John Crome was an English landscape artist of the Romantic era, one of the principal artists and founding members of the Norwich School of painters. He lived in Norwich for all his life and most of his works are Norfolk landscapes, he was sometimes known as Old Crome to distinguish him from his son John Berney Crome, a well-known artist. His work is in the collections of major galleries, including the Tate Gallery and the Royal Academy in London, he is well represented at the Norwich Castle Museum. He taught art. John Crome was born on 22 December 1768 in Norwich and baptised on 25th December at St George's Church, Norwich, he was the son of John Crome, a weaver, his wife Elizabeth. After a period working as an errand boy for a doctor, he was apprenticed to Francis Whisler, a house and sign painter. At about this time he formed a friendship with Robert Ladbrooke, an apprentice printer, who became a celebrated landscape painter; the pair went on sketching trips in the fields and lanes around Norwich.
They bought prints to copy. Crome and Ladbrooke sold some of their work to a local printseller,'Smith and Jaggars' of Norwich, it was through the print-seller that Crome met Thomas Harvey of Old Catton, who helped him set to up as a drawing teacher, he had access to Harvey's art collection, which allowed him to develop his skills by copying the works of Gainsborough and Hobbema. Crome received further instruction and encouragement from Sir William Beechey R. A. whose house in London he visited, John Opie R. A.. In October 1792 Crome married Phoebe Berney, they produced six sons. Two of his sons, John Berney Crome and William Henry Crome were both notable landscape painters. In 1803 Crome and Robert Ladbrooke formed the Norwich Society of Artists, a group that included Robert Dixon, Charles Hodgson, Daniel Coppin, James Stark and George Vincent, their first exhibition, in 1805, marked the start of the Norwich School of painters, the first art movement created outside London. Crome contributed twenty-two works to its first exhibition, held in 1805.
He held the position at the time of his death. With the exception of the times when he made short visits to London, he had little or no communication with the great artists of his own time, he exhibited thirteen works at the Royal Academy between 1806 and 1818. He visited Paris in 1814, following the defeat of Napoleon, exhibited views of Paris and Ostend. Most of his subjects were of scenes in Norfolk. Crome was drawing master at Norwich School for many years. Several members of the Norwich School art movement were educated at the school and were taught by Crome, including James Stark and Edward Thomas Daniell, he taught his pupils including members of the influential Gurney family, whom he stayed with whilst in the Lake District in 1802. He died at his house in Gildengate, Norwich, on 22 April 1821, was buried in St. George's Church. On his death-bed he is said to have gasped, "Oh Hobbema, my dear Hobbema, how I have loved you". A memorial exhibition of more than 100 of his works was held in November that year by the Norwich Society of Artists.
Crome's Broad and nearby Crome's Farm in The Broads National Park are named after him. The area surrounding Heartsease is covered by the Crome ward and division on Norwich City Council and Norfolk County Council respectively. An incident in Crome's life was the subject of the one-act opera Twice in a Blue Moon by Phyllis Tate, to a libretto by Christopher Hassall: it was first performed in 1969. In the story Crome and his wife split one of his paintings in two to sell each half at the Norwich Fair. Crome worked in both watercolour and oil, his oil paintings numbering more than 300. Between 1809 and 1813 he made a series of etchings, they were not published in his lifetime, although he issued a prospectus announcing his intention to do so. His two main influences are considered to be the work of Wilson. Along with John Constable, Crome was one of the earliest English artists to represent identifiable species of trees, rather than generalised forms, his works, renowned for their originality and vision, were inspired by direct observation of the natural world combined with a comprehensive study of old masters.
Art historian Andrew Hemingway has identified a theme of leisure in Crome's work, citing his works depicting the beach at Great Yarmouth, the River Wensum in his native Norwich. An example of the latter is the oil painting Boys Bathing on the River Wensum, painted in 1817. Although catalogued by the Yale Center for British Art with an alternative title of View on the Wesum at Thorpe, which lies to the east of Norwich, other studies suggest it depicts a scene at New Mills, to the west of Norwich, the site of several of Crome's works. Works Stephen, Leslie, ed.. "Crome, John". Dictionary of National Biography. 13. London: Smith, Elder & Co. pp. 140–3. Binyon, Lawrence. John Crome and John Sell Cotman. Cole, Timothy. Old English Masters p. 141 ff. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Crome, John". Encyclopædia Britannica. 7. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 483–484. Cundall, H. M.. The Norwich School. London: The Studio. Mottram, R. H.. John Crome of Norwich. London: John Lane The Bodley Head Limited. Clifford, Derek & Timothy. John Crome..
