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Population of the Byzantine Empire

The population of the Byzantine Empire encompassed all ethnic and tribal groups living there, such as Byzantine Greeks, Armenians, Goths, Illyrians and other groups. It fluctuated throughout the state's millennial history; the reign of the Emperor Justinian I in the mid-sixth century was the high point of the empire's expansion. After the reign of Emperor Heraclius and the loss of the empire's overseas territories, Byzantium was limited to the Balkans and Anatolia; when the empire began to recover after a series of conflicts in the 8th century and its territories stabilized, its population began to recover. By the end of the 8th century the population of the empire was around 7,000,000, a figure that climbed to over 12,000,000 people by 1025; the numbers began falling to 9,000,000 people at 1204 and lower to 5,000,000 people at 1282 with the arrival of the Turks. James, Liz, ed.. A Companion to Byzantium. Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-4051-2654-0. Treadgold, Warren T.. A History of the Byzantine State and Society.

Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-2630-2. Treadgold, Warren T.. A Concise History of Byzantium. Basingstoke: Palgrave. ISBN 0-333-71829-1. Laiou, Angeliki E. ed.. The Economic History of Byzantium from the Seventh through the Fifteenth Century. Washington DC: Dumbarton Oaks. ISBN 0-88402-288-9. Mcevedy, Colin. Atlas of World Population History. United Kingdom: Penguin Books Ltd. and Allen Lane. Page, Gill. Being Byzantine: Greek Identity Before the Ottomans, 1200-1420. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521871815. OCLC 302061918. Howard Wiseman. "18 Centuries of Roman Empire"

Tim Tookey

Timothy Raymond Tookey is a Canadian retired professional ice hockey centre who played in the National Hockey League for the Washington Capitals, Quebec Nordiques, Pittsburgh Penguins, Philadelphia Flyers and Los Angeles Kings. Tookey was selected in the 5th round, 88th overall, by the Washington Capitals in the 1979 NHL Entry Draft, he played three years with the Portland Winter Hawks, finished with 107 goals and 252 points. He led the American Hockey league in scoring during the 1986-1987 season with 124 points, he is fourth all time in AHL history 974 career points. Tookey was a former coach of the NorPac hockey team Yellowstone Quake. Biographical information and career statistics from NHL.com, or Hockey-Reference.com, or Legends of Hockey, or The Internet Hockey Database Profile at hockeydraftcentral.com

Clint Thomas

Clinton Cyrus "Hawk" Thomas was a professional baseball player born in Greenup, Kentucky. He was an outfielder and second baseman in the Negro leagues from 1920 to 1938, where he earned the nickname "Hawk" for his sharp-eyed hitting and center field skills. Thomas played for the Brooklyn Royal Giants, Columbus Buckeyes, Detroit Stars, Hilldale Club, Bacharach Giants, New York Lincoln Giants, New York Harlem Stars, Indianapolis ABCs, New York Black Yankees, Newark Eagles, Philadelphia Stars. Thomas was a member of the Philadelphia Hilldale teams that won three consecutive Eastern Colored League championships from 1923 to 1925 and the Negro League World Series in 1925, he joined the New York Black Yankees in 1931 and, the following year, "ruined" the opening of Greenlee Field by scoring the only run and making a game-saving catch in the Black Yankees defeat of Satchel Paige's Pittsburgh Crawfords. Nicknamed "The Black DiMaggio", he once hit a home run off Fidel Castro in an exhibition game in Cuba.

After his baseball career ended, Thomas worked as a custodian and staff supervisor for the West Virginia Department of Mines and as a messenger for the State Senate. He died on December 1990, in Charleston, West Virginia. Riley, James A; the Biographical Encyclopedia of the Negro Baseball Leagues, New York: Carroll & Graf, ISBN 0-7867-0959-6 Baseball Library Negro league baseball statistics and player information from Seamheads.com, or Baseball-Reference

National Aquarium of New Zealand

The National Aquarium of New Zealand Napier Aquarium, is a public aquarium on Marine Parade in Napier, New Zealand. It was started in 1957 and moved to its present location in 1976, it is owned by Napier City Council. In addition to many fish species, exhibits include kiwi, American alligator, little penguins and some lizards. In 1957, members of Napier's Thirty Thousand Club and the Hawke's Bay Aquarium and Water Garden Society decided to create a public aquarium with tropical fish and unusual specimens of local fish in the basement of the War Memorial Hall, being built on Marine Parade; the aquarium moved to its current location on Marine Parade in 1976. In its first year of its life it attracted 230,000 visitors at a time when the population of Napier was about 50,000. In its first 5 years of operation over 750,000 people visited; the aquarium acquired piranhas from Cleveland, Ohio, U. S. in 1979, trading seahorses for them. In 2019 the 21 elderly piranhas remaining were euthanased, as new government rules no longer allowed them to be kept in the aquarium's tanks.

In 2002 the aquarium underwent a NZ$8 million extension and renovation which included the addition of a 1.5 million litre oceanarium with a 50m acrylic tunnel and the replacement of all the original tanks with newly constructed ones. It was renamed the National Aquarium of New Zealand. In June 2017 the aquarium named Timmy its'Naughty Penguin of the Month' for stealing fish and pushing another penguin into the water. There are a souvenir shop and cafe. Exhibits include: East Coast LAB – Hikurangi plate boundary African Cichlids Amazon Pacu Asian Tropical Asian Paddyfield Dinosaur fossils Asian Water Garden Australian Out Back Water Dragons American alligator Waterfall Coral Reef Tuatara New Zealand Stream Kiwi Enclosure New Zealand Fresh Water Little Penguins Eels Hawksbill Sea Turtle Rocky Shore Seahorse Oceanarium Marineland of New Zealand Official website Media related to National Aquarium of New Zealand at Wikimedia Commons

United States v. Santa Fe Pacific Railroad Co.

