An emergency landing is a prioritised landing made by an aircraft in response to an emergency containing an imminent or ongoing threat to the safety and operation of the aircraft or involving a sudden need for a passenger or crew on board to be on land, such as a medical emergency. It is a forced diversion to the nearest or most suitable airport or airbase, in which air traffic control must prioritise and give way upon the declaration of the emergency. There are several different types of emergency landings for powered aircraft: planned landing or unplanned landing Forced landing – the aircraft is forced to make a landing due to technical problems. Landing as soon as possible is a priority, no matter where, since a major system failure has occurred or is imminent, it is caused by the failure of or damage to vital systems such as engines, hydraulics, or landing gear, so a landing must be attempted where a runway is needed but none is available. The pilot is trying to get the aircraft on the ground in a way which minimizes the possibility of injury or death to the people aboard.
This means that the forced landing may occur when the aircraft is still flyable, in order to prevent a crash or ditching situation. Precautionary landing may result from a planned landing at a location about which information is limited, from unanticipated changes during the flight, or from abnormal or emergency situations; this may be as a result of a medical or police emergency. The sooner a pilot locates and inspects a potential landing site, the less the chance of additional limitations being imposed by worsening aircraft conditions, deteriorating weather, or other factors. Ditching is only on water. After the disabled aircraft makes contact with the surface of the water, the aircraft will most sink if it is not designed to float, although it may float for hours, depending on damage. If there is no engine power available during a forced landing, a fixed-wing aircraft glides, while a rotary winged aircraft autorotates to the ground by trading altitude for airspeed to maintain control. Pilots practice "simulated forced landings", in which an engine failure is simulated and the pilot has to get the aircraft on the ground safely, by selecting a landing area and gliding the aircraft at its best gliding speed.
If there is a suitable landing spot within the aircraft's gliding or autorotation distance, an unplanned landing will result in no injuries or significant damage to the aircraft, since powered aircraft use little or no power when they are landing. Light aircraft can land safely on fields, roads, or gravel river banks. Glider pilots land away from their base and so most cross-country pilots are in current practice. Since 2003, research has been conducted on enabling UAVs to perform a forced landing autonomously. Large airliners have multiple engines and redundant systems, so forced landings are rare for them, but some notable ones have occurred. A famous example is the Gimli Glider, an Air Canada Boeing 767 that ran out of fuel and glided to a safe landing in Gimli, Canada on July 23, 1983. On June 1982, British Airways Flight 9, a Boeing 747 en route from Kuala Lumpur to Perth flew into a plume of volcanic ash and lost power in all four engines, three of which subsequently recovered diverting to Jakarta.
On April 28, 1988, Aloha Airlines Flight 243 experienced an explosive decompression when 35 square-meters of aluminium skin separated from the fuselage. The flight was diverted to Kahului Airport with only one casualty, flight attendant Clarabelle "C. B." Lansing, sucked out when the cabin depressurized. Less than a month another 737, TACA Flight 110, lost both engines due to bad weather but was able to make a successful deadstick landing on a grass levee on the grounds of NASA's Michoud Assembly Facility outside New Orleans, with minor injuries to the passengers and minor damage to the aircraft. Investigations drove the engine manufacturer, CFM International, to modify the engine design to prevent future power loss. One year United Airlines Flight 811, a Boeing 747, suffered a cargo door failure in-flight, separating a section of fuselage with 9 passengers and resulted in cabin depressurization; the plane made a successful emergency landing at Honolulu International Airport. More Air Transat Flight 236 ran out of fuel over the Atlantic Ocean on August 24, 2001 and made a successful forced landing in the Azores.
On November 1, 2011 a Boeing 767 LOT Polish Airlines Flight 016 made a belly landing after a central hydraulic system failure at Warsaw, Poland's Frederic Chopin International Airport, with no injuries. A less successful crash landing involved Southern Airways Flight 242 on April 4, 1977; the DC-9 lost both of its engines due to hail and heavy rain in a thunderstorm and, unable to glide to an airport, made a forced landing on a highway near New Hope, United States. The plane made a hard landing and was still carrying a large amount of fuel, so it burst into flames, killing the majority of the passengers and several people on the ground. Airliners make emergency landings, all of them are uneventful. However, because of their inherent uncertain nature, they can become crash landings or worse; some notable instances include United Airlines Flight 232, which broke up while landing at Sioux City, United States on July 19, 1989.
