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Poplog is an Open Source, incrementally compiled software development environment for the programming languages POP-11, Common Lisp and Standard ML created in the UK for teaching and research in Artificial Intelligence at the University of Sussex, marketed as a commercial package for software development as well as for teaching and research. It was one of the initiatives supported for a while by the UK government-funded Alvey Programme. After an incremental compiler for Prolog had been added to an implementation of POP-11, the name POPLOG was adopted, to reflect the fact that the expanded system supported programming in both languages; the name was retained, as a trade mark of the University of Sussex, when the system was extended with incremental compilers for Common Lisp and Standard ML based on a set of tools for implementing new languages in the Poplog Virtual Machine. The user-accessible incremental-compiler tools that allow compilers for all these languages to be added allow extensions to be made within a language to provide new powers that cannot be added using standard macros that allow new text to be equivalent to a longer portion of old text.

For some time after 1983, Poplog was sold and supported internationally as a commercial product, on behalf of the University of Sussex by Systems Designers Ltd, whose name changed as ownership changed. The main development work continued to be done by a small team at Sussex University until 1998, while marketing and support was done by SDL and its successors. SDL named then EDS marketed Poplog after EDS took over SD-Scicon, until 1991. At that time a management buy-out produced a spin-off company Integral Solutions Ltd, to sell and support Poplog in collaboration with Sussex University, who retained the rights to the name'Poplog' and were responsible for the core software development while it was a commercial product. In 1992 ISL and Sussex University won a "Smart Award" in recognition of Poplog sales worth $5M. ISL and its clients used Poplog for a number of development projects ISL's data-mining system Clementine implemented in POP-11, using powerful graphical tools implemented in POP-11 running on the X Window System.

Clementine was so successful that in 1998 ISL was bought by SPSS Inc, selling the statistics and data-mining package SPSS for which they needed a better graphical interface suited to expert and non-expert users. SPSS did not wish to sell and support Poplog as such, so Poplog became available as a free open source software package, hosted at the University of Birmingham, involved in development after 1991. IBM bought SPSS and Clementine is now marketed and supported as SPSS Modeler. Poplog's core language is POP-11, it is used to implement the other languages, all of them incrementally compiled, with an integrated common editor. In the Linux/Unix versions, POP-11 provides support for 2-D graphics via X. Poplog supports incrementally compiled versions of Common Lisp, POP-11, Standard ML. A separate package implemented by Robin Popplestone supports a version of Scheme. Poplog has been used both for academic research and teaching in artificial intelligence and to develop several commercial products, apart from Clementine.

In 1992, ISL and Sussex University won an ICP Million Dollar award in recognition of Poplog exceeding sales of US$5 million. POP-11 was at first implemented on a DEC PDP-11 computer in 1976, was ported to VAX/VMS in 1980, it became Poplog around 1982. Although the first commercial sales were for VAX/VMS, from the mid-1980s, the main Poplog development work was done on Sun SPARC computers running Solaris, although several different versions were sold, including versions for HP-UX and a 64-bit version of Poplog for DEC Alpha running Digital UNIX. After about 1999, when Poplog became available as free, open source, most development work was done on the Linux version, including porting to 64-bit Linux. A partial port to Mac OS X on PowerPC was done in 2005. There is a version for Windows developed to support Clementine, but the Unix/Linux graphical subsystem does not work on Windows Poplog; the Windows version of Clementine depended on a commercial package that supported X functionality on Windows.

There is an open source project which aimed to produce a more platform neutral version of Poplog, including Windows. The most recent development by this project includes a web server component for integrating into Poplog applications, the OpenPoplog Widget Collection for supporting client user interfaces running in a web browser. A more narrowly focused open source Poplog project, restricted to the 64-bit AMD64/X86-68 architecture was set up on Github by Waldek Hebisch:; this is now the basis of Poplog Version 16 hosted at the University of Birmingham. Additional information about the history and features of Poplog can be found in the entries for POP-2 and POP-11; the chief architect of Poplog, responsible for many innovations related to making an incrementally compiled system portable, providing support for a collection of languages was John Gibson, at Sussex University, though the earliest work was done by Steve Hardy. Chris Mellish helped with the initial Prolog implementation in POP-11. John Williams, working under supervision of Jonathan Cunningham implemented the Common Lisp subsystem.

