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Popran National Park

The Popran National Park is a protected national park, located in the Central Coast region of New South Wales, in eastern Australia. The 3,970-hectare park is situated 56 kilometres north of Sydney; the Park takes its name from Popran Creek which rises in the locality of Central Mangrove and flows for 24 km in a southern direction till it reaches Mangrove Creek. Popran Creek flows through the Glenworth Valley known as the Popran Valley. Protected areas of New South Wales Popran Valley Mangrove Creek "Popran National Park". Office of Environment and Heritage. Government of New South Wales. "Popran National Park". NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service. Government of New South Wales. "Popran National Park: Plan of Management". NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service. Government of New South Wales. 14 August 2000. ISBN 0-7313-6974-2

Wurster's blue

Wurster's blue is the trivial name given to the chemical N,N,N′,N′-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine known as TMPD. It is an oxidised phenylenediamine, which loses two electrons in one-electron oxidation steps; the remaining part of its name comes from the German chemist Casimir Wurster. The hydrochloride salt finds use as a redox indicator in the oxidase test and is used in electron transport chain analysis as it is capable of donating electrons to cytochrome c; the term "Wurster's blue" is reserved for the radical cation, the colorless diamine being called tetramethylphenylenediamine. The midpoint potential for titration of the first electron is given as 0.276 V vs NHE, this transition is useful in potentiometric titrations as both a redox mediator and indicator. The two electron-oxidized form is unstable in aqueous solutions, therefore oxidizing conditions should be avoided in titrations relying on TMPD, or reached only during the final stage of the titration; the second oxidation step is not well separated from the first on the redox scale, so some instability will be encountered on the oxidizing side of 0.276, it is impossible to prepare pure aqueous solutions of Wurster's Blue due to its dismutation to the unstable diaminium and TMPD.

Wurster's original paper

Quinn Norton

Quinn Norton is an American journalist and essayist. Her work covers hacker culture, Occupy movement, intellectual property and copyright issues, the Internet. Quinn Norton was born in May 1973, she grew up in a poor family and her father's struggles with his experience post-Vietnam, his drug-related incarceration inspired her to write about judicial reform and restorative justice. Norton attended Orange Coast Community College, she sporadically sat in on classes at University of California, Los Angeles and University of California, Santa Barbara but was never formally enrolled. Norton began her professional life as a technologist when she worked as a SysAdmin and web programmer. In 2006, she shifted to journalism, her focus was on technology but grew to encompass internet activism. In 2006, Norton described a conceptual prank called Quinn's Prank / Quinn's Symphonic Conundrum involving writing and executing a computer program that would output all possible melodies, theoretically providing the opportunity to claim copyright for all music.

Norton's work has appeared in Wired. She contributed to the Wired blog, Threat Level, which focused on digital security. From 2013 to 2014, she wrote Notes on a Strange World, at Medium, she wrote articles for Maximum PC magazine for five years and has published in The Guardian, ProPublica, O'Reilly Media publications such as Make magazine. She was a long-time participant at O'Reilly's Foo Camp. Norton has spoken extensively on various aspects of technology and culture. From 2006 to 2008, she gave talks at technology conferences about body augmentation under the title "Body Hacking." In connection with this work, Norton taught a course at NYU titled "Laboratory of the Self." As part of her research, Norton had a magnet implanted in the tip of her ring finger, enabling her to sense magnetic fields. The magnet was removed. In 2018, The New York Times announced Norton as its new lead opinion writer covering technology; the hire drew sharp criticism focused on tweets Norton wrote between 2013 and 2017 use of slurs referring to gay people and her defense of her friendship with Andrew Auernheimer, a hacker and white supremacist known as weev.

That day and the Times announced she would not join the paper after all. Calling the episode an example of "context collapse", describing herself as a member of the LGBT community, Norton said her use of slurs had been specific to the context of engaging with the language of hackers, she said her friendship with Auernheimer had been an effort to discourage his racism. The incident led to debate over the ethics of free speech in the hacking community at large as well as Times social media policy. Norton is an advocate of encryption. In 2009, she opposed Protection Act. Norton describes herself as a queer activist. On March 3, 2011, Norton was subpoenaed to testify before a grand jury regarding an investigation of her then-partner Aaron Swartz that led to the case United States v. Swartz, she accepted a proffer agreement with the prosecutor, whereby she shared information about the Guerrilla Open Access Manifesto, which defendant Aaron Swartz either wrote or co-wrote. The document offered the prosecution additional evidence in their case against Swartz.

