The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Europe and the US, in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, the increasing use of steam power and water power, the development of machine tools and the rise of the mechanized factory system; the Industrial Revolution led to an unprecedented rise in the rate of population growth. Textiles were the dominant industry of the Industrial Revolution in terms of employment, value of output and capital invested; the textile industry was the first to use modern production methods. The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain, many of the technological innovations were of British origin. By the mid-18th century Britain was the world's leading commercial nation, controlling a global trading empire with colonies in North America and the Caribbean, with some political influence on the Indian subcontinent, through the activities of the East India Company.
The development of trade and the rise of business were major causes of the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution marks a major turning point in history. In particular, average income and population began to exhibit unprecedented sustained growth; some economists say that the major impact of the Industrial Revolution was that the standard of living for the general population began to increase for the first time in history, although others have said that it did not begin to meaningfully improve until the late 19th and 20th centuries. GDP per capita was broadly stable before the Industrial Revolution and the emergence of the modern capitalist economy, while the Industrial Revolution began an era of per-capita economic growth in capitalist economies. Economic historians are in agreement that the onset of the Industrial Revolution is the most important event in the history of humanity since the domestication of animals and plants. Although the structural change from agriculture to industry is associated with the Industrial Revolution, in the United Kingdom it was almost complete by 1760.
The precise start and end of the Industrial Revolution is still debated among historians, as is the pace of economic and social changes. Eric Hobsbawm held that the Industrial Revolution began in Britain in the 1780s and was not felt until the 1830s or 1840s, while T. S. Ashton held that it occurred between 1760 and 1830. Rapid industrialization first began in Britain, starting with mechanized spinning in the 1780s, with high rates of growth in steam power and iron production occurring after 1800. Mechanized textile production spread from Great Britain to continental Europe and the United States in the early 19th century, with important centres of textiles and coal emerging in Belgium and the United States and textiles in France. An economic recession occurred from the late 1830s to the early 1840s when the adoption of the original innovations of the Industrial Revolution, such as mechanized spinning and weaving and their markets matured. Innovations developed late in the period, such as the increasing adoption of locomotives and steamships, hot blast iron smelting and new technologies, such as the electrical telegraph introduced in the 1840s and 1850s, were not powerful enough to drive high rates of growth.
Rapid economic growth began to occur after 1870, springing from a new group of innovations in what has been called the Second Industrial Revolution. These new innovations included new steel making processes, mass-production, assembly lines, electrical grid systems, the large-scale manufacture of machine tools and the use of advanced machinery in steam-powered factories; the earliest recorded use of the term "Industrial Revolution" seems to have been in a letter from 6 July 1799 written by French envoy Louis-Guillaume Otto, announcing that France had entered the race to industrialise. In his 1976 book Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society, Raymond Williams states in the entry for "Industry": "The idea of a new social order based on major industrial change was clear in Southey and Owen, between 1811 and 1818, was implicit as early as Blake in the early 1790s and Wordsworth at the turn of the century." The term Industrial Revolution applied to technological change was becoming more common by the late 1830s, as in Jérôme-Adolphe Blanqui's description in 1837 of la révolution industrielle.
Friedrich Engels in The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844 spoke of "an industrial revolution, a revolution which at the same time changed the whole of civil society". However, although Engels wrote in the 1840s, his book was not translated into English until the late 1800s, his expression did not enter everyday language until then. Credit for popularising the term may be given to Arnold Toynbee, whose 1881 lectures gave a detailed account of the term; some historians, such as John Clapham and Nicholas Crafts, have argued that the economic and social changes occurred and the term revolution is a misnomer. This is still a subject of debate among some historians; the commencement of the Industrial Revolution is linked to a small number of innovations, beginning in the second half of the 18th century. By the 1830s the following gains had been made in important technologies: Textiles – mechanised cotton spinning powered by steam or water increased the output of a worker by a factor of around 500.