Swissair AG/S. A. was the national airline of Switzerland between its founding in 1931 and bankruptcy in 2002. It was formed from a merger between Ad Astra Aero. For most of its 71 years, Swissair was one of the major international airlines and known as the "Flying Bank" due to its financial stability, causing it to be regarded as a Swiss national symbol and icon; the airline thrived into the 1980s, when it was one of the "Seven Sisters" of Western European commercial aviation. It was headquartered in Kloten. In 1997 the Swissair Group was renamed SAirGroup, with four subdivisions: SAirlines, SAirServices, SAirLogistics and SAirRelations. Burdened by over-expansion as a result of the controversial “Hunter Strategy” in the late 1990s and after the economic downturn following the September 11 attacks, Swissair’s assets lost value, grounding the already-troubled airline in October 2001; the airline was kept alive until 31 March 2002 by the Swiss Federal government. On 1 April 2002 former regional subsidiary Crossair renamed itself Swiss International Air Lines and took over most of Swissair's routes and staff.
Today, Swissair Group still is in the process of being liquidated. Swiss International Air Lines was taken over by the German airline Lufthansa in 2005. On March 26, 1931, Swissair – Schweizerische Luftverkehr AG was founded through the fusion of the airlines Ad Astra Aero and Balair; the founding fathers were the Swiss aviation pioneer Walter Mittelholzer. In contrast to other airlines, it did not receive support from the government; the name "Swissair" was the proposal of Dr. Alphonse Ehinger, president of the directorial board of the Balair, although "Swissair" was first deemed "un-Swiss". In the first operational year 64 people were employed including ten pilots, seven radio operators and eight mechanics. In total, their planes offered operation was maintained only from March to October; the route network had a length of 4,203 kilometres. On April 17, 1932 Swissair bought two Lockheed Orions, making them the second European airline to use American planes, after the Czechoslovak operator CSA purchased a Ford Trimotor in 1930.
The Orion was the fastest commercial airplane of its time and was put to use on the "Express line", Zurich-Munich-Vienna. This led Lufthansa to ask Heinkel for a model that could top the Orion's speed, leading to the Heinkel He 70. In 1933, the first trans-Alpine route was introduced in 1933: Zurich-Milan. For the first time in Europe, flight attendants were employed aboard the Curtiss Condor beginning in 1934. Nelly Diener, first flight attendant of Europe, became world-famous, she lost her life after just 79 flights in a crash near Wurmlingen, Germany, on July 27, 1934. The cause of the crash was material fatigue. In 1936, Douglas DC-2s were acquired and London was added to the route network. In 1937, the bigger Douglas DC-3 was bought. In the same year, both founding fathers died: Walter Mittelholzer during mountaineering in the Steiermark and Balz Zimmermann succumbed to an infectious disease. On August 27, 1939, days before World War II broke out, the airspace over Germany and France was closed.
Swissair was forced to suspend service to Amsterdam and London. Two days Swissair service was closed completely. Of 180 employees, 131 had to serve in the army. In spite of the war, some routes were re-introduced, such as Munich, Berlin and Barcelona. In 1940, an invasion of Switzerland was feared, Swissair moved their operations to the Magadino plains in Ticino. Operations were suspended definitively in August 1944, when a Swissair DC-2 was destroyed in Stuttgart during an American bombing raid. On July 30, 1945 Swissair was able to resume commercial aviation. In 1947 the rise of shareholder capital to 20 million Swiss francs enabled long haul flights to New York, South Africa and South America with Douglas DC-4s; the modern Convair 240, the first Swissair plane with a pressurized cabin, was used for short- and medium range flights from late 1948. The first Swissair DC-4 flight to New York was routed via Shannon and Stephenville, Newfoundland, on May 2, 1947, although it ended in Washington, D.