Articles in The Atlantic and in New York Magazine indicate that in 2011 Norton was pressured by prosecutors to offer information or testimony that could be used against Aaron Swartz in his trial for fraud for downloading thousands of academic articles from behind a paywall, but that she denied having information that supported prosecutors' claims of criminal intentions on Swartz's part. Prosecutors attempted to use a public blog post on Swartz's blog that Norton mentioned, which may or may not have been co-authored by Swartz, as proof of a criminal intent. In October 2017, Norton wrote a piece about Robert Scoble that described an alleged sexual assault by Scoble on Norton as well as another woman. Scoble denied what turned out to be multiple claims of assault, said they were the result of his struggle with alcoholism, his response was met with a critical reaction. Norton was married to journalist Danny O'Brien, they have a daughter. The marriage ended in divorce. Norton dated computer programmer and activist Aaron Swartz for three years, from 2007 until early 2011.

In 2016, Norton moved to Luxembourg to live with the man she married in 2017. Norton, Quinn. "That Time I Tweeted About #BlackGirlsAreMagic". Quinn Norton. Medium. Official website Quinn Norton at WIRED Quinn Norton at Medium Quinn Norton on IMDb

Hindu units of time

Hindu texts describe units of Kala measurements, from microseconds to Trillions of years. According to these texts, time is cyclic. Various fragments of time are used in Hindu Scriptures like Vedas, Bhagavata Purana, Vishnu Puran, Suryasidhanta etc. A summary of the Hindu metrics of time follows. A Tithi or lunar day is defined as the time it takes for the longitudinal angle between the moon and the Sun to increase by 12°. Tithis begin at varying times of day and vary in duration from 19 to 26 hours. A Paksa or lunar fortnight consists of 15 tithes. A Māsa or lunar month is divided into 2 Pakṣas: the one between new moon and full moon is called gaura or or Śukla Pakṣa. Eight Yāmas make a full day An Ahorātra is a tropical day 1 day of pitras = 1 solar masa 30 days of pitras = 1 month of pitras 12 months of pitras = 1 year of pitrasThe Lifespan of the pitras is 100 years of pitras; the life span of any Hindu deva spans nearly 4.5 million years. Statistically, we can look it as: 12000 Deva Years = Life Span of Devas = 1 Mahā-Yuga.

The Viṣṇu Purāṇa Time measurement section of the Viṣṇu Purāṇa Book I Chapter III explains the above as follows: 2 Ayanas = 1 human year or 1 day of the devas 4,000 + 400 + 400 = 4,800 divine years = 1 Satya Yuga 3,000 + 300 + 300 = 3,600 divine years = 1 Treta Yuga 2,000 + 200 + 200 = 2,400 divine years = 1 Dvapara Yuga 1,000 + 100 + 100 = 1,200 divine years = 1 Kali Yuga 12,000 divine year = 4 Yugas = 1 Mahā-Yuga 1000 Mahā-Yugas = 1 Kalpa = 1 day of Brahma 30 days of Brahma = 1 month of Brahma 12 months of Brahma = 1 year of Brahma 50 years of Brahma = 1 Parārdha 2 parardhas = 100 years of Brahma = 1 Para = 1 Mahā-Kalpa One day of Brahma is divided into 10000 parts called charaṇas. The four yugas which come one after the other are as follows: The cycle repeats itself, so altogether there are 1,000 cycles of Mahā-Yuga in one day of Brahma. One cycle of the above four Yugas is one Mahā-Yuga as is confirmed by the Gītā Śhloka 8.17 "sahasra-yuga-paryantam ahar yad brahmaṇo viduḥ rātriṁ yuga-sahasrāntāṁ te'ho-rātra-vido janāḥ", meaning, a day of brahma is of 1000 Mahā-Yuga.