Goldberg, Norman L. John Crome the Elder: text and a critical catalogue – 2 vols.. ISBN 0-7148-1821-6Hemingway, A
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, gases and organisms that together support life. Earth's body of soil, called the pedosphere, has four important functions: as a medium for plant growth as a means of water storage and purification as a modifier of Earth's atmosphere as a habitat for organismsAll of these functions, in their turn, modify the soil; the pedosphere interfaces with the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, the atmosphere, the biosphere. The term pedolith, used to refer to the soil, translates to ground stone in the sense "fundamental stone". Soil consists of a solid phase of minerals and organic matter, as well as a porous phase that holds gases and water. Accordingly, soil scientists can envisage soils as a three-state system of solids and gases. Soil is a product of several factors: the influence of climate, relief and the soil's parent materials interacting over time, it continually undergoes development by way of numerous physical and biological processes, which include weathering with associated erosion.
Given its complexity and strong internal connectedness, soil ecologists regard soil as an ecosystem. Most soils have a dry bulk density between 1.1 and 1.6 g/cm3, while the soil particle density is much higher, in the range of 2.6 to 2.7 g/cm3. Little of the soil of planet Earth is older than the Pleistocene and none is older than the Cenozoic, although fossilized soils are preserved from as far back as the Archean. Soil science has two basic branches of study: pedology. Edaphology studies the influence of soils on living things. Pedology focuses on the formation and classification of soils in their natural environment. In engineering terms, soil is included in the broader concept of regolith, which includes other loose material that lies above the bedrock, as can be found on the Moon and on other celestial objects as well. Soil is commonly referred to as earth or dirt. Soil is a major component of the Earth's ecosystem; the world's ecosystems are impacted in far-reaching ways by the processes carried out in the soil, from ozone depletion and global warming to rainforest destruction and water pollution.
With respect to Earth's carbon cycle, soil is an important carbon reservoir, it is one of the most reactive to human disturbance and climate change. As the planet warms, it has been predicted that soils will add carbon dioxide to the atmosphere due to increased biological activity at higher temperatures, a positive feedback; this prediction has, been questioned on consideration of more recent knowledge on soil carbon turnover. Soil acts as an engineering medium, a habitat for soil organisms, a recycling system for nutrients and organic wastes, a regulator of water quality, a modifier of atmospheric composition, a medium for plant growth, making it a critically important provider of ecosystem services. Since soil has a tremendous range of available niches and habitats, it contains most of the Earth's genetic diversity. A gram of soil can contain billions of organisms, belonging to thousands of species microbial and in the main still unexplored. Soil has a mean prokaryotic density of 108 organisms per gram, whereas the ocean has no more than 107 procaryotic organisms per milliliter of seawater.
Organic carbon held in soil is returned to the atmosphere through the process of respiration carried out by heterotrophic organisms, but a substantial part is retained in the soil in the form of soil organic matter. Since plant roots need oxygen, ventilation is an important characteristic of soil; this ventilation can be accomplished via networks of interconnected soil pores, which absorb and hold rainwater making it available for uptake by plants. Since plants require a nearly continuous supply of water, but most regions receive sporadic rainfall, the water-holding capacity of soils is vital for plant survival. Soils can remove impurities, kill disease agents, degrade contaminants, this latter property being called natural attenuation. Soils maintain a net absorption of oxygen and methane and undergo a net release of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. Soils offer plants physical support, water, temperature moderation and protection from toxins. Soils provide available nutrients to plants and animals by converting dead organic matter into various nutrient forms.
A typical soil is about 50% solids, 50% voids of which half is occupied by water and half by gas. The percent soil mineral and organic content can be treated as a constant, while the percent soil water and gas content is considered variable whereby a rise in one is balanced by a reduction in the other; the pore space allows for the infiltration and movement of air and water, both of which are critical for life existing in soil. Compaction, a common problem with soils, reduces this space, preventing air and water from reaching plant roots and soil organisms. Given sufficient time, an undifferentiated soil will evolve a soil profile which consists of two or more layers, referred to as soil horizons, that differ in one or more properties such as in their texture, density, consistency, temperature and reactivity; the horizons differ in thickness and gene
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Bungay is a market town, civil parish and electoral ward in the English county of Suffolk. It lies in the Waveney valley, 5.5 miles west of Beccles on the edge of The Broads, at the neck of a meander of the River Waveney. The origin of the name of Bungay is thought to derive from the Anglo-Saxon title Bunincga-haye, signifying the land belonging to the tribe of Bonna, a Saxon chieftain. Due to its high position, protected by the River Waveney and marshes, the site was in a good defensive position and attracted settlers from early times. Roman artefacts have been found in the region. Bungay Castle was built by the Normans but was rebuilt by Roger Bigod, 5th Earl of Norfolk and his family, who owned Framlingham Castle. Bungay's village sign shows the castle; the Church of St. Mary was once the church of the Benedictine Bungay Priory, founded by Gundreda, wife of Roger de Glanville; the 13th-century Franciscan friar Thomas Bungay enjoyed a popular reputation as a magician, appearing as Roger Bacon's sidekick in Robert Greene's Elizabethan comedy Frier Bacon and Frier Bongay.