The power loom increased the output of a worker by a factor of over 40. The cotton gin increased productivity of removing seed from cotton by a factor of 50. Large gains in productivity occurred in spinning and weaving of w
Italia Conti Academy of Theatre Arts
The Italia Conti Academy is a performing arts educational institution based in London, England delivering a variety of disciplines and theatre training at Secondary Education, Further Education and Higher Education. It was founded in 1911 by the actress Italia Conti; the academy grew out of the first production of the play. Italia Conti, an established actress with a reputation for her success working with young people, was asked to take over the job of training the cast; the academy moved to a church building in Conduit Street, however during World War II, the academy was bombed, destroying all early records. In 1972, the academy relocated to a building in Clapham, it was the home to all full-time Italia Conti pupils for 9 years. In 1981, the academy grew and developed so much that it had to expand to Goswell Road in the City of London where the Junior and Musical Theatre courses are run; the BA Acting and CertHe Intro to Acting programmes are still based at the Avondale site in Clapham. The BA Acting Programme, validated by the University of East London and accredited by the Federation of Drama Schools, is a three-year full-time professional actor's training for students aged 18+.
It is based in Italia Conti's Avondale Building in London. The programme is run by Chris White, with staff and directors including Kate Williams, Paulette Randall, Karen Henthorn, Dugald Bruce-Lockhart, Lawrence Evans, John Gillett and Anna Jordan. Graduates of this programme populate the performance industries and include Karla Crome, Mark Ebulué, Jess Ellis, Karen Gillan, Aisling Jarrett-Gavin, Matt Lapinskas, Carla Langley, Bethany Muir, James Nelson-Joyce, Racheal Ofori, Gemma Salter, Lucie Shorthouse, Gary Trainor, Nina Toussaint-White, Dwane Walcott; the CertHE Intro to Acting Programme, validated by the University of East London, is a one-year full-time preparation and foundation training for students aged 18+ who wish to subsequently pursue or explore an actor-training, or vocational course within a performance related field. The programme is run by Bradley Leech and operates alongside the flagship BA Acting Programme in Italia Conti's Avondale Building in Clapham. Before HE validation, this programme was known as the Foundation Acting Course.
The BA Musical Theatre Programme, validated by the University of East London, is a three-year full-time professional musical theatre triple-threat training for students aged 18+. The single programme runs two cohorts across two of the Italia Conti's buildings; the programme is run by Richard Mulholland. The first intake of students for this programme was September 2018 The Performing Arts course is a three-year full-time course for students from the age of 16, it is designed for students. The course aims to produce confident and multi-skilled performers, the emphasis is on training in the three main art forms; the Performing Arts with Dance Teacher Training is a three-year full-time course for students from the age of 16 and takes place at the Italia Conti Arts Centre. The course trains students to become performers and dance teachers by providing performing arts training and dance teaching qualifications. With the introduction of the ISTD qualifications in 2006, the academy provided students with the opportunity to take these examinations.
The course follows the same path as the Performing Arts Course but incorporates the teacher training by offering the FDI qualifications in Classical Ballet and Modern. This allows students to become qualified dance teachers to teach up to grade 5 in the ISTD syllabus. Aspects of the course include Dance, Singing, Contextual Studies and Additional Content such as ISTD examinations, PGCE work, latin dance, performance, pilates and professional skills, stage combat, video production and theatre in education production; the Theatre Arts School known as the ‘Juniors’, is a co-educational independent schoolfor pupils aged from 10 to 16 years old. The Theatre Arts School is located within the Italia Conti Academy building in London; the school is accredited by the Independent Schools Council and monitored by the Independent Schools Inspectorate. Specialising in delivering a mixed curriculum of ‘Academic Education’ and ‘Performance Arts Training’. Pupils follow a constructed academic curriculum to ensure they graduate with qualifications and have the widest possible range of choice available to them at sixteen whilst engaging with a range of performance skills prepares them for further training at a higher level leading onto a career in the performing arts and entertainment industry.
The academy has three sites: The main centre'Italia Conti House' referred to as'mainschool', is based in Goswell Road, London. And is home to the Performing Arts Course, Intensive Performing Arts Course, Singing Course and Theatre Arts School; the building covers nine levels and has 18 dance and singing studios, equipped with sprung floors, full length mirrors, ballet barres and sound systems. Italia Conti House has lecture rooms, academic school rooms, specialist classrooms, an art room, a video studio and editing suite, an IT suite, a resource library, first aid and treatment room, dressing room, student common room and a canteen; the BA Acting Course takes place in the'Avondale' building, in London. The impressive Edwardian b
Deng Tingzhen was the Governor-General of Liangguang from early 1836 until early 1840
City of London
The City of London is a city and county that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district of London. It constituted most of London from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Ages, but the agglomeration has since grown far beyond the City's borders; the City is now only a tiny part of the metropolis of London, though it remains a notable part of central London. Administratively, it forms one of the 33 local authority districts of Greater London, it is a separate county of England, being an enclave surrounded by Greater London. It is the smallest county in the United Kingdom; the City of London is referred to as the City and is colloquially known as the Square Mile, as it is 1.12 sq mi in area. Both of these terms are often used as metonyms for the United Kingdom's trading and financial services industries, which continue a notable history of being based in the City; the name London is now ordinarily used for a far wider area than just the City.