Thus a day of Brahma, Kalpa, is of duration: 4.32 billion solar years. Two Kalpas constitute a night of Brahma. A Manvantara consists of 71 Mahā-Yuga; each Manvantara is ruled by a Manu. After each Manvantara follows one Saṃdhi Kāla of the same duration as a Kṛta Yuga. A Kalpa consists of a period of 4.32 Billion solar years followed by Saṃdhi Kalas. A day of Brahma equals + = 994 Mahā-Yuga + = 994 Mahā-Yuga + ÷ 6 = 12,000 viz. one maha yuga. = 994 Mahā-Yuga + 6 Mahā-Yuga = 1,000 Mahā-Yuga. The "Four-Yuga" structure, more popular as "Chaturyuga" system attempts to describe the history of human evolution. In modern times, the prevailing theory of "Survival of the Fittest" tells us that the human beings are a result of gradual evolution process starting from single-cell living beings, but the "Chaturyuga" system mentions about the declining journey of human beings across the ages. In "Satya Yuga", the human beings were at its peak, it came down throughout Treta and Dwapara yuga. In Kali Yuga, it is supposed to hit the lowest possible stature.

If we go by the ancient scriptures, they specify that the start and end of each of the "Yuga" was marked by astronomical alignments. At the beginning of Treta Yuga, 5 planets resided in "Aries" constellation. At the end of last "Dwapara" yuga, the "Saptarshi" constellation, resided in "Magha" constellation. At the end of ongoing Kali-Yuga, Sun and Jupiter is said to reside in "Pushya" sector simultaneously. 50 years of Brahma have elapsed. The last Kalpa at the end of the 50th year is called Padma Kalpa. We are in the first'day' of the 51st year; this Brahma's day, Kalpa is named as Shveta-Varaha Kalpa. Within this Day, six Manvantaras have elapsed and this is the seventh Manvantara, named as – Vaivasvatha Manvantara. Within the Vaivasvatha Manvantara, 27 Mahayugas, the Krita and Dwapara Yugas of the 28th Mahayuga have elapsed; this Kaliyuga is in the 28th Mahayuga. This Kaliyuga began in the year 3102 BCE in the proleptic Julian Calendar. Since 50 years of Brahma have elapsed, this is the second Parardha called as Dvithiya Parardha.

432000 × 10 × 1000 × 2 = 8.64 billion years 8.64 × 109 × 30 × 12 = 3.1104 Trillion Years 3.1104 × 1012 × 50 = 155.52 trillion years + 7 × 1.728 × 106 = 1852416000

Butterfly Park

Butterfly Park is a city park of about 1 acre in southwest Portland, in the U. S. state of Oregon. Located at 7720 Southwest Macadam Avenue, the park includes a natural area and walking paths near the Willamette River; the natural area provides important habitat for butterflies, including mourning cloaks and orange sulphurs. The Greenway Trail, part of the 40-Mile Loop, links Butterfly Park to Miles Place and Willamette Park on the north as well as the Willamette Moorage Natural Area, the Sellwood Bridge, Powers Marine Park, all on the south. South of Butterfly Park, Stephens Creek empties into the Willamette. Oaks Amusement Park and Sellwood Riverfront Park are on the river's east bank, opposite Butterfly Park. At the park entrance, a rock garden near an interpretive sign features columbines, penstemon and other flowering plants. Vegetation in the park, once dominated by Himalayan blackberries, includes native grasses and dogwood. Cedar waxwings, orioles and other birds frequent the park. A bench along the trail offers other spots along the river.

It took about 10 years to organize and develop the park a "derelict patch of land" near the Macadam Bay Club, a residential houseboat community. The South Portland Neighborhood Association worked with Portland Parks & Recreation to complete the work; the park is "one of the region's most biologically productive" greenspaces. List of parks in Portland, Oregon South Portland Neighborhood Association

Aikoku Maru (1940)

Aikoku Maru was an armed merchant cruiser of the Imperial Japanese Navy in World War II. The ship entered service in 1940, the ship was converted to an ammunition ship, she was destroyed in February 1944. Aikoku Maru was laid down at the Mitsui Tamano shipyards in Okayama Prefecture on 29 December 1938, she was designed to be a combined passenger liner / cargo vessel for the Osaka Shosen Lines's scheduled services to South America. Provisionally named Kyoto, the design for the new vessel was to have boasted of luxurious suite rooms; the vessel was built with large government subsidies provided from 1936 to encourage the production of large, high-speed transports and tankers, which could be converted to military use in times of conflict. The vessel was launched on 25 April 1940, was named Aikoku Maru at that time. Although ostensibly a luxury ocean liner, the military had a say in the design of Aikoku Maru with an eye towards its future use as a troop transport. Provision was made for the anchoring of naval artillery.

