and family responsibility; the Association of Personal Historians formed in Amherst, Massachusetts, in the early days of the modern memoir, as an international trade association for professionals who assist individuals and organizations in documenting their life stories, preferably in archival formats.
With the expressed interest of preserving history through the eyes of those who lived it, some organizations work with potential memoirists to bring their work to fruition. The Veterans History Project, for example, compiles the memoirs of those who have served in a branch of the United States Armed Forces – those who have seen active combat. Association of Personal Historians Diary Fake memoirs Histoire de ma vie Last will and testament Time Magazine. Memoir Network
The Marilyn Diptych is a silkscreen painting by American pop artist Andy Warhol depicting Marilyn Monroe. The piece is one of the artist's most noted works, it is in the collection of the Tate. Silk-screening was the technique used to create this painting; the twenty-five images on the left are painted in color, the right side is white. The painting consists of 50 images; the work was completed during the weeks after Marilyn Monroe's death in August 1962. Warhol's Ferus Gallery Los Angeles exhibition ran July 9 through August 4, 1962. Monroe's death on Sunday 5 August was news on the Monday, on which day the Warhol exhibition was being taken down; the fifty images of the actress are all based on a single publicity photograph from the film Niagara. The piece was on display as part of the exhibition "Witty, Gimmicky: Pop 1957-67" at the Tate Modern from 27 Apr 2015 to 10 Jan 2016, it has been suggested that the relation between the left side of the canvas and the right side of the canvas is evocative of the relation between the celebrity's life and death.
The work has received praise from writers such as American academic and cultural critic Camille Paglia, who wrote in 2012's Glittering Images lauding how it shows the "multiplicity of meanings" in Monroe's life and legacy. In a December 2, 2004 article in The Guardian, the painting was named the third most influential piece of modern art in a survey of 500 artists and others. Analysis of Andy Warhol's Marilyn Monroe Series, including Marylin Diptych
Orange Prince is a painting by American artist Andy Warhol, of Prince Rogers Nelson, the American singer, record producer, multi-instrumentalist and director. Orange Prince is considered an important late work referencing Warhol's portraits from the early 1960s, of movie stars and celebrity icons, such as Marilyn Monroe, Elizabeth Taylor and Jacqueline Kennedy. Art historian and Warhol expert Thomas E. Crow believes that Warhol's portrait of Prince shows much greater freedom of expression, as in the early portraits; this is evident when compared to Warhol's more'factory-line' style of portraits from the 1970s onwards, which were commissions. Prince did not commission the Warhol portraits, which stayed in Warhol's private collection until he died. Crow believes Warhol was fascinated by Prince, not in Warhol's direct circle, he says that Warhol was drawn to Prince's edgy image, which acted as inspiration for the art work:" evident fascination with Prince, known for sexual frankness in his music and an androgynous style in his clothes, make-up, hairstyle, echoed similar traits among those he famously gathered around himself in the Factory entourage of the 1960s."
Orange Prince uses a photograph as its source image, which depicts Prince in the burgeoning stages of his career in 1981, three years before the painting was created. The original color photograph shows Prince in a full length pose, from which Warhol isolated the head only for the portrait; the composition of Orange Prince makes direct reference to the portraits Warhol produced in the 1960s, as Crow points out in his 2018 analysis of the painting, is similar in composition to Warhol's Marilyn series where the subject's head'floats' in day-glo color. According to Crow, the composition is distinct from other late portraits, the majority of which were commissions and followed a commercial formula, such as Warhol's portrait of Michael Jackson, commissioned and created a few months before Orange Prince; as Crow says: "Warhol's 1984 portrait... harked back to the independently conceived celebrity likenesses of his earlier career. As Prince had not commissioned any of the paintings, Warhol could experiment with far more variations in background patterns and colors."The face of the subject is depicted in a neon orange color, the same as the background.
