Mount Etna Caves National Park
Mount Etna Caves is a national park in Central Queensland, Australia, 544 km northwest of Brisbane. The park's caves are the roosting site for more than 80 percent of Australia's breeding population of little bent-wing bats, it is one of the few places in Australia supporting a colony of the endangered Ghost Bat. Protected areas of Queensland
Curtis Island National Park
Curtis Island National Park is on Curtis Island, Gladstone Region, Australia, 474 kilometres northwest of Brisbane and 40 km southeast of Rockhampton. The island features littoral rainforest, sand dunes and beach ridges and salt flats; the national park encompasses. No facilities are provided for campers. Bush camping is permitted in three camp grounds. Curtis Island has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Sea Hill Point: Sea Hill Light Port of Gladstone Protected areas of Queensland
Byfield National Park
Byfield is a national park in the Shire of Livingstone, Australia. The park is 70 km north-east of Rockhampton; the parks encloses 12 km of coastline including four beaches. To the north of the national park is Shoalwater Bay and Byfield State Forest is located to the west of Byfield National Park; the park contains a number of camping areas. Water Park Creek within the park contains a population of Rhadinocentrus ornatus, a small freshwater fish species; the park demarcates the southern boundary of a tropical savannah climate, although the subtropics are a degree to the south. Protected areas of Queensland
Taunton National Park
Taunton National Park is situated near the town of Dingo 135 km inland from Rockhampton in eastern Central Queensland, Australia. The park encompasses an area of 11,626 ha within the Northern Brigalow Belt bioregion of Queensland. Taunton National Park is designated as a scientific nature reserve due to its importance in ensuring the ongoing survival and protection of the endangered bridled nail-tail wallaby; the wallabies protection has facilitated natural regeneration processes within reserve boundaries, protected ecosystem communities from further agricultural disturbances in the surrounding landscape, provided habitats for native fauna and helped conserve a wide range of biodiversity. Cracking clay soils and brigalow vegetation species are dominant in the northern region of the park, while texture-contrast soils in combination with Eucalypt communities dominate the western region; the parks topography is reasonably with a gradual slope from the north and western ends of the park towards the eastern and southern margins.
The regions climate is described as semi-arid. The distribution of rainfall over such a condensed period leaves the area prone to droughts; the most recent drought of significance occurred between 1991 and 1995 with detrimental impacts on the surviving bridled nailtail wallaby population. As is typical of the tropical savannah in the Northern Brigalow Belt, a combination of open, grassy Eucalypt woodlands, transitional zones and regrowing Acacia shrub-lands and forests comprise Taunton National Parks main vegetation zones; the most common vegetation associations within the park and surrounding areas, tend to be dominated by either brigalow or poplar box species, which occur along with other Acacia and Ecualyptus spp. Water-bodies present within the park boundaries consist of a small number of creeks; the region in which Taunton National Park is located, was subject to long-term, wide-scale agricultural development and associated disturbances. During the 1950s and 1960s extensive clearance of brigalow scrub began to take place in order to establish pastoral grasses for grazing domestic sheep and cattle.
Buffel grass was sowed for fodder in the cleared areas, became irreversibly established. A governmental initiative called the'Brigalow Development Scheme' provided great incentive for increasing agricultural development in the Brigalow region and accelerated the rate and scale of vegetation clearance for conversion to buffel grass; the success of this scheme resulted in agricultural system adjustments so that more intensive land use practices became common, with smaller properties and higher stock numbers. The cumulative effects of this land use change resulted in a considerable reduction in remnant vegetation patch size and occurrence; this in turn reduced the availability of habitat and shelter for native fauna, altered the natural vegetation composition. In 1973 a bridled nail-tail wallaby was sighted on a cattle property named'Taunton' and reported by a fencing contractor. There had been reports of a significant decline in the wallabies population numbers during the early 1900s with no recorded sightings since the 1930s, subsequently the species had been presumed extinct.
