Isometric projection is a method for visually representing three-dimensional objects in two dimensions in technical and engineering drawings. It is an axonometric projection in which the three coordinate axes appear foreshortened and the angle between any two of them is 120 degrees; the term "isometric" comes from the Greek for "equal measure", reflecting that the scale along each axis of the projection is the same. An isometric view of an object can be obtained by choosing the viewing direction such that the angles between the projections of the x, y, z axes are all the same, or 120°. For example, with a cube, this is done by first looking straight towards one face. Next, the cube is rotated ±45° about the vertical axis, followed by a rotation of 35.264° about the horizontal axis. Note that with the cube the perimeter of the resulting 2D drawing is a perfect regular hexagon: all the black lines have equal length and all the cube's faces are the same area. Isometric graph paper can be placed under a normal piece of drawing paper to help achieve the effect without calculation.
In a similar way, an isometric view can be obtained in a 3D scene. Starting with the camera aligned parallel to the floor and aligned to the coordinate axes, it is first rotated vertically by about 35.264° as above ±45° around the vertical axis. Another way isometric projection can be visualized is by considering a view within a cubical room starting in an upper corner and looking towards the opposite, lower corner; the x-axis extends diagonally down and right, the y-axis extends diagonally down and left, the z-axis is straight up. Depth is shown by height on the image. Lines drawn along the axes are at 120° to one another; the term "isometric" is mistakenly used to refer to axonometric projections, generally. There are, however three types of axonometric projections: isometric and trimetric. From the two angles needed for an isometric projection, the value of the second may seem counterintuitive and deserves some further explanation. Let’s first imagine a cube with sides of length 2, its center positioned at the axis origin.
We can calculate the length of the line from its center to the middle of any edge as √2 using Pythagoras' theorem. By rotating the cube by 45° on the x-axis, the point will therefore become as depicted in the diagram; the second rotation aims to bring the same point on the positive z-axis and so needs to perform a rotation of value equal to the arctangent of 1⁄√2, 35.264°. There are eight different orientations to obtain an isometric view, depending into which octant the viewer looks; the isometric transform from a point ax,y,z in 3D space to a point bx,y in 2D space looking into the first octant can be written mathematically with rotation matrices as: = = 1 6 where α = arcsin ≈ 35.264° and β = 45°. As explained above, this is a rotation around the vertical axis by β, followed by a rotation around the horizontal axis by α; this is followed by an orthographic projection to the xy-plane: =
Theme Park Inc
Theme Park Inc. is a construction and management simulation video game. It is the sequel to Theme Park World. Theme Park Inc. was published by Electronic Arts. It was the last game to bear the Bullfrog logo before the company's merger with EA UK in 2004; the player starts out as the assistant manager of a theme park, hired by the president of the company to take over his position. To do this, the player must build and manage a theme park with three unique zones: Land of Invention, Polar Zone, Arabian Nights; each zone has unique rides and scenery items. The player is guided by the president and his directors, is aided by a blue spherical creature, named the Advisor, who gives the player advice; the player must hire staff to maintain the park, keep guests happy, research new items for the player to build. Staff members must be kept well-rested and happy. To advance further into the game, the player must complete several objectives; these objectives involve training staff for a specific job to unlock a new section of the park zone, or completing challenges to gain golden tickets, which are required to beat those objectives.
Challenges include keeping guest happiness levels high, making sure a ride does not break down, or making a certain amount of profit from a specific ride. Completing these challenges will give a specified number of golden tickets, certain challenges must be completed to complete an objective. However, if the player fails too many challenges, they will be fired and the game will be over; the objective of the game is to become the new boss of Theme park Inc by accruing a majority stake in the company and several park awards. Theme Park Inc, in comparison to Theme Park World, has a greater emphasis on the management of the park rather than the rides themselves; the game requires more effort be put into finer aspects such as staff management, park layout, guests' needs, as not doing so can make it more difficult to complete challenges and objectives. Theme Park Inc introduced the Roller Coaster Editor, an in-built feature that allows players to create their own layouts for the pylon rides in the game.