Robert Duncan and Simon Nichols added Standard ML. Between about 1980 and 1991, the project was managed by Aaron Sloman, until he went to the University of Birmingham, though he continued to collaborate with Sussex and ISL on Poplog development after that. Since 1999, he has been

Agnieszka Holland

Agnieszka Holland is a Polish film and television director and screenwriter. Best known for her political contributions to Polish cinema, Holland is one of Poland's most eminent filmmakers, she began her career as assistant to directors Krzysztof Zanussi and Andrzej Wajda, emigrated to France shortly before the 1981 imposition of the martial law in Poland. Holland is best known for her films Europa Europa and her 2011 drama In Darkness, nominated for Best Foreign Language Film at the 84th Academy Awards. In 2017 she received Alfred Bauer Prize for her film Spoor at the Berlin International Film Festival. Holland was born in Warsaw, Poland in 1948, she is the daughter of journalists Irena and Henryk Holland, a prominent Communist activist since 1935 and a captain of the Polish Army. Holland's mother was Catholic and her father Jewish, but she was not brought up in any religious faith, her father, Henryk Holland, lost his parents in a ghetto during the Holocaust, spent most of his adult life denying his own Jewishness.

Holland's mother participated in the 1944 Warsaw Uprising as a member of the Polish resistance movement. Holland's Catholic mother aided several Jews during the Holocaust and received the Righteous Among the Nations medal from the Yad Vashem Institute in Israel. Holland was ill as a child, spent much of her time writing and directing short plays with other children; when she was eleven, her parents, whose marriage had been continuously contentious and her mother soon remarried a Jewish journalist, Stanislaw Brodski. Holland describes her relationship with her father as influential, but distant. According to Holland, "he was interesting intelligent, in the last years of his life he gave me a lot of doors to the art and the film, but he wasn't interested in the young children and he only noticed me when he wanted to make a kind of show". Holland recalls being shown off to her father's friends during late night gatherings, being ignored in the morning when he was no longer entertaining; when Holland was thirteen, her father died under police interrogation while under house arrest in Warsaw.

Although official reports labeled his death a suicide, his family and others believe he was murdered by the communist police, by defenestration. Holland attended the Stefan Batory Lyceum in Warsaw. After high school, she studied at the Film and TV School of the Academy of Performing Arts in Prague because, as she said in an interview, she thought the Czechoslovak films of the 1960s were interesting: "I watched first films of Miloš Forman, Ivan Passer, Vera Chytilova, they seemed to be fantastically interesting to me, unlike what was being made in Poland at that time". At FAMU, she met her future husband and fellow director, Laco Adamik. Holland witnessed the Prague Spring of 1968 while in Czechoslovakia, was arrested for her support of the dissident movement for the government reforms and political liberalization, she describes her time in Prague as her "introduction to politics, beauty, marriage and other arts...everything that happened to after was based on this Czechoslovak experience". During her time in prison, she spent time in a cell between two inmates.

It became her job to pass erotic messages between them. Holland herself said that "it was like phone sex and I was the cable", it was during her time in Prague and in prison that she realized "she'd rather be an artist than an agitator". Holland graduated from FAMU in 1971, she wrote her first screenplay. Though it was censored and stopped from being developed, it attracted the attention of Andrzej Wajda, who became her mentor, her daughter with Adamik, Kasia, is a director. The events and confusing identities that made up her childhood resulted in Holland being known to have a significant struggle with identity, which manifests itself in many of her most famous films those related to Polish-Jewish interactions during the Holocaust. According to Holland, the tense relationship between Polish natives and Jewish Poles is still an ongoing issue, she says that "some Jews from Poland are still hostile to the Polish... There are things in Catholicism and Polish nationalism which are anti-Semitic", her acclaimed film Europa, Europa brought her success and recognition in Hollywood, but she has always, still faces trouble in her career and life due to her past.