United States v. Santa Fe Pacific Railroad Co. 314 U. S. 339, is a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court held that the power of Congress to extinguish aboriginal title is plenary and nonjusticiable but that Congress was presumed not to do so absent a clear intention. It is the leading precedent on the extinguishment of aboriginal title in the United States; the suit was brought by the federal government, on behalf of the Hualapai against the Santa Fe Pacific Railroad. The Court held that the Hualapai's aboriginal title was not extinguished by its lack of federal recognition or acknowledgment by treaty, for formal government action. However, the Court held that the 1881 creation of a reservation by executive order at the request of the Hualapai extinguished the tribe's aboriginal title outside of that reservation; the case distinguished aboriginal title in California from aboriginal title in the rest of the Mexican Cession and is cited for its in-depth discussion of the test for the extinguishment of aboriginal title.

McCabe v. Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway Co. List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 314 Text of United States v. Santa Fe Pacific Railroad Co. 314 U. S. 339 is available from: Cornell CourtListener Google Scholar Justia

Steller's sea cow

Steller's sea cow is an extinct sirenian described by Georg Wilhelm Steller in 1741. At that time, it was found only around the Commander Islands in the Bering Sea between Alaska and Russia; some 18th-century adults would have reached weights of 8–10 t and lengths up to 9 m. It was a part of the order Sirenia and a member of the family Dugongidae, of which its closest living relative, the 3 m long dugong, is the sole living member, it had a thicker layer of blubber than other members of the order, an adaptation to the cold waters of its environment. Its tail was forked, like that of whales or dugongs. Lacking true teeth, it had an array of white bristles on its upper lip and two keratinous plates within its mouth for chewing, it fed on kelp, communicated with sighs and snorting sounds. Evidence suggests it was a monogamous and social animal living in small family groups and raising its young, similar to modern sirenians. Steller's sea cow was named after Georg Wilhelm Steller, who first encountered it on Vitus Bering's Great Northern Expedition when the crew became shipwrecked on Bering Island.

Much of what is known about its behavior comes from Steller's observations on the island, documented in his posthumous publication On the Beasts of the Sea. Within 27 years of discovery by Europeans, the slow-moving and caught mammal was hunted into extinction for its meat and hide. Steller's sea cows grew to be much larger than extant sirenians. Georg Steller's writings contain two contradictory estimates of weight: 24.3 t. The true value is estimated to fall between these figures, at about 8–10 t; this size made the sea cow one of the largest mammals of the Holocene epoch, along with whales, was an adaptation to reduce its surface area-to-volume ratio and conserve heat. Unlike other sirenians, Steller's sea cow was positively buoyant, meaning that it was unable to submerge completely, it had a thick outer skin, 2.5 cm, to prevent injury from sharp rocks and ice and to prevent unsubmerged skin from drying out. The sea cow's blubber was another adaptation to the frigid climate of the Bering Sea.

Its skin was brownish-black, with white patches on some individuals. It was smooth along its back and rough on its sides, with crater-like depressions most caused by parasites; this rough texture led to the animal being nicknamed the "bark animal". Hair on its body was sparse; the fore limbs were 67 cm long, the tail fluke was forked. The sea cow's head was short in comparison to its huge body; the animal's upper lip was large and broad, extending so far beyond the lower jaw that the mouth appeared to be located underneath the skull. Unlike other sirenians, Steller's sea cow was toothless and instead had a dense array of interlacing white bristles on its upper lip; the bristles were used to tear seaweed stalks and hold food. The sea cow had two keratinous plates located on its palate and mandible, used for chewing. According to Steller, these plates were held together by interdental papillae, a part of the gums, had many small holes containing nerves and arteries; as with all sirenians, the sea cow's snout pointed downwards.

The sea cow's nostrils were 5 cm long and wide. In addition to those within its mouth, the sea cow had stiff bristles 10–12.7 cm long protruding from its muzzle. Steller's sea cow had small eyes located halfway between its nostrils and ears with black irises, livid eyeballs, canthi which were not externally visible; the animal had no eyelashes, but like other diving creatures such as sea otters, Steller's sea cow had a nictitating membrane, which covered its eyes to prevent injury while feeding. The tongue remained in the back of the mouth, unable to reach the masticatory pads; the sea cow's spine is believed to have had seven cervical, 17 thoracic, three lumbar, 34 caudal vertebrae. Its ribs were large, with five of 17 pairs making contact with the sternum; as in all sirenians, the scapula of Steller's sea cow was fan-shaped, being larger on the posterior side and narrower towards the neck. The anterior border of the scapula was nearly straight, whereas those of modern sirenians are curved. Like other sirenians, the bones of Steller's sea cow were pachyosteosclerotic, meaning they were both bulky and dense.

In all collected skeletons of the sea cow, the manus is missing. The sea cow's heart was 16 kg in weight; the full length of its intestinal tract was about 151 m, equaling more than 20 times the animal's length. The sea cow did have a wide common bile duct, its anus was 10 cm in width, with its feces resembling those of horses. The male's penis was 80 cm long. Whether Steller's sea cow had any natural predators is unknown, it may have been hunted by killer whales and sharks, though its buoyancy may have made it difficult for killer whales to drown, the rocky kelp forests in which the sea cow lived may have deterred sharks. According to Steller, the adults guarded the young from predators. Steller described an e