The players can save these designs and use them in the game proper. In the United States, Theme Park Inc sold 290,000 copies and earned $5.8 million by August 2006, after its release in January 2001. It was the country's 68th best-selling computer game between January 2000 and August 2006, it received a "Silver" sales award from the Entertainment and Leisure Software Publishers Association, indicating sales of at least 100,000 copies in the United Kingdom. Theme Park Inc received positive reviews. IGN gave the game 8.5/10, stating that the game has a visual charm that similar games, such as RollerCoaster Tycoon, lack. IGN states that the game is much improved from Theme Park World, in regards to the interface and advisor system. GameSpot gave the game a 6.8/10, criticizing its complicated nature, stating that the goals interfere with the enjoyment of the game. Theme Park Inc at MobyGames
A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a two- or three-dimensional video display device such as a TV screen, virtual reality headset or computer monitor. Since the 1980s, video games have become an important part of the entertainment industry, whether they are a form of art is a matter of dispute; the electronic systems used to play video games are called platforms. Video games are developed and released for one or several platforms and may not be available on others. Specialized platforms such as arcade games, which present the game in a large coin-operated chassis, were common in the 1980s in video arcades, but declined in popularity as other, more affordable platforms became available; these include dedicated devices such as video game consoles, as well as general-purpose computers like a laptop, desktop or handheld computing devices. The input device used for games, the game controller, varies across platforms. Common controllers include gamepads, mouse devices, the touchscreens of mobile devices, or a person's body, using a Kinect sensor.
Players view the game on a display device such as a television or computer monitor or sometimes on virtual reality head-mounted display goggles. There are game sound effects and voice actor lines which come from loudspeakers or headphones; some games in the 2000s include haptic, vibration-creating effects, force feedback peripherals and virtual reality headsets. In the 2010s, the commercial importance of the video game industry is increasing; the emerging Asian markets and mobile games on smartphones in particular are driving the growth of the industry. As of 2015, video games generated sales of US$74 billion annually worldwide, were the third-largest segment in the U. S. entertainment market, behind broadcast and cable TV. Early games used interactive electronic devices with various display formats; the earliest example is from 1947—a "Cathode ray tube Amusement Device" was filed for a patent on 25 January 1947, by Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann, issued on 14 December 1948, as U. S.
Patent 2455992. Inspired by radar display technology, it consisted of an analog device that allowed a user to control a vector-drawn dot on the screen to simulate a missile being fired at targets, which were drawings fixed to the screen. Other early examples include: The Nimrod computer at the 1951 Festival of Britain; each game used different means of display: NIMROD used a panel of lights to play the game of Nim, OXO used a graphical display to play tic-tac-toe Tennis for Two used an oscilloscope to display a side view of a tennis court, Spacewar! used the DEC PDP-1's vector display to have two spaceships battle each other. In 1971, Computer Space, created by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney, was the first commercially sold, coin-operated video game, it used a black-and-white television for its display, the computer system was made of 74 series TTL chips. The game was featured in the 1973 science fiction film Soylent Green. Computer Space was followed in 1972 by the first home console. Modeled after a late 1960s prototype console developed by Ralph H. Baer called the "Brown Box", it used a standard television.
These were followed by two versions of Atari's Pong. The commercial success of Pong led numerous other companies to develop Pong clones and their own systems, spawning the video game industry. A flood of Pong clones led to the video game crash of 1977, which came to an end with the mainstream success of Taito's 1978 shooter game Space Invaders, marking the beginning of the golden age of arcade video games and inspiring dozens of manufacturers to enter the market; the game inspired arcade machines to become prevalent in mainstream locations such as shopping malls, traditional storefronts and convenience stores. The game became the subject of numerous articles and stories on television and in newspapers and magazines, establishing video gaming as a growing mainstream hobby. Space Invaders was soon licensed for the Atari VCS, becoming the first "killer app" and quadrupling the console's sales; this helped Atari recover from their earlier losses, in turn the Atari VCS revived the home video game market during the second generation of consoles, up until the North American video game crash of 1983.