The facial outline and hair are in black. Highlights of green and blue are woven onto the screen amongst the black line around the subject's facial features and ears; the overall effect is to make the subject luminesce, with a trade-mark Warhol flatness to the image, due to the little graduation of shading. Prince and Andy Warhol were acquainted, as Warhol's diary entries show. On a number of occasions in the early 1980s Prince had appeared in Andy Warhol's Interview Magazine. In the April 1980 edition Prince appears in a full-page photograph by Robert Mapplethorpe. Warhol attended a number of Prince concerts in the 1980s, including one of the earliest in New York. On December 9, 1980, Prince played The Ritz in New York as part of his Dirty Mind Tour; the club was only half-full, but as music critic Nik Cohn reported, "Andy Warhol and his claque showed up, so did a number of music-biz faces. Before the show, they lounged in poses of practised cool. Prince appeared, cool went up in flames". In the December 1981 edition of Warhol's Interview magazine Prince appears in a controversial image showing him in the shower, a crucifix on the wall behind.
In Fall 1984, Warhol created Orange Prince. Prince was well known internationally. On August 2, 1986, Warhol was in the front row at Prince's concert at Madison Square Garden. In his diary entry of their meeting, Warhol described sitting down at the concert "...just as Prince jumps out naked, or and it's the greatest concert I've seen there, just so much energy and excitement."Afterwards at the New York dance club, The Palladium, Warhol reported that he was excited to be invited to an after-party hosted by Prince, fascinated by him. Warhol described arriving at the party and seeing Prince appear in the near-empty club "...in a white coat and pink bellbottoms, like a Puerto Rican at a prom, all by himself". He stated Prince was a gracious host who remembered the names of the many individuals in Warhol's entourage that night, how Prince made sure he danced with everyone; the same party was attended by Billy Idol. That night, Prince agreed to appear on the December 1986 cover of Warhol's Interview magazine, which Warhol described in his diary:"We asked Prince if he would be our December cover and he said we'd have to talk to his manager and we said that we'd asked the manager and the manager said to ask him, so they said they'd work it out.
We were just shaking, it was so exciting."Warhol's portrait of Prince was created in 1984, two years before their post-concert meeting in 1986, remained in Warhol's own collection until he died in 1987. Orange Prince was created using a complex tracing and silkscreening process, using layers of colors of silkscreen ink on top of a hand-painted orange ground of acrylic polymer paint, applied to canvas; the technique was popularised by Warhol, is synonymous with the artist from the 1960s onwards, when he produced his early portraits of Marilyn Monroe, Elvis Presley, Elizabeth Taylor and Marlon Brando, other Hollywood movie stars and celebrities of the time. The 1989 MoMA catalo
Silver Car Crash (Double Disaster)
Silver Car Crash is a 1963 serigraph by the American artist Andy Warhol. In November 2013 it sold for $105m at auction. Silver Car Crash depicts a body twisted in the mangled interior of a silver car, it was printed by Andy Warhol at the age of 35. It is the last serigraph of the artist, left in private hands; the serigraph is 8 by 13 feet in dimensions, it was displayed only once in public during the last 26 years. This painting was part of his Disaster series; the art masterpiece was held by a European collector for 20 years. In November 2013, five bidders fought for the serigraph in an auction of contemporary art works organized by Sotheby's, bringing the price to $105 million; the name of the winner was never disclosed to the public. The final price was above the expectations of the organizers, because the serigraph was estimated at $60–80 million; the price broke the previous record paid for a Warhol serigraph, $100 million paid for Eight Elvises. Eight Elvises List of most expensive paintings
Portrait of Seymour H. Knox
Portrait of Seymour H. Knox is a 1985 portrait by Andy Warhol of Seymour H. Knox II, it was donated by the families of his two sons, Mr. and Mrs. Seymour H. Knox III and Mrs. and Mrs. Northrup R. Knox, to the Albright-Knox Art Gallery in honor of Seymour H. Knox II for his 60-year contribution as a member of the Buffalo Fine Arts Academy; this is one of a number of celebrity portraits that Warhol produced in this duplicative multicolored style. Many were produced in his early 1960s silkscreen period; some of the major celebrity portraits of this style include those of Elvis Presley, Elizabeth Taylor, Marilyn Monroe, Jacqueline Kennedy, Mao Zedong and Andy Warhol himself. He produced similar style works of several other minor celebrities. Albright-Knox Art Gallery Page The American Museum Images from Cartography Associates webpage
Big Electric Chair
Created in 1967, the Stockholm Big Electric Chair is part of a series of works by Andy Warhol depicting an electric chair. Death by electrocution was a controversial subject in New York City, where the artist lived and worked after the last two executions at Sing Sing Correctional Facility in 1963. Warhol obtained a photograph of the empty execution chamber, which became the basis for this series