C. due to fog at New York's LaGuardia Airport. The total elapsed time was 55 minutes; the public, including the federal government, the states of Switzerland, the Swiss Federal Railways and the Swiss postal services took over 30.6% of the shares and enabled Swissair to get a credit of 15 million Swiss Francs to purchase the airline's first two Douglas DC-6B airliners for delivery in 1951. By that act, Swissair became the national flag carrier of Switzerland; the new pressurised aircraft were to replace the DC-4 on transatlantic routes. In 1948 the airport in Dübendorf, which served as the base of Swissair, was relocated to Zurich-Kloten. Military aviation continued in Dübendorf; the next year Swissair plunged into a financial crisis due to a sudden devaluation of the British Pound because fares, except traffic to the United States, were calculated in British currency. At that time, the traffic to England made up 40 percent of Swissair's revenues. In June 1950 Walter Berchtold, manager of Swiss Federal Railways, was elected to the directorial board of Swissair and served as the director.
Until 1971 he coined the corporate culture of Swissair. He grasped the importance of corporate image and corporate identity, after the example of BOAC's "Speedbi
South Lebanon conflict (1985–2000)
The South Lebanon conflict or the Security Zone conflict in Lebanon refers to 15 years of warfare between the Lebanese Christian proxy militias SLA with military and logistic support of Israel Defense Forces against Lebanese Muslim guerrillas led by the Iranian-backed Hezbollah, within what was defined as the "Security Zone" in South Lebanon. It can refer to the continuation of conflict in this region, beginning with the Palestine Liberation Organization operations transfer to South Lebanon, following Black September in the Kingdom of Jordan. Historical tension between Palestinian refugees and Lebanese factions fomented the violent Lebanese internal political struggle between many different factions. In light of this, the South Lebanon conflict can be seen as a part of the Lebanese Civil War. In earlier conflicts prior to the 1982 Israeli invasion, including Operation Litani, Israel attempted to eradicate PLO bases from Lebanon and support Christian Maronite militias; the 1982 invasion resulted in the PLO's departure from Lebanon.
The creation of the Security Zone in South Lebanon benefited civilian Israelis, although at great cost to Palestinian and Lebanese civilians. Despite this Israeli success in eradicating PLO bases and its partial withdrawal in 1985, the Israeli invasion increased the severity of conflict with local Lebanese militias and resulted in the consolidation of several local Shia Muslim movements in Lebanon, including Hezbollah and Amal, from a unorganized guerrilla movement in the south. Over the years, military casualties of both sides grew higher, as both parties used more modern weaponry, Hezbollah progressed in its tactics. By the early 1990s, with support from Syria and Iran, emerged as the leading group and military power, monopolizing guerrilla activity in South Lebanon. By the year 2000, following an election campaign promise, newly elected Prime Minister Ehud Barak withdrew Israeli forces from Southern Lebanon within the year, in accordance with UN Security Council Resolution 425, passed in 1978.
The Lebanese government and Hezbollah still consider the withdrawal incomplete until Israel withdraws from Shebaa Farms. Following the withdrawal, Hezbollah has monopolized its military and civil control of the southern part of Lebanon. Following the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, the 1949 Armistice Agreements were signed with United Nations mediation; the Lebanese–Israeli agreement created the armistice line, which coincided with the existing international boundary between Lebanon and Palestine from the Mediterranean to the Syrian tri-point on the Hasbani River. From this tri-point on the Hasbani the boundary follows the river northward to the village of Ghajar northeast, forming the Lebanese–Syrian border. Israeli forces captured and occupied 13 villages in Lebanese territory during the conflict, including parts of Marjayun, Bint Jubayl, areas near the Litani River, but withdrew following international pressure and the armistice agreement. Although the Israel–Lebanon border remained quiet, entries in the diary of Moshe Sharett point to a continued territorial interest in the area.
On 16 May 1954, during a joint meeting of senior officials of the defense and foreign affairs ministries, Ben Gurion raised the issue of Lebanon due to renewed tensions between Syria and Iraq, internal trouble in Syria. Dayan expressed his enthusiastic support for entering Lebanon, occupying the necessary territory and creating a Christian regime that would ally itself with Israel; the issue was raised again in discussions at the Protocol of Sèvres. The Israeli victory in the 1967 Six-Day War vastly expanded their area occupied in all neighboring countries, with the exception of Lebanon, but this extended the length of the effective Lebanon–Israel border, with the occupation of the Golan Heights. Although with a stated requirement for defense Israeli expansion into Lebanon under similar terms followed the 1977 elections, which for the first time, brought the Revisionist Likud to power. Beginning with the late 1960s and in the 1970s, following the defeat of PLO in Black September in Jordan, displaced Palestinians, including militants affiliated with the Palestinian Liberation Organization, began to settle in South Lebanon.