The home video game industry was revitalized shortly afterwards by the widespread success of the Nintendo Entertainment System, which marked a shift in the dominance of the video game industry from the United States to Japan during the third generation of consoles. A number of video game developers emerged in Britain in the early 1980s; the term "platform" refers to the specific combination of electronic components or computer hardware which, in conjunction with software, allows a video game to operate. The term "system" is commonly used; the distinctions below are not always clear and there may be games that bridge one or more platforms. In addition to laptop/desktop computers and mobile devices, there are other devices which have the ability to play games but are not video game machines, such as PDAs and graphing calculators. In common use a "PC game" refers to a form of media that involves a player interacting with a personal computer conne
Populous DS is a real-time strategy video game developed by Genki. It was published in Japan by Electronic Arts on February 21, 2008, in North America by Xseed Games on November 10, 2008, in Europe by Rising Star Games on February 27, 2009 for the Nintendo DS. Populous DS official website Populous DS official website Populous DS at MobyGames
Retro Gamer is a British magazine, published worldwide, covering retro video games. It was the first commercial magazine to be devoted to the subject. Launched in January 2004 as a quarterly publication, Retro Gamer soon became a monthly. In 2005, a general decline in gaming and computer magazine readership led to the closure of its publishers, Live Publishing, the rights to the magazine were purchased by Imagine Publishing, it was taken over by Future plc on 21 October 2016, following Future's acquisition of Imagine Publishing. The first 18 issues of the magazine came with a coverdisk, it contained freeware remakes of retro video games and emulators, but videos and free commercial PC software such as The Games Factory and The Elder Scrolls: Arena. Some issues had themed CDs containing the entire back catalogue of a publisher such as Durell Llamasoft and Gremlin Graphics. On 27 September 2005, the magazine's original publishing company, Live Publishing, went into bankruptcy; the magazine's official online forums described the magazine as "finished" shortly before issue #19 was due for release.
However, rights to Retro Gamer were purchased by Imagine Publishing in October 2005 and the magazine was re-launched on 8 December 2005. Retro Survival is a commercial CD retro games magazine put together by the freelance writers of Retro Gamer when Live Publishing collapsed; the CD was published in November 2005 and contains articles that would have appeared in Issue 19 of Retro Gamer, as well as several extras including a foreword by celebrity games journalist Mr Biffo. In June 2004, a tribute to Zzap!64 was included, "The DEF Tribute to Zzap!64", celebrating the 20th anniversary of the Commodore 64 focused magazine. Includes interviews with leading 80s and 90s programmers such as David Crane, Matthew Smith and Archer MacLean. Regular columns feature such as Back to the 80s and 90s, Desert Island Disks and From the Archives. The'Making Of's' is a recurring feature in which well-known developers are interviewed about the creation and design process behind their games. Classic titles covered in past issues have included Breakout, Dungeon Master, Smash TV, Rescue on Fractalus!, Prince of Persia, The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, Crystal Castles, Sheep in Space Out Run and Splat!.
Issue 48 contained an exclusive interview with Manic Miner creator Matthew Smith, written by freelancer Paul Drury after a visit to Smith's family home in Liverpool. March 2010 saw John Romero collaborating with Retro Gamer, taking on the role of'Guest Editor', taking charge of the magazine's editorial and splashing his own unique style to a number of his favorite articles and subjects throughout the magazine; the magazine celebrated its 150th issue in January 2016 and as of November 2016, the staff consists of Editor Darran Jones, Production Editor Drew Sleep, Senior Staff Writer Nick Thorpe and Designer Sam Ribbits. The magazine posts its own issue preview videos on its YouTube channel, featuring editor Darran Jones and Production Editor Drew Sleep as hosts. Three DVDs with 25 to 30 issues each have been released over the years: Retro Gamer eMag Load 1 Retro Gamer eMag Load 2 Retro Gamer eMag Load 3 Retro Gamer is now available as an iOS app and can be downloaded onto iPhone and iPad. Retro Gamer won Best Magazine at the 2010 Games Media Awards.