Following this sighting, Taunton was purchased in 1979 and established as a scientific reserve to ensure the protection and survival of the endangered wallaby. In 1984, another cattle property'Red Hill', situated adjacent to Taunton, was added to the reserve and the whole area became named'Taunton National Park'; the park occurs in the Northern Brigalow'Tropical Savannah' ecoregion, so named for the predominant flora species of the region. Vegetation clearance throughout this district and in fact the whole Brigalow Belt, has resulted in an extensive loss of biodiversity and overall ecosystem degradation. Despite considerable regional agricultural and pastoral development, a large proportion of the park's vegetation remained intact or was exposed to minimal disturbance prior to the reserve being established; the park has high regional significance today as only 17% of vegetation within the park had been removed by 1975, thereby conserving once prevalent, regionally representative ecosystems and vegetation communities, which are now restricted to bush fragments and reserves.
The region that the park is located in has been demonstrated to have one of the highest rate of annual clearance, when compared with other subregions within Queensland. This high clearance rate has contributed to a number of Brigalow-typical ecosystems becoming otherwise at risk or endangered, which highlights the importance of the parks biodiversity, as 12 of the regions ecosystems are represented within the reserve. Endangered open forest or woodland ecosystems in the park include. Brigalow shrubland/forest assemblages of A. harpophylla with yellow-wood and false sandalwood, are endangered, having undergone wide-scale clearing throughout the 1900s. Ecosystem communities represented within the park which are considered to be'of concern' include.
Palmgrove National Park
Palmgrove is a national park in south-central Queensland, Australia. It lies 458 km north-west of Brisbane, it is listed as a National Park under the Nature Conservation Act 1992, so giving it the highest level of protection possible under the Act. It was established in order to protect ecosystems of exceptional scientific value, it is located within the Dawson River catchment area. Palmgrove lies in moderately dry, dissected sandstone country; the vegetation includes a variety of eucalypt woodland and forest communities as well as vine and Acacia thickets. The area is isolated. Threatened ecosystems present in the park include: Acacia harpophylla - Eucalyptus cambageana open forest to woodland on fine-grained sedimentary rocks Semi-evergreen vine thicket on fine grained sedimentary rocks Acacia harpophylla and/or Casuarina cristata open forest on fine-grained sedimentary rocks Macropteranthes leichhardtii thicket on fine grained sedimentary rocks Semi-evergreen vine thicket in sheltered habitats on medium to coarse-grained sedimentary rocksNorthern quolls have been recorded in the park.
The park has been identified by BirdLife International as an Important Bird Area because it supports an isolated, the westernmost, population of black-breasted buttonquails, listed as vulnerable. The rare and threatened ecosystems contained in the park are buttonquail habitat. Glossy black cockatoos considered to be vulnerable, are present. Protected areas of Queensland
Hughenden is a town and locality in the Shire of Flinders, Australia. At the 2016 census, Hughenden had a population of 1,136. Hughenden is situated on the banks of the Flinders River; the upper Flinders River area has been occupied by the Yirandhali people from around 11,000 years ago. The region in the vicinity of Hughenden was known as Mokana in the Yirandhali language. British occupation began in October 1861 with the expedition group led by Frederick Walker camping near the site of the future township of Hughenden. Pastoralists soon followed and in 1863 Ernest Henry and his cousin Robert Gray established the Hughenden sheep station. Hughenden was named after Hughenden Manor in Buckinghamshire, the home of former British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli. Robert Gray and Ernest Henry both had a family connection with Hughenden Manor. Mary Francis Norris, the daughter of John Norris of Hughenden Manor was Henry's mother and Robert's aunt; the actual town of Hughenden began in 1870 as a barracks for the paramilitary Native Police with sub-Inspector Harry Finch and his six troopers constructing the simple buildings at the junction of Station Creek with the Flinders River.
In 1877, William Marks built a pub near the barracks and in August of that year the township site was surveyed and allotments made available for purchase. Hughenden Post Office opened on 1 July 1878. Hughenden Provisional School opened on 22 April 1880, becoming Hughenden State School in 1884. On 30 January 1968, it was expanded to have a secondary department. In November 1883, "Hughenden West Estate" made up of 37 allotments were advertised to be auctioned by Wilson and Ryan of Townsville. A map advertising the auction states the allotments are charmingly situated on high sloping ground, overlooking the Town of Hughenden, within a few minutes walk to the Post and Telegraph Offices, the Court House and the business centre of town; the map states these residence sites only need the completion of the railway works to enormously increase its value. Hughenden North Provisional School opened c. 1897, becoming Hughenden North State School on 1 January 1909. Due to low attendances, it closed in 1926.