The vessel measured 10,438 gross register tons, with a length of 160.8 m. Powered by two Mitsui B&W diesel engines with 13,000 shp driving twin screws, she was capable of 20.9 knots. On completion on 31 August 1941, Aikoku Maru was requisitioned by the Imperial Japanese Navy, she was converted into an armed merchant cruiser from 5 September while still at Tamano, with the installation of four 15 cm/50 41st Year Type guns, two QF 12 pounder 12 cwt naval guns, two Type 93 13.2-mm machine guns and two twin-mount 533-mm torpedo tubes. She was fitted with powerful searchlights and boom for handling a Kawanishi E7K float plane. On 15 October 1941, the 24th Raider Squadron, consisting of Aikoku Maru, Hōkoku Maru, Kiyosumi Maru was created under the Combined Fleet. Aikoku Maru and her sister ship Hōkoku Maru were forward deployed to Jaluit Atoll in the Marshall Islands at the end of November in preparation for the upcoming hostilities against the United States. On 13 December 1941, Aikoku Maru and Hōkoku Maru sank SS Vincent, an American merchant vessel with a cargo of rice from Australia to Panama at 22-41S, 118-19E.

On December, the reconnaissance floatplane from Aikoku Maru spotted the American freighter Malama en route to Manila. The plane failed to return, despite searching by both Japanese vessels, no trace was found of the missing aircraft; the second floatplane reacquired SS Malama south of the Cook Islands on 2 January 1942, after making a strafing attack, orders the ship to stop. After the crew of Malama abandoned ship, she was sunk at 26-39S, 151-24W. Aside from the missing pilot, there were no casualties on either side, the sortie was concluded on 20 January. CruDiv24 returned to Hashirajima in February, after disembarking their 76 POWs at Oita. On 14 February 1942, at Kure Naval Arsenal, Aikoku Maru's four 152-mm guns were replaced by eight 14 cm/50 3rd Year Type naval guns, she was modified to carry submarine torpedoes in her hold to enable her to function as an auxiliary submarine tender. In this capacity, Aikoku Maru and Hōkoku Maru were deployed with the IJN 6th Fleet on 10 March to support submarine operations off the east coast of Africa and Mozambique.

At the end of March, Aikoku Maru and Hōkoku Maru returned to Kure, where CruDiv24 was formally disbanded, they are reassigned to Subron8, operating out of Penang from early April, supporting submarine operations in the western Indian Ocean. On 9 May, Aikoku Maru captured the Dutch tanker Genota 480 miles SSE of Madagascar. On 5 June, she sank MV Elysia, a British freighter carrying a number of Allied troops at 27-19S, 37-01E. On 12 July, she captured, she placed a prize crew on board, but en route back to Japan, her New Zealander engine crew managed to sabotage the cargo and engine spares. After repairs at Seletar Naval Base in Singapore, the floatplanes on Aikoku Maru were upgraded to two Aichi E13As, two dual Type 96 25 mm AT/AA Guns were added, an additional 70 torpedoes were loaded, she continued to be based out of Penang until late August under the command of Tamotsu Oishi. From September, Aikoku Maru was assigned to the IJN 8th Fleet and tasked with transporting the IJA 38th Infantry Division to Rabaul for the reinforcement of Guadalcanal.

After accomplishing this mission by 10 October, her Commerce Raiding Unit was reactivated, Aikoku Maru transited the Sunda Strait into the Indian Ocean on 7 November, together with Hōkoku Maru. On 11 November, the raiders attacked the Dutch tanker Ondina, accompanied by the minesweeper HMIS Bengal southwest of the Cocos Islands. Hōkoku Maru was closer and attacked first, but a shot from Ondina's 4-in guns hit Hōkoku Maru's starboard torpedo tube, detonated the torpedo. A fire broke out, which raged out of control, causing the aft magazine to explode, sinking the vessel. Aikoku Maru arrived, drove off Bengal while Ondina attempted to escape. Aikoku Maru scored six hits on Ondina with her guns. However, with their ship damaged and out of ammunition, the crew of Ondina abandoned ship. Aikoku Maru rescued 278 survivors of Hōkoku Maru, returned to Penang, from there to Singapore and Rabaul. Meanwhile, the crew of Ondina managed to re-enter their ship and effect repairs, escaping to Fremantle, Australia.

From 16 December 1942, Aikoku Maru was reassigned back to the IJN 8th Fleet as a military transport to support New Guinea operations, her aircraft were disembarked. While unloading cargo at Madang on 18 December, she was attacked in an air rai