Official website List with all the games, machines and features of each issue of the magazine provided by Park Productions
Magic Carpet (video game)
Magic Carpet is a 3D flying video game developed by Bullfrog Productions and published by Electronic Arts in 1994. Its graphics and gameplay were considered innovative and technically impressive at the time of its release. An expansion pack, Magic Carpet: Hidden Worlds, was released for DOS in 1995 which added 25 levels and winter-themed graphics. A compilation package, Magic Carpet Plus, which included the main game and the expansion was used as a base for PlayStation and Sega Saturn ports that were released in 1996. A sequel was released in Magic Carpet 2: The Netherworlds; the player plays a wizard on a magic carpet flying over water and other terrain while destroying monsters and rival wizards and collecting "mana", gathered by hot air balloons and stored in the player's own castle. The story is told in a cutscene. According to this back story, mana was discovered and though it had beneficial uses, the quest for it made the lands barren. Worse, many corrupt wizards began turning to mana for their own nefarious purposes leading to war between them.
The battling wizards began using more destructive spells and summoning deadly monsters, the latter of which turned against them. One wizard hoped to end everything with an all-powerful spell but instead only left the worlds shattered. Only his apprentice survived and his goal is to restore the worlds to equilibrium; the player has to visit several small spherical "worlds". The goal in each world is to build a castle and fill it with the necessary percentage of the total mana in the current level, restoring it to "equilibrium"; the total mana level is fixed in each world. The player can destroy enemy monsters and salvage the mana they leave behind, represented by pearls of varying sizes. To accomplish this, the player has to possess the mana so that mana-collecting balloons bring them to the player's castle. Greater amounts of mana stored in the castle allow the player to expand the castle and cast more powerful spells; as the player expands the castle, it spawns additional balloons and armed guards that defend the castle against attacks by enemy wizards.
Besides storing mana, the player's castle serves as a home base for the player character where he can regain health and mana. Upon death, the player character respawns at his castle. Dying without a castle forces the player to restart the level since the game does not have a mid-level save feature; as long as the player's castle is at least intact, the player character cannot die. The magic carpet can be piloted in three dimensions, similar to a helicopter, although the player cannot roll and it is impossible to crash. Instead, when the carpet approaches an obstacle, it automatically ascends to fly over the obstacle. Magic Carpet has a maximum of 24 spells; the player character can have up to two spells equipped at one for each hand. For offense, there are scorching fireballs accurate lightning bolts and devastating meteors. For defence, players can heal themselves, bring up a shield to reduce damage from enemy fire, use rebound to deflect certain fire-based spells back at the enemy. In multiplayer, there is no dominant spell, which adds some balance to the game and results in several tactical dilemmas.
For instance, meteor is considered to be among the most powerful attacks and can kill weakened wizards with a single hit, but it becomes a double-edged sword if the target wizard has rebound cast. However, rebound is not a perfect defense, it costs a good deal of mana and, as with all other spells, does not allow one's mana reserve to recharge while it is in use. Moreover, it does not defend against many other powerful attacks. Lightning bolts are more accurate and more powerful than fireballs but lack the latter's longer range. Exotic spells include teleport, which takes the player back to his castle and returns him to his original location if cast a second time, skeleton army which creates undead archer minions for either attacking enemy castles or wreaking havoc in civilian towns. Revolutionary for the time were real-time terrain-altering spells such as crater and earthquake; the staple build castle spell is interesting. Players soon discovered that crater was useful against monsters and wizards alike on high ground, as sinking the earth from under the target was sufficient to kill it, for monsters the resulting crater would provide a handy hole in the ground to keep all of the mana together.
Volcano proves to be an deadly castle killer, creating damage both from the initial strike and from the lava rocks that fly out in the subsequent eruption and bounce along the ground, causing further damage along the way. The staple castle itself is proficient at destroying legions of weaker enemies. After level 26 the player could not retain spells picked up in earlier levels; this presented new challenges for players. For example, some levels' challenge depended on barriers and mazes in the form of walls that the player could not cross over
Electronic Arts Inc. is an American video game company headquartered in Redwood City, California. It is the second-largest gaming company in the Americas and Europe by revenue and market capitalization after Activision Blizzard and ahead of Take-Two Interactive and Ubisoft as of March 2018. Founded and incorporated on May 27, 1982, by Apple employee Trip Hawkins, the company was a pioneer of the early home computer games industry and was notable for promoting the designers and programmers responsible for its games. EA published numerous games and productivity software for personal computers and experimented on techniques to internally develop games, leading to the 1987 release of Skate or Die!. The company would decide in favor of abandoning their original principles and acquiring smaller companies that they see profitable, as well as annually releasing franchises to stay profitable. EA develops and publishes games including EA Sports titles FIFA, Madden NFL, NHL, NBA Live, UFC. Other EA established franchises includes Battlefield, Need for Speed, The Sims, Medal of Honor, Command & Conquer, as well as newer franchises such as Dead Space, Mass Effect, Dragon Age, Army of Two and Star Wars: The Old Republic.