Holland's "mixed Polish Catholic and Jewish ancestry...places her at the hub of this century's violence". These conflicts and hardships have been the inspiration for films such as Europa, Europa and In Darkness. Holland began her career as an assistant director for Polish film directors Krzysztof Zanussi and Andrzej Wajda, her credits include Zanussi's 1973 film and Wajda's 1983 film, Danton. She was first assistant director on Wajda's 1976 Man of Marble, an experience which gave her the capability to explore political and moral issues within the confines of an oppressive regime. Though she had a large role to play in the success of this film, her name was kept off of the credits because of censorship laws. In the first part of her career, Holland was unable to release any films under her own name because of the harsh censorship of Communist authorities. Wajda offered to adopt her but she refused, convinced that she could release films under own name, her first major film was Provincial Actors, a 1978 chronicle of tense backstage relations within a small-town theater company, an allegory of Poland's contemporary political situation.

It won the International Critics Prize at the 1980 Cann

Battle of Horlivka

The Battle of Horlivka began when Ukrainian forces attempted to recapture the city of Horlivka, in Donetsk Oblast, from pro-Russian insurgents affiliated with the Donetsk People's Republic on 21 July 2014. Horlivka is a large city in Donetsk Oblast, north of Donetsk city. Amidst rising unrest across eastern and southern Ukraine, armed men stormed and took control of a police station in Horlivka on 14 April. Soon after this, the men stormed the city administration, gained effective control over the city for the breakaway Donetsk People's Republic. After DPR forces withdrew from Sloviansk in northern Donetsk Oblast on 5 July, many travelled to Horlivka, which remained under DPR control. Starting on 21 July, Ukrainian forces made repeated attempts to enter a suburb of Horlivka. Light skirmishes were reported across the city. A fighter jet from the Air Force of Ukraine was shot down over Horlivka on 23 July, after it attacked DPR positions in the city. After a lull, fighting resumed in Horlivka on 27 July.

Government forces launched an offensive to capture the city, said that they had encircled it. They said that they had destroyed checkpoints manned by DPR insurgents on the outskirts of the city. DPR leaders said. Government forces shelled many residential areas in Horlivka, killed at least thirteen people. A spokesman for the government military operation in the Donbass said that DPR forces had fired Grad rockets on civilian areas in an attempt to discredit government forces. DPR commanders in Horlivka said that if government forces did not withdraw from the city, they would kill hostages they had been holding, blow-up the city's chemical plants. During the fighting, government forces said they killed at least twenty insurgents, destroyed eight military vehicles on the outskirts of the city. On the following day, it was reported that seventeen civilians had been killed during the fighting in Horlivka, that forty-three had been wounded. Government forces continued to shell DPR positions with Grad rockets and mortars, causing panic amongst residents of the city.

Black smoke was seen rising over the city's suburbs. By 29 July, many residential districts in the city had been destroyed. DPR commander in Horlivka Igor Bezler, nom de guerre "Demon", left the city amidst the near-constant fighting. Government forces tried to encircle the city again on 31 July. Clashes continued over the following days. At least one civilian died on 3 August, whilst 16 were wounded. By 6 August, at least 250 houses in the city had been left without gas service, many more houses were destroyed. On the following day, an artillery shell struck a bus stop, killing five civilians, wounding ten more. A power station was destroyed, leaving much of the city without electricity. DPR forces blew up a bridge; this was an attempt to stop Ukrainian forces from advancing on their positions. Heavy fighting continued into 14 August. Chechen fighters, manning posts in the city abandoned them on 16 August. Ukrainian forces said. Despite this, fighting continued. A broad counter-offensive by DPR forces across the Donbass pushed Ukrainian forces back in many areas over the course of late August.