The unrestrained buildup of Palestinian militia, the large autonomy they exercised, led to the popular term "Fatahland" for South Lebanon. Since the mid 1970s the tensions between the various Lebanese factions and Palestinians had exploded, resulting in Lebanese Civil War. Following multiple attacks launched by Palestinian organizations in the 1970, which increased with the Lebanese Civil War, the Israeli government decided to take action. Desiring to break up and destroy this PLO stronghold, Israel invaded Lebanon in 1978, but the results of this invasion were mixed; the PLO was pushed north of the Litani River and a buffer zone was created to keep them from returning, with the placement of the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon. In addition and despite earlier covert support, Israel established a second buffer with renegade Saad Haddad's Christian Free Lebanon Army enclave. For the first time however, Israel received substantive adverse publicity in the world press due to damage in South Lebanon, in which some 200,000 Lebanese fled the area and ended up in the southern suburbs of Beirut.
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic; as the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is taught in schools and universities, is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, the official language of 26 states, the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic, uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.
Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era in modern times. Due to its grounding in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic is removed over a millennium from everyday speech, construed as a multitude of dialects of this language; these dialects and Modern Standard Arabic are described by some scholars as not mutually comprehensible. The former are acquired in families, while the latter is taught in formal education settings. However, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the standard variety among preschool-aged children; the relation between Modern Standard Arabic and these dialects is sometimes compared to that of Latin and vernaculars in medieval and early modern Europe. This view though does not take into account the widespread use of Modern Standard Arabic as a medium of audiovisual communication in today's mass media—a function Latin has never performed. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe in science and philosophy.
As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence in vocabulary, is seen in European languages Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries. Many of these words relate to related activities; the Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Spanish, Kashmiri, Bosnian, Bengali, Malay, Indonesian, Punjabi, Assamese, Sindhi and Hausa, some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.
Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as 422 million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arabic is a Central Semitic language related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic; the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense.
The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms. The development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic. The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: negative particles m *mā.
Black September Organization
The Black September Organization was a Palestinian terrorist organization founded in 1970. It was responsible for the assassination of the Jordanian Prime Minister Wasfi Tal, the Munich massacre, in which eleven Israeli athletes and officials were kidnapped and killed, as well a West German policeman losing his life, during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, their most publicized event; these events led to the creation or specialization of permanent counter-terrorism forces in many European countries. The group's name is derived from the Black September conflict which began on 16 September 1970, when King Hussein of Jordan declared military rule in response to fedayeen attempting to seize his kingdom — resulting in the deaths and expulsion of thousands of Palestinians fighters from Jordan; the BSO began as a small cell of Fatah men determined to take revenge upon King Hussein and the Jordanian Armed Forces. Recruits from the PFLP, as-Sa'iqa, other groups joined. Most of its members were dissidents within Fatah, close to Abu Ali Iyad, the commander of Fatah forces in northern Jordan who continued to fight the Jordanian Army after the PLO leadership withdrew.
He was killed through execution, by Jordanian forces on 23 July 1971. It was alleged by them that the Jordanian Prime Minister at the time, Wasfi Tal, was responsible for his torture and death. There is disagreement among historians and primary sources about the nature of the BSO and the extent to which it was controlled by Fatah, the Palestine Liberation Organization faction controlled at the time by Yasser Arafat. In his book Stateless, Salah Khalaf, Arafat's chief of security and a founding member of Fatah, wrote that: "Black September was not a terrorist organization, but was rather an auxiliary unit of the resistance movement, at a time when the latter was unable to realize its military and political potential; the members of the organization always denied any ties between their organization and Fatah or the PLO." The denial described in Abu Iyad's claim was mutual: according to a 1972 article in the Jordanian newspaper Al-Dustur, Mohammed Daoud Oudeh known as Abu Daoud, a BSO operative and former senior PLO member, told Jordanian police: "There is no such organization as Black September.