Their desktop titles appear on self-developed Origin, an online gaming digital distribution platform for PCs and a direct competitor to Valve's Steam. EA owns and operates major gaming studios, EA Tiburon in Orlando, EA Vancouver in Burnaby, BioWare in Edmonton as well as Austin, DICE in Sweden and Los Angeles. Trip Hawkins had been an employee of Apple Inc. since 1978, at a time when the company had only about fifty employees. Over the next four years, the market for home personal computers skyrocketed. By 1982, Apple had completed its initial public offering and become a Fortune 500 company with over one thousand employees. In February 1982, Trip Hawkins arranged a meeting with Don Valentine of Sequoia Capital to discuss financing his new venture, Amazin' Software. Valentine encouraged Hawkins to leave Apple, where Hawkins served as Director of Product Marketing, allowed Hawkins use of Sequoia Capital's spare office space to start the company. On May 27, 1982, Trip Hawkins incorporated and established the company with a personal investment of an estimated US$200,000.
For more than seven months, Hawkins refined his Electronic Arts business plan. With aid from his first employee, Rich Melmon, the original plan was written by Hawkins, on an Apple II in Sequoia Capital's office in August 1982. During that time, Hawkins employed two of his former staff from Apple, Dave Evans and Pat Marriott, as producers, a Stanford MBA classmate, Jeff Burton from Atari for international business development; the business plan was again refined in September and reissued on October 8, 1982. By November, employee headcount rose to 11, including Tim Mott, Bing Gordon, David Maynard, Steve Hayes. Having outgrown the office space provided by Sequoia Capital, the company relocated to a San Mateo office that overlooked the San Francisco Airport landing path. Headcount rose in 1983, including Don Daglow, Richard Hilleman, Stewart Bonn, David Gardner, Nancy Fong; when he incorporated the company, Hawkins chose Amazin' Software as their company name, but his other early employees of the company universally disliked the name.
He scheduled an off-site meeting in the Pajaro Dunes, where the company once held such off-site meetings. Hawkins had developed the ideas of treating software as an art form and calling the developers, "software artists". Hence, the latest version of the business plan had suggested the name "SoftArt"; however and Melmon knew the founders of Software Arts, the creators of VisiCalc, thought their permission should be obtained. Dan Bricklin did not want the name used. However, the name concept was liked by all the attendees. Hawkins had recently read a bestselling book about the film studio United Artists, liked the reputation that the company had created. Hawkins said everyone had a vote but they would lose it if they went to sleep. Hawkins liked the word "electronic", various employees had considered the phrases "Electronic Artists" and "Electronic Arts"; when Gordon and others pushed for "Electronic Artists", in tribute to the film company United Artists, Steve Hayes opposed, saying, "We're not the artists, they are..."
This statement from Hayes tilted sentiment towards Electronic Arts and the name was unanimously endorsed and adopted in 1982. He recruited his original employees from Apple, Xerox PARC, VisiCorp, got Steve Wozniak to agree to sit on the board of directors. Hawkins was determined to sell directly to buyers. Combined with the fact that Hawkins was pioneering new game brands, this made sales growth more challenging. Retailers wanted to buy known brands from existing distribution partners. Former CEO Larry Probst arrived as VP of Sales in late 1984 and helped expand the successful company; this policy of dealing directly with retailers gave EA higher margins and better market awareness, key advantages the company would leverage to leapfrog its early competitors. A novel approach to giving credit to its developers was one of EA's trademarks in its early days; this characterization was further reinforced with EA's packaging of most of their games in the "album cover" pioneered by EA because Hawkins thought that a record album style would both save costs and convey an artistic feeling.
EA referred to their developers as "artists" and gave them photo credits in their games and numerous full-page magazine ads. Their first such ad, accompanied by the slogan "We see far