St Francis' Catholic School was opened on 1 October 1900 by the Sisters of the Good Samaritan. Torrens Creek near Hughenden is where the Americans stored explosives in World War II; the Americans didn't know of the dangerous bush fires out there. After they put out a fire they went back to camp thinking. However, the fire took hold again without them knowing, they heard about twelve major explosions in succession. Hot shrapnel started more fires. In the townships, people said that buildings shook and windows broke, some people were convinced that an air raid had occurred. Thousands of soldiers and civilians attacked the blaze in an attempt to stop it spreading to fuel dumps, but were unable to control it; when the fire got to the explosives it was so powerful. Many buildings and shops got burnt down from the spreading fires; however the locals were able to save the post office. A police Constable from Torrens Creek Police was awarded the King's Medal of Bravery. In June 1945 it was announced that a new court house would be built in Hughenden in the 1945-1946 financial year with architectural plans drawn up in August 1945.
However, it was not until September 1946 that the Executive Council of the Queensland Government approved expenditure of £31,560 for the project. In September 1947, the project stopped because it was determined that the foundations would not support a 2-storey building and that the new court house would have to be redesigned as single-level building. In January 1950, the new plans for the one-storey building were announced and by October that year, the construction was progressing in "leaps and bounds". A shortage of cement appears to have delayed the project until 10,000 tons of cement was imported from England in January 1951. By January 1952, three-quarters of the framing had been completed while the project was suffering from a shortage of skilled labour and the cost having risen to an estimated £60,000. In October 1954 the court house was described as "almost completed", but it was not until 1955 that the court house opened. In 1960, the Hughenden branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association opened their hall.
On 9 June 2003 in the Queen's Birthday Honours List, Mrs Jean Eva Anderson of Ballater Station of Stamford was awarded the Medal of the Order of Australia for her "service to the community of Hughenden through the Country Womens Association". She had given 52 years of service to the Hughenden branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association, her award was presented to her by the Governor of Quentin Bryce. Hughenden has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 25 Gray Street: The Grand Hotel Hughenden is located on the Flinders Highway, 376 kilometres west of Townsville and 1,400 kilometres north-west of Brisbane, the state capital; the region around Hughenden is a major centre for the grazing of sheep and cattle. The main feed is annual grasses known as Flinders grass, which grow on the fertile grey or brown cracking clay soils after rain between November and March. However, because the rainfall is erratic — at Hughenden itself it has ranged from 126 millimetres in 1926 to 1,051 millimetres in 1950 — droughts and floods are normal and stock number fluctuate greatly.
The runoff from the Flinders River is much too erratic to provide a sustainable supply for any crop-growing via irrigation. Hughenden has a hot semi-arid climate. Record temperatu
The black bittern is a bittern of Old World origin, breeding in tropical Asia from Bangladesh, Pakistan and Sri Lanka east to China and Australia. It is resident, but some northern birds migrate short distances; this is a large species at 58 cm in length, being by some margin the largest bittern in the genus Ixobrychus. Compared to related species, it has long yellow bill; the adult is uniformly black above, with yellow neck sides. It is whitish below streaked with brown; the juvenile is like the adult, but dark brown rather than black. Their breeding habitat is reed beds, they nest on platforms of reeds in shrubs, or sometimes in trees. Three to five eggs are laid, they can be difficult to see, given their skulking lifestyle and reed bed habitat, but tend to fly frequently when the all black upperparts makes them unmistakable. Black bitterns feed on insects and amphibians. Black bitterns are not listed as threatened on the Australian Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999; the black bittern is listed as threatened on Fauna Guarantee Act.
Under this act, an Action Statement for the recovery and future management of this species has not yet been prepared. On the 2007 advisory list of threatened vertebrate fauna in Victoria, the black bittern is listed as vulnerable. Birds of India by Grimmett and Inskipp, ISBN 0-691-04910-6