Fatah announces its own operations under this name so that Fatah will not appear as the direct executor of the operation." A March 1973 document released in 1981 by the U. S. State Department seemed to confirm. According to American journalist John K. Cooley, the BSO represented a "total break with the old operational and organizational methods of the fedayeen, its members operated in air-tight cells of more men and women. Each cell's members were kept purposely ignorant of other cells. Leadership was exercised from outside by intermediaries and'cut-offs' ", though there was no centralized leadership. Cooley writes that many of the cells in Europe and around the world were made up of Palestinians and other Arabs who had lived in their countries of residence as students, teachers and diplomats for many years. Operating without a central leadership, it was a "true collegial direction"; the cell structure and the need-to-know operational philosophy protected the operatives by ensuring that the apprehension or surveillance of one cell would not affect the others.
The structure offered plausible deniability to the Fatah leadership, careful to distance itself from Black September operations. Fatah needed Black September, according to historian Benny Morris, he writes that there was a "problem of internal PLO or Fatah cohesion, with extremists demanding greater militancy. The moderates acquiesced in the creation of Black September in order to survive"; as a result of pressure from militants, writes Morris, a Fatah congress in Damascus in August–September 1971 agreed to establish Black September. The new organization was based on Fatah's existing special intelligence and security apparatus, on the PLO offices and representatives in various European capitals, from early on, there was cooperation between Black September and the PFLP; the PLO closed Black September down in September 1973, on the anniversary it was created by the "political calculation that no more good would come of terrorism abroad" according to Morris. In 1974 Arafat ordered the PLO to withdraw from acts of violence outside the West Bank, the Gaza Strip and Israel.
The group was responsible for the murder of 11 Israeli Olympic athletes, nine of whom were first taken hostage, the killing of a German police officer, during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich. Black September's official name for their action was "Ikrit and Biram", after the names of two Palestinian Christian villages whose residents had been expelled by the Israeli military Haganah in 1948. Following the attack, the Israeli government, headed by Prime Minister Golda Meir, ordered Mossad to assassinate those known to have been involved, in an operation codenamed Operation Bayonet. By 1979, during what became known as Operation Wrath of God, at least one Mossad unit had assassinated eight PLO members. Among them was the leading figure of Ali Hassan Salameh, nicknamed the "Red Prince", the wealthy, flamboyant son of an upper-class family, commander of Force 17, Yasser Arafat's personal security squad. Salameh was behind the 1972 hijacking of Sabena Flight 572 from Vienna to Lod, he was killed by a car bomb in Beirut on 22 January 1979.
In Operation Spring of Youth, in April 1973, Israeli commandos killed three senior members of Black September in Beirut. In July 1973, in what became known as the Lillehammer af
Palestinian nationalism is the national movement of the Palestinian people for self-determination in and sovereignty over Palestine. Formed in opposition to Zionism, Palestinian nationalism internationalized and attached itself to other ideologies, thus it has rejected the historic occupation of the Palestinian territories by Israel and the non-domestic Arab rule by Egypt over the Gaza Strip and Jordan over the West Bank. Before the development of modern nationalism, loyalty tended to focus on a city or a particular leader; the term "Nationalismus", translated as nationalism, was coined by Johann Gottfried Herder in the late 1770s. Palestinian nationalism has been compared to other nationalist movements, such as Pan-Arabism and Zionism; some nationalists argue that "the nation was always there, indeed it is part of the natural order when it was submerged in the hearts of its members." In keeping with this philosophy, Al-Quds University states that although "Palestine was conquered in times past by ancient Egyptians, Philistines, Assyrians, Persians, Muslim Arabs, Ottomans, the British, the Zionists … the population remained constant—and is now still Palestinian."Zachary J. Foster argued in a 2015 Foreign Affairs article that "based on hundreds of manuscripts, Islamic court records, books and newspapers from the Ottoman period, it seems that the first Arab to use the term “Palestinian” was Farid Georges Kassab, a Beirut-based Orthodox Christian."