During fighting in Horlivka and nearby Ilovaisk on 27 August, Ukrainian forces said that they killed 200 insurgents. Despite a ceasefire signed on 5 September, DPR forces said that Ukrainian forces were shelling their positions in Horlivka on 6 September; the ceasefire held, none-the-less

The Fens

The Fens known as the Fenlands, is a coastal plain in eastern England. This natural marshy region supported a rich ecology and numerous species, as well as absorbing storms. Most of the fens were drained several centuries ago, resulting in a flat, low-lying agricultural region supported by a system of drainage channels and man-made rivers and automated pumping stations. There have been unintended consequences to this reclamation, as the land level has continued to sink and the dykes must be built higher to protect it from flooding. A fen is the local term for an individual area of former marshland, it designates the type of marsh typical of the area, which has neutral or alkaline water chemistry and large quantities of dissolved minerals, but few other plant nutrients. Fenland lies around the coast of the Wash, occupying an area of nearly 1,500 sq mi in Lincolnshire and Norfolk. Most of the Fenland lies within a few metres of sea level; as with similar areas in the Netherlands, much of the Fenland consisted of fresh- or salt-water wetlands.

These have been artificially drained and continue to be protected from floods by drainage banks and pumps. With the support of this drainage system, the Fenland has become a major arable agricultural region in Britain for grains and vegetables; the Fens are fertile, containing around half of the grade 1 agricultural land in England. The Fens have been referred to as the "Holy Land of the English" because of the former monasteries, now churches and cathedrals, of Crowland, Peterborough and Thorney. Other significant settlements in the Fens include Boston, Cambridge and Wisbech; the Fens are low-lying compared with the chalk and limestone uplands that surround them – in most places no more than 10 metres above sea level. As a result of drainage and the subsequent shrinkage of the peat fens, many parts of the Fens now lie below mean sea level. Although one writer in the 17th century described the Fenland as above sea level, the area now includes the lowest land in the United Kingdom. Holme Fen in Cambridgeshire, is around 2.75 metres below sea level.

Within the Fens are a few hills, which have been called "islands", as they remained dry when the low-lying fens around them were flooded. The largest of the fen-islands was the 23-square-mile Kimmeridge Clay island, on which the cathedral city of Ely was built: its highest point is 39 metres above mean sea level. Without artificial drainage and flood protection, the Fens would be liable to periodic flooding in winter due to the heavy load of water flowing down from the uplands and overflowing the rivers; some areas of the Fens were once permanently flooded, creating small lakes or meres, while others were flooded only during periods of high water. In the pre-modern period, arable farming was limited to the higher areas of the surrounding uplands, the fen islands, the so-called "Townlands", an arch of silt ground around the Wash, where the towns had their arable fields. Though these lands were lower than the peat fens before the peat shrinkage began, the more stable silt soils were reclaimed by medieval farmers and embanked against any floods coming down from the peat areas or from the sea.

The rest of the Fenland was dedicated to pastoral farming, fishing and the harvesting of reeds or sedge for thatch. In this way, the medieval and early modern Fens stood in contrast to the rest of southern England, an arable agricultural region. Since the advent of modern drainage in the 19th and 20th centuries, the Fens have been radically transformed. Today arable farming has entirely replaced pastoral; the economy of the Fens is invested in the production of crops such as grains and some cash crops such as rapeseed and canola. Drainage in the Fenland consists of both river drainage and internal drainage of the land between the rivers; the internal drainage was organised by levels or districts, each of which includes the fen parts of one or several parishes. The details of the organisation vary with the history of their development, but the areas include: The Great Level of the Fens is the largest region of fen in eastern England: including the lower drainage basins of the River Nene and the Great Ouse, it covers about 500 sq mi.

It is known as the Bedford Level, after Francis Russell, 4th Earl of Bedford, who headed the so-called adventurers in the 17th-century drainage in this area. In the 17th century, the Great Level was divided into the North and South Levels for the purposes of administration and maintenance. In the 20th century, these levels have been given new boundaries; the South Level lies to the southeast of the Ouse Washes and surrounds Ely, as it did in the 17th century. The Middle Level lies between the Ouse Washes and the Nene, but was defined as between the Ouse Washes and Morton's Leam, a 15th-century canal that runs north of the town of Whittlesey; the North Level now includes all of the fens in Cambridgeshire and Lincolnshire between the Nene and the River Welland. It included only a small part of these lands, including the ancient parishes of Thorney and Crowland, but excluding most of Wisbech Hundred and Lincolnshire, which were under their own local jurisdictions. Deeping Fen, in the southern part of Lincolnshire, lies between the River Welland and the River Glen with its tributary the Bourne Eau.