London most denotes the sprawling London metropolis, or the 32 London boroughs, in addition to the City of London itself. This wider usage of London is documented as far back as 1888; the local authority for the City, namely the City of London Corporation, is unique in the UK and has some unusual responsibilities for a local council, such as being the police authority. It is unusual in having responsibilities and ownerships beyond its boundaries; the Corporation is headed by the Lord Mayor of the City of London, an office separate from the Mayor of London. The Lord Mayor, as of November 2018, is Peter Estlin; the City is a major business and financial centre. Throughout the 19th century, the City was the world's primary business centre, it continues to be a major meeting point for businesses. London came top in the Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index, published in 2008; the insurance industry is focused around Lloyd's building. A secondary financial district exists at Canary Wharf, 2.5 miles to the east.
The City work there. About three quarters of the jobs in the City of London are in the financial and associated business services sectors; the legal profession forms a major component of the northern and western sides of the City in the Temple and Chancery Lane areas where the Inns of Court are located, of which two—Inner Temple and Middle Temple—fall within the City of London boundary. Known as "Londinium", the Roman legions established a settlement on the current site of the City of London around 43 AD, its bridge over the River Thames turned the city into a road nexus and major port, serving as a major commercial centre in Roman Britain until its abandonment during the 5th century. Archaeologist Leslie Wallace notes that, because extensive archaeological excavation has not revealed any signs of a significant pre-Roman presence, "arguments for a purely Roman foundation of London are now common and uncontroversial."At its height, the Roman city had a population of 45,000–60,000 inhabitants.
Londinium was an ethnically diverse city, with inhabitants from across the Roman Empire, including natives of Britannia, continental Europe, the Middle East, North Africa. The Romans built the London Wall some time between 190 and 225 AD; the boundaries of the Roman city were similar to those of the City of London today, though the City extends further west than Londonium's Ludgate, the Thames was undredged and thus wider than it is today, with Londonium's shoreline north of the City's present shoreline. The Romans built a bridge across the river, as early as 50 AD, near to today's London Bridge. By the time the London Wall was constructed, the City's fortunes were in decline, it faced problems of plague and fire; the Roman Empire entered a long period of instability and decline, including the Carausian Revolt in Britain. In the 3rd and 4th centuries, the city was under attack from Picts and Saxon raiders; the decline continued, both for Londinium and the Empire, in 410 AD the Romans withdrew from Britain.
Many of the Roman public buildings in Londinium by this time had fallen into decay and disuse, after the formal withdrawal the city became uninhabited. The centre of trade and population moved away from the walled Londinium to Lundenwic, a settlement to the west in the modern day Strand/Aldwych/Covent Garden area. During the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy, the London area came in turn under the Kingdoms of Essex and Wessex, though from the mid 8th century it was under the control or threat of the Vikings. Bede records that in 604 AD St Augustine consecrated Mellitus as the first bishop to the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of the East Saxons and their king, Sæberht. Sæberht's uncle and overlord, Æthelberht, king of Kent, built a church dedicated to St Paul in London, as the seat of the new bishop, it is assumed, although unproven, that this first Anglo-Saxon cathedral stood on the same site as the medieval and the present cathedrals. Alfred the Great, King of Wessex and arguably the first king of the "English", occupied and began the resettlement of the old Roman walled area, in 886, appointed his son-in-law Earl Æthelred of Mercia over it as part of their reconquest of the Viking occupied parts of Englan
Joseph Rudyard Kipling was an English journalist, short-story writer and novelist. He was born in India. Kipling's works of fiction include The Jungle Book and many short stories, including "The Man Who Would Be King", his poems include "Mandalay", "Gunga Din", "The Gods of the Copybook Headings", "The White Man's Burden", "If—". He is regarded as a major innovator in the art of the short story. Kipling was one of the most popular writers in the United Kingdom, in both prose and verse, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Henry James said: "Kipling strikes me as the most complete man of genius, as distinct from fine intelligence, that I have known." In 1907, at the age of 41, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, making him the first English-language writer to receive the prize and its youngest recipient to date. He was sounded out for the British Poet Laureateship and on several occasions for a knighthood, both of which he declined. Kipling's subsequent reputation has changed according to the political and social climate of the age and the resulting contrasting views about him continued for much of the 20th century.