He explained further that Kassab’s 1909 book Palestine and Clericalism noted in passing that “the Orthodox Palestinian Ottomans call themselves Arabs, are in fact Arabs,” despite describing the Arabic speakers of Palestine as Palestinians throughout the rest of the book." Foster revised his view in a 2016 piece published in Palestine Square, arguing that in 1898 Khalil Beidas used the term “Palestinian” to describe the region's Arab inhabitants in the preface to a book he translated from Russian to Arabic. In the book, Akim Olesnitsky's A Description of the Holy Land, Beidas explained that the summer agricultural work in Palestine began in May with the wheat and barley harvest. After enduring the entire summer with no rain at all—leaving the water cisterns depleted and the rivers and springs dry—”the Palestinian peasant waits impatiently for winter to come, for the season’s rain to moisten his fossilized fields.” Foster explained that this is the first instance in modern history where the term ‘Palestinian’ or ‘Filastini’ appears in Arabic.
He added, that the term Palestinian had been used decades earlier in Western languages by the British James Finn, the German Ludwig Schneller, the American James Wells. In his 1997 book, Palestinian Identity: The Construction of Modern National Consciousness, historian Rashid Khalidi notes that the archaeological strata that denote the history of Palestine—encompassing the Biblical, Byzantine, Fatimid, Ayyubid and Ottoman periods—form part of the identity of the modern-day Palestinian people, as they have come to understand it over the last century, but derides the efforts of some Palestinian nationalists to attempt to "anachronistically" read back into history a nationalist consciousness, in fact "relatively modern." Khalidi stresses that Palestinian identity has never been an exclusive one, with "Arabism and local loyalties" playing an important role. He argues that the modern national identity of Palestinians has its roots in nationalist discourses that emerged among the peoples of the Ottoman Empire in the late 19th century which sharpened following the demarcation of modern nation-state boundaries in the Middle East after World War I.
He acknowledges that Zionism played a role in shaping this identity, though "it is a serious mistake to suggest that Palestinian identity emerged as a response to Zionism." Khalidi describes the Arab population of British Mandatory Palestine as having "overlapping identities," with some or many expressing loyalties to villages, regions, a projected nation of Palestine, an alternative of inclusion in a Greater Syria, an Arab national project, as well as to Islam. He writes that,"local patriotism could not yet be described as nation-state nationalism."Israeli historian Haim Gerber, a professor of Islamic History at Hebrew University of Jerusalem, traces Arab nationalism back to a 17th-century religious leader, Mufti Khayr al-Din al-Ramli who lived in Ramla. He claims that Khayr al-Din al-Ramli's religious edicts, collected into final form in 1670 under the name al-Fatawa al-Khayriyah, attest to territorial awareness: "These fatawa are a contemporary record of the time, give a complex view of agrarian relations."
Mufti Khayr al-Din al-Ramli's 1670 collection entitled al-Fatawa al-Khayriyah mentions the concepts Filastin, biladuna, al-Sham and diyar, in senses that appear to go beyond objective geography. Gerber describes this as "embryonic territorial awareness, though the reference is to social awareness rather than to a political one."Baruch Kimmerling and Joel Migdal consider the 1834 Arab revolt in Palestine as the first formative event of the Palestinian people, whereas Benny Morris attests that the Arabs in Palestine remained part of a larger Pan-Islamist or Pan-Arab national movement. In his book The Israel–Palestine Conflict: One Hundred Years of War, James L. Gelvin states that "Palestinian nationalism emerged during the interwar period in response to Zionist immigration and settlement." However, this does not make Palestinian identity any less legitimate: "The fact that Palestinian nationalism developed than Zionism and indeed in response to it do
Hezbollah —also transliterated Hizbullah, etc.—is a Shi'a Islamist political party and militant group based in Lebanon. Hezbollah's paramilitary wing is the Jihad Council, its political wing is Loyalty to the Resistance Bloc party in the Lebanese parliament. Since the death of Abbas al-Musawi in 1992, the group has been headed by Hassan Nasrallah, its Secretary-General; the group, along with its military wing is considered a terrorist organization by the United States, Canada, the Arab League, the Gulf Cooperation Council, the United Kingdom and the European Union. After the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982 in support of the Free Lebanon State, Israel occupied a strip of south Lebanon, controlled by the South Lebanon Army, a Lebanese Christian militia supported by Israel. Hezbollah was founded in the early 1980s as part of an Iranian effort to aggregate a variety of militant Lebanese Shi'a groups into a unified organization. Hezbollah acts as a proxy for Iran in the ongoing Iran–Israel proxy conflict.