The Black Sluice District, much of, known as the Lindsey

Endohedral fullerene

Endohedral fullerenes called endofullerenes, are fullerenes that have additional atoms, ions, or clusters enclosed within their inner spheres. The first lanthanum C60 complex was synthesized in 1985 and called La@C60; the @ in the name reflects the notion of a small molecule trapped inside a shell. Two types of endohedral complexes exist: endohedral metallofullerenes and non-metal doped fullerenes. In a traditional chemical formula notation, a buckminsterfullerene with an atom was represented as MC60 regardless of whether M was inside or outside the fullerene. In order to allow for more detailed discussions with minimal loss of information, a more explicit notation was proposed in 1991, where the atoms listed to the left of the @ sign are situated inside the network composed of the atoms listed to the right; the example above would be denoted M@C60 if M were inside the carbon network. A more complex example is K2, which denotes "a 60-atom fullerene cage with one boron atom substituted for a carbon in the geodesic network, a single potassium trapped inside, two potassium atoms adhering to the outside."The choice of the symbol has been explained by the authors as being concise printed and transmitted electronically, the visual aspects suggesting the structure of an endohedral fullerene.

Doping fullerenes with electropositive metals takes place in an arc reactor or via laser evaporation. The metals can be transition metals like scandium, yttrium as well as lanthanides like lanthanum and cerium. Possible are endohedral complexes with elements of the alkaline earth metals like barium and strontium, alkali metals like potassium and tetravalent metals like uranium and hafnium; the synthesis in the arc reactor is however unspecific. Besides unfilled fullerenes, endohedral metallofullerenes develop with different cage sizes like La@C60 or La@C82 and as different isomer cages. Aside from the dominant presence of mono-metal cages, numerous di-metal endohedral complexes and the tri-metal carbide fullerenes like Sc3C2@C80 were isolated. In 1999 a discovery drew large attention. With the synthesis of the Sc3N@C80 by Harry Dorn and coworkers, the inclusion of a molecule fragment in a fullerene cage had succeeded for the first time; this compound can be prepared by arc-vaporization at temperatures up to 1100 °C of graphite rods packed with scandium oxide iron nitride and graphite powder in a K-H generator in a nitrogen atmosphere at 300 Torr.

Endohedral metallofullerenes are characterised by the fact that electrons will transfer from the metal atom to the fullerene cage and that the metal atom takes a position off-center in the cage. The size of the charge transfer is not always simple to determine. In most cases it is between 2 and 3 charge units, in the case of the La2@C80 however it can be about 6 electrons such as in Sc3N@C80, better described as +6@−6; these anionic fullerene cages are stable molecules and do not have the reactivity associated with ordinary empty fullerenes. They are stable in air up to high temperatures; the lack of reactivity in Diels-Alder reactions is utilised in a method to purify −6 compounds from a complex mixture of empty and filled fullerenes of different cage size. In this method Merrifield resin is modified as a cyclopentadienyl resin and used as a solid phase against a mobile phase containing the complex mixture in a column chromatography operation. Only stable fullerenes such as +6@−6 pass through the column unreacted.

In Ce2@C80 the two metal atoms exhibit a non-bonded interaction. Since all the six-membered rings in C80-Ih are equal the two encapsulated Ce atoms exhibit a three-dimensional random motion; this is evidenced by the presence of only two signals in the 13C-NMR spectrum. It is possible to force the metal atoms to a standstill at the equator as shown by x-ray crystallography when the fullerene is exahedrally functionalized by an electron donation silyl group in a reaction of Ce2@C80 with 1,1,2,2-tetrakis-1,2-disilirane. Gd@C8222, an endohedral metallofluorenol, can competitively inhibit the WW domain in the oncogene YAP1 from activating, it was developed as a MRI contrast agent. Martin Saunders in 1993 produced endohedral complexes He@C60 and Ne@C60 by pressurizing C60 to ca. 3 bar in a noble-gas atmosphere. Under these conditions about one out of every 650,000 C60 cages was doped with a helium atom; the formation of endohedral complexes with helium, argon and xenon as well as numerous adducts of the He@C60 compound was demonstrated with pressures of 3 kbars and incorporation of up to 0.1% of the noble gases.