George Orwell saw Kipling as "a jingo imperialist", "morally insensitive and aesthetically disgusting". Literary critic Douglas Kerr wrote: " is still an author who can inspire passionate disagreement and his place in literary and cultural history is far from settled, but as the age of the European empires recedes, he is recognised as an incomparable, if controversial, interpreter of how empire was experienced. That, an increasing recognition of his extraordinary narrative gifts, make him a force to be reckoned with." Rudyard Kipling was born on 30 December 1865 in Bombay, in the Bombay Presidency of British India, to Alice Kipling and John Lockwood Kipling. Alice was a vivacious woman, about whom Lord Dufferin would say, "Dullness and Mrs Kipling cannot exist in the same room." Lockwood Kipling, a sculptor and pottery designer, was the Principal and Professor of Architectural Sculpture at the newly founded Sir Jamsetjee Jeejebhoy School of Art in Bombay. John Lockwood and Alice had met in 1863 and courted at Rudyard Lake in Rudyard, England.
They married and moved to India in 1865. They had been so moved by the beauty of the Rudyard Lake area that when their first child was born they named him after it. Two of Alice's sisters married artists: Georgiana was married to the painter Edward Burne-Jones, her sister Agnes to Edward Poynter. Kipling's most famous relative was his first cousin, Stanley Baldwin, Conservative Prime Minister three times in the 1920s and'30s. Kipling's birth home on the campus of the J J School of Art in Bombay was for many years used as the Dean's residence. Although the cottage bears a plaque noting it as the site where Kipling was born, the original cottage may have been torn down decades ago and a new one built in its place; some historians and conservationists are of the view that the bungalow marks a site, close to the home of Kipling's birth, as the bungalow was built in 1882—about 15 years after Kipling was born. Kipling seems to have said as much to the Dean. Kipling wrote of Bombay: According to Bernice M. Murphy, "Kipling's parents considered themselves'Anglo-Indians' and so too would their son, though he spent the bulk of his life elsewhere.
Complex issues of identity and national allegiance would become prominent in his fiction."Kipling referred to such conflicts, for example: "In the afternoon heats before we took our sleep, she or Meeta would tell us stories and Indian nursery songs all unforgotten, we were sent into the dining-room after we had been dressed, with the caution'Speak English now to Papa and Mamma.' So one spoke'English', haltingly translated out of the vernacular idiom that one thought and dreamed in". Kipling's days of "strong light and darkness" in Bombay ended; as was the custom in British India, he and his three-year-old sister Alice were taken to the United Kingdom—in their case to Southsea, Portsmouth—to live with a couple who boarded children of British nationals who were serving in India. For the next six years, the children lived with the couple, Captain Pryse Agar Holloway, once an officer in the merchant navy, Sarah Holloway, at their house, Lorne Lodge, at 4 Campbell Road, Southsea. In his autobiography, published 65 years Kipling recalled the stay with horror, wondered if the combination of cruelty and neglect which he experienced there at the hands of Mrs Holloway might not have hastened the onset of his literary life: "If you cross-examine a child of seven or eight on his day's doings he will contradict himself satisfactorily.
If each contradiction be set down as a lie and retailed at breakfast, life is not easy. I have known a certain amount of bullying, but this was calculated torture—religious as well as scientific, yet it made me give attention to the lies I soon found it necessary to tell: and this, I presume, is the foundation of literary effort". Trix fared better at Lorne Lodge; the two Kipling children, did have relatives in England who
Pantomime is a type of musical comedy stage production designed for family entertainment. It was developed in England and is performed throughout the United Kingdom, Ireland and in other English-speaking countries during the Christmas and New Year season. Modern pantomime includes songs, slapstick comedy and dancing, it employs gender-crossing actors and combines topical humour with a story more or less based on a well-known fairy tale, fable or folk tale. It is a participatory form of theatre, in which the audience is expected to sing along with certain parts of the music and shout out phrases to the performers. Pantomime has a long theatrical history in Western culture dating back to classical theatre, it developed from the 16th century commedia dell'arte tradition of Italy and other European and British stage traditions, such as 17th-century masques and music hall. An important part of the pantomime, until the late 19th century, was the harlequinade. Outside Britain, the word "pantomime" is understood to mean miming, rather than the theatrical form discussed here.