Hezbollah was conceived by Muslim clerics and funded by Iran to harass the Israeli occupation. Its leaders were followers of Ayatollah Khomeini, its forces were trained and organized by a contingent of 1,500 Revolutionary Guards that arrived from Iran with permission from the Syrian government, in occupation of Lebanon at the time. Hezbollah's 1985 manifesto listed its objectives as the expulsion of "the Americans, the French and their allies from Lebanon, putting an end to any colonialist entity on our land", submission of the Phalangists to "just power" and bringing them to justice "for the crimes they have perpetrated against Muslims and Christians", permitting "all the sons of our people" to choose the form of government they want, while calling on them to "pick the option of Islamic government". Hezbollah waged a guerilla campaign in South Lebanon and as a result, Israel withdrew from Lebanon on 24 May 2000, the SLA collapsed and surrendered. Hezbollah organised volunteers. Hezbollah's military strength has grown so that its paramilitary wing is considered more powerful than the Lebanese Army.
Hezbollah has been described as a "state within a state", has grown into an organization with seats in the Lebanese government, a radio and a satellite TV station, social services and large-scale military deployment of fighters beyond Lebanon's borders. Hezbollah is part of the March 8 Alliance within Lebanon, in opposition to the March 14 Alliance. Hezbollah maintains strong support among Lebanon's Shi'a population, while Sunnis have disagreed with the group's agenda. Hezbollah finds support from within some Christian areas of Lebanon that are Hezbollah strongholds. Hezbollah receives military training and financial support from Iran, political support from Syria. Hezbollah and Israel fought each other in the 2006 Lebanon War. After the 2006–08 Lebanese protests and clashes, a national unity government was formed in 2008, with Hezbollah and its opposition allies obtaining eleven of thirty cabinets seats, enough to give them veto power. In August 2008, Lebanon's new Cabinet unanimously approved a draft policy statement which recognized Hezbollah's existence as an armed organization and guarantees its right to "liberate or recover occupied lands".
Since 2012, Hezbollah has helped the Syrian government during the Syrian civil war in its fight against the Syrian opposition, which Hezbollah has described as a Zionist plot and a "Wahhabi-Zionist conspiracy" to destroy its alliance with Assad against Israel. It has deployed its militia in both Syria and Iraq to fight or train local forces to fight against ISIS. Once seen as a resistance movement throughout much of the Arab world, this image upon which the group's legitimacy rested has been damaged due to the sectarian nature of the Syrian Civil War in which it has become embroiled. After the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982, Israel occupied a strip of south Lebanon, controlled by the South Lebanon Army, a militia supported by Israel. Hezbollah was conceived by Muslim clerics and funded by Iran to harass the Israeli occupation, its leaders were followers of Ayatollah Khomeini, its forces were trained and organized by a contingent of 1,500 Revolutionary Guards that arrived from Iran with permission from the Syrian government, in occupation of Lebanon at the time.
Scholars differ as to. Various sources list the official formation of the group as early as 1982 whereas Diaz and Newman maintain that Hezbollah remained an amalgamation of various violent Shi'a extremists until as late as 1985. Another version states that it was formed by supporters of Sheikh Ragheb Harb, a leader of the southern Shia resistance killed by Israel in 1984. Regardless of when the name came into official use, a number of Shi'a groups were assimilated into the organization, such as Islamic Jihad, Organization of the Oppressed on Earth and the Revolutionary Justice Organization; these designations are considered to be synonymous with Hezbollah by Israel and Canada. Hezbollah emerged in South Lebanon during a consolidation of Shia militias as a rival to the older Amal Movement. Hezbollah played a significant role in the Lebanese civil war, opposing American forces in 1982–83 and opposing Amal and Syria during the 1985–88 War of the Camps. However, Hezbollah's early primary focus was ending Israel's occupation of southern Lebanon following Israel's 1982 invasion and siege of Beirut.
Amal, the main Lebanese Shia political group, initiated guerrilla warfare. In 2006, former Israe