While noble gases are chemically inert and exist as individual atoms, this is not the case for nitrogen and phosphorus and so the formation of the endohedral complexes N@C60, N@C70 and P@C60 is more surprising. The nitrogen atom is in its electronic initial state and is therefore to be reactive. N@C60 is sufficiently stable that exohedral derivatization from the mono- to the hexa adduct of the malonic acid ethyl ester is possible. In these compounds no charge transfer of the nitrogen atom in the center to the carbon atoms of the cage takes place. Therefore, 13C-couplings, which are observed easily with the endohedral metallofullerenes, could only be observed in the case of the N@C60 in a high resolution spectrum as shoulders of the central line; the central atom in these endohedral complexes is located in the center of the cage. While other atomic traps require complex equipment, e.g. laser cooling or magnetic traps, endohedral fullerenes represent an atomic trap, stable at roo

Nadia Lim

Nadia Lim is a New Zealand-born celebrity chef, food writer and television personality. Lim is known as the self-proclaimed "Nude Cook" as an advocate of natural, unprocessed foods, for creating healthy, nutritious recipes by putting a health focus behind food, influenced by her background as a clinical dietitian. Lim is of New Zealander and Chinese-Malaysian heritage and was born in Auckland, New Zealand, to her mother and Malaysian Chinese father. At six years of age she moved to Kuala Lumpur, where she lived for about six years, she has said that her experiences in two cultures influence her fusion cooking style of Asian and European cuisines. Lim graduated from Otago University in 2008 with a bachelor's degree in applied science in human nutrition and postgraduate diploma in dietetics, she worked from 2008 to 2011 for the Auckland District Health Board as a clinical dietitian, specialising in diabetes. She describes her recipes as healthy and focused on moderation. Lim believes that this is due in part to her background as a diabetes dietitian and understanding nutrition science.

Lim won the second series of MasterChef New Zealand, airing on TV One on New Zealand in 2011. In 2014 the Asian Food Channel commissioned an eight-part television show, New Zealand with Nadia Lim, screened during primetime across 14 countries throughout Asia, to an audience of 130 million; the show was produced to increase culture with Asian audiences. New Zealand with Nadia Lim was aired by SkyTV's Food TV channel from August 2014 and TVNZ's TV ONE from November 2014. Lim was a guest judge on the first series of My Kitchen Rules New Zealand, which broadcast on TV ONE in 2014 and on TV TWO in 2015, she appeared on the eighth series of Dancing with the Stars in 2019. Lim's first cookbook, Nadia's Kitchen, was released in 2012 by Random House and is focused on healthy original recipes. In 2013, Lim released Nadia Lim's Good Food Cookbook; this book received runner-up at the 2014 International Gourmand Cookbook of the Year awards. Lim is a founder of My Food Bag, a New Zealand and Australian home delivery service that delivers recipes and fresh ingredients to customers' doors.

The service was launched in 2013 by Cecilia and James Robinson, together with Lim and her husband, Carlos Bagrie, ex-Telecom CEO Theresa Gattung. Kevin Roberts, Executive Chairman of global advertising agency Saatchi & Saatchi was appointed Chairman of My Food Bag in March 2015An Australian division was launched in Sydney in August 2014. For the sixth series of MasterChef New Zealand, the winner would be employed to work for her as a chef/menu-planner as part of the prize package, she was a guest judge on episode 12, where the winner of her "Mystery Bag - Match made in Heaven Challenge" can have their dish featured in the company's recipe, which served as a job trial. Lim has worked with a number of New Zealand charities, partnering with Diabetes New Zealand, the Heart Foundation, the Blind Foundation, the Cancer Society and the Hospice to help encourage healthy eating and the Cambodia Charitable Trust to raise awareness of the poverty trap of underprivileged children in Cambodia. Lim has 2 sons named Bodhi and River.

Her father Ken died in 2014 due to cancer