The word pantomime was adopted from the Latin word pantomimus, which in turn derives from the Greek word παντόμιμος, consisting of παντο- meaning "all", μῖμος, meaning a dancer who acted all the roles or all the story. The Roman pantomime drew upon the Greek tragedy and other Greek genres from its inception, although the art was instituted in Rome and little is known of it in pre-Roman Greece; the English word came to be applied to the performance itself. According to a lost oration by Aelius Aristides, the pantomime was known for its erotic content and the effeminacy of its dancing. Roman pantomime was a production based upon myth or legend, for a solo male dancer—clad in a long silk tunic and a short mantle, used as a "prop"—accompanied by a sung libretto rendered by a singer or chorus. Music was supplied by flute and the pulse of an iron-shod shoe called a scabellum. Performances might be in a private household, with minimal personnel, or else lavish theatrical productions involving a large orchestra and chorus and sometimes an ancillary actor.
The dancer danced all the roles, relying on masks, stock poses and gestures and a hand-language so complex and expressive that the pantomime's hands were compared to an eloquent mouth. Pantomime differed from mime by its more artistic nature and relative lack of farce and coarse humour, though these were not absent from some productions. Roman pantomime was immensely popular from the end of the first century BC until the end of the sixth century AD, a form of entertainment that spread throughout the empire where, because of its wordless nature, it did more than any other art to foster knowledge of the myths and Roman legends that formed its subject-matter – tales such as those of the love of Venus and Mars and of Dido and Aeneas – while in Italy its chief exponents were celebrities the protegés of influential citizens, whose followers wore badges proclaiming their allegiance and engaged in street-fights with rival groups, while its accompanying songs became known. Yet, because of the limits imposed upon Roman citizens' dance, the populism of its song-texts and other factors, the art was as much despised as adored, its practitioners were slaves or freedmen.
Because of the low status and the disappearance of its libretti, the Roman pantomime received little modern scholarly attention until the late 20th century, despite its great influence upon Roman culture as perceived in Roman art, in statues of famous dancers, graffiti and literature. After the renaissance of classical culture, Roman pantomime was a decisive influence upon modern European concert dance, helping to transform ballet from a mere entertainment, a display of technical virtuosity, into the dramatic ballet d'action, it became an antecedent which, through writers and ballet-masters of the 17th and 18th centuries such as Claude-François Ménestrier, John Weaver, Jean-Georges Noverre and Gasparo Angiolini, earned it respectability and attested to the capability of dance to render complex stories and express human emotion. In the Middle Ages, the Mummers Play was a traditional English folk play, based loosely on the Saint George and the Dragon legend performed during Christmas gatherings, which contained the origin of many of the archetypal elements of the pantomime, such as stage fights, coarse humour and fantastic creatures, gender role reversal, good defeating evil.
Precursors of pantomime included the masque, which grew in pomp and spectacle from the 15th to the 17th centuries. The development of English pantomime was strongly influenced by the continental commedia dell'arte, a form of popular theatre that arose in Italy in the Early Modern Period; this was a "comedy of professional artists" travelling from province to province in Italy and France, who improvised and told comic stories that held lessons for the crowd, changing the main character depending on where they were performing. Each "scenario" used some of the same stock characters; these included the innamorati. Italian masque performances in the 17th century sometimes included the Harlequin character. In the 17th century, adaptations of the commedia characters became familiar in English entertainments. From these, the standard E
The Adelphi Theatre is a London West End theatre, located on the Strand in the City of Westminster. The present building is the fourth on the site; the theatre has specialised in comedy and musical theatre, today it is a receiving house for a variety of productions, including many musicals. The theatre was Grade II listed for historical preservation on 1 December 1987, it was founded in 1806 as the Sans Pareil, by merchant John Scott, his daughter Jane. Jane was a British theatre manager and playwright. Together, they gathered a theatrical company and by 1809 the theatre was licensed for musical entertainments and burletta, she wrote more than fifty stage pieces in an array of genres: melodramas, farces, comic operettas, historical dramas, adaptations, as well as translations. Jane Scott retired to Surrey in 1819. On 18 October 1819, the theatre reopened under its present name, adopted from the Adelphi Buildings opposite. In its early years, the theatre was known for melodrama, called Adelphi Screamers.
Many stories by Charles Dickens were adapted for the stage here, including John Baldwin Buckstone's The Christening, a comic burletta, which opened on 13 October 1834, based on the story The Bloomsbury Christening. This is notable for being thought the first Dickens adaption performed; this was the first of many of Dickens's early works adapted for the stage of the Adelphi, including The Pickwick Papers as William Leman Rede's The Peregrinations of Pickwick. The theatre itself, makes a cameo appearance in The Pickwick PapersThe Adelphi came under the management of Madame Celeste and comedian Benjamin Webster, in 1844, Buckstone was appointed its resident dramatist. Dramatisations of Dickens continued to be performed, including A Christmas Carol. In 1848, The Haunted Man and the Ghost’s Bargain was performed; the old theatre was demolished, on 26 December 1858, The New Adelphi was opened and was considered an improvement on the cramped circumstances of the original, described as a "hasty conversion from a tavern hall, permanently kept in its provisional state".
The new theatre could seat 1,500 people, with standing room for another 500. The interior was lighted by a Stroud's Patent Sun Lamp, a brilliant array of gas mantles passed through a chandelier of cut-glass. In the mid-19th century, John Lawrence Toole established his comedic reputation at the Adelphi. In the mid-19th century, the Adelphi hosted a number of French operettas, including La belle Hélène. In 1867, the Adelphi gave English comic opera a boost by hosting the first public performance of Arthur Sullivan's first opera and Box; the building was renovated in 1879 and again in 1887 when the house next door, along with The Hampshire Hog in The Strand and the Nell Gwynne Tavern in Bull Inn Court, were bought by the Gattis in order to enlarge the theatre. They built a new enlarged facade and part of this can still be seen today above the Crystal Rooms next door to the present Adelphi Theatre. An actor who performed at the Adelphi in the latter half of the 19th century, William Terriss, was stabbed to death during the run of ‘Secret Service’ on 16 December 1897 whilst entering the Theatre by the royal entrance in Maiden Lane which he used as a private entrance.
This is now recorded on a plaque on the wall by the stage door. Outside a neighbouring pub, a sign says that the killer was one of the theatre's stage hands, but Richard Archer Prince committed the murder, it has been said. Terriss' daughter was Ellaline Terriss, a famous actress, her husband, actor-manager Seymour Hicks managed the Adelphi for some years at the end of the 19th century; the stage door of the current Adelphi is in Maiden Lane but back it was in Bull Inn Court. William Terriss would have a Theatre named after him, the Terriss Theatre in Rotherhithe known as the Rotherhithe Hippodrome; the adjacent, numbers 409 and 410 Strand, were built in 1886–87 by the Gatti Brothers as the Adelphi Restaurant. The frontage remains the same, but with plate glass windows, like the theatre, is a Grade II listed building. On 11 September 1901, the third theatre was opened as the Century Theatre, although the name reverted in 1904; this theatre was built by Frank Kirk to the design of Ernest Runtz. George Edwardes, the dean of London musical theatre, took over management of the theatre in 1908.
In the early part of the 20th century, the Adelphi was home to a number of musical comedies, the most successful of which included The Earl and the Girl, The Dairymaids, The Quaker Girl, The Boy, Clowns in Clover, Mr. Cinders; the present Adelphi opened on 3 December 1930, redesigned in the Art Deco style by Ernest Schaufelberg. It was named the'Royal Adelphi Theatre' and re-opened with the hit musical Ever Green, by Lorenz Hart and Richard Rodgers, based on the book Benn W. Levy. Noël Coward's Words and Music premièred at the theatre in 1932; the operetta Balalaika played at the theatre in 1936, in 1940 the theatre's name again reverted to'The Adelphi'. The theatre continued to host comedy and musicals, including Bless The Bride, Ma