The town was destroyed by a great fire in 1688. The central Buttercross was constructed in 1689 and was the place where local farmers displayed their butter and other farm produce for sale; until 1810, there was a Corn Cross, but this was taken down and replaced by a pump. Bungay was important for the paper manufacture industries. Joseph Hooper, a wealthy Harvard graduate who fled Massachusetts when his lands were seized after the American Revolution, rented a mill at Bungay in 1783 and converted it to paper manufacture. Charles Brightly established a printing and stereotype foundry in 1795. In partnership with John Filby Childs, the business became Brightly & Childs in 1808 and Messrs. Childs and Son. Charles Childs succeeded his father as the head of the firm of John Son; the business was further expanded after 1876 as Sons, Ltd.. The railway arrived with the Harleston to Bungay section of the Waveney Valley Line opening in November 1860 and the Bungay to Beccles section in March 1863. Bungay had its own railway station near Clay's Printers.
The station closed to passengers in 1953 and freight in 1964. Local firms include Clays Printers, owned by G Coleman and St. Peter's Brewery, based at St. Peter's Hall to the south of the town. In 2008 Bungay became Suffolk's first Transition Town and part of a global network of communities that have started projects in the areas of food, energy, education and waste as small-scale local responses to the global challenges of climate change, economic hardship and limited of cheap energy. St Mary's Church was struck by lightning on Sunday, 4 August 1577. During the thunderstorm an apparition appeared, consisting of a black Hell Hound which dashed around the church, attacking members of the congregation, it suddenly disappeared and re-appeared in Holy Trinity Church, Blythburgh 12 miles away, injuring members of the congregation there. The dog has been associated with Black Shuck, a dog haunting the coasts of Norfolk and Suffolk. An image of the Black Dog has been incorporated in the coat of arms of Bungay and has been used in the titles of various enterprises associated with Bungay as well as several of the town's sporting events.
An annual race, The Black Dog Marathon, begins in Bungay, follows the course of the River Waveney and the town's football club is nicknamed the "Black Dogs". Black Shuck was the subject of a song by The Darkness; the local football club, Bungay Town F. C. play in the Anglian Combination, having been members of the Eastern Counties League. Godric Cycling Club is based in Bungay, it organises a number of events each year, including weekly club runs. Bungay was home to several literary figures. Thomas Miller, the bookseller and antiquarian, settled in the village, his publisher son, William Miller, was born there. The author Elizabeth Bonhôte née Mapes, was born and grew up there, marrying Daniel Bonhôte and writing the notable book Bungay Castle, a gothic romance. Bonhôte once owned Bungay Castle; the Strickland family, which according to the Canadian Dictionary of Biography was as prolific as the Brontës, Trollopes, settled in the village 1802–08. Its daughters included a historian. Others were Catharine Parr Traill, who concentrated on children's literature, Susanna Moodie, who emigrated to Canada and wrote Roughing it in the Bush as a warning to others.
The novelist Sir H. Rider Haggard was born nearby in Bradenham, presented St. Mary's Church with a wooden panel, displayed behind the altar. Religious writer Margaret Barber, author of the posthumously published best-selling book of meditations, The Roadmender, settled in Bungay. More Formula 1 motor racing president Bernie Ecclestone was brought up in Bungay and internet activist Julian Assange was confined to nearby Ellingham Hall, Norfolk in 2010–11. Authors Elizabeth Jane Howard and Louis de Bernières have lived in the town. Blind artist Sargy Mann moved to Bungay in 1990, lived there until the end of his life. Children's author and illustrator James Mayhew lives in Bungay. Bungay Castle Bungay High School Bungay Priory Bungay railway station Ellingham Hall Flixton Road Mill, Bungay RAF Bungay St Mary's Church, Bungay Bungay Bungay Website
The River Chet is a small river in South Norfolk, England, a tributary of the River Yare. It rises in Poringland and flows eastwards through Alpington, Bergh Apton and Loddon. At Loddon it passes under the A146 into Loddon Staithe. From this point onwards the river is navigable, it passes Hardley Flood to the north, a nature reserve part-managed by the Norfolk Wildlife Trust. The river joins the River Yare one mile west of Reedham at Hardley Cross, erected in 1676, which marks the ancient boundary between the City of Norwich and the Borough of Great Yarmouth; the total navigable length is some 3½ miles. Fishing is permitted between Loddon and Hardley Cross and roach being the most common catch. Chet Valley Development Partnership River Chet cruising guide Hardley Flood A walk along the River Chet - From Loddon Staithe to Hardley Cross
Norfolk Fire and Rescue Service
Norfolk Fire and Rescue Service is the statutory fire and rescue service for the county of Norfolk in the east of England. The county consists of 2,074 square miles; the Headquarters of Norfolk Fire and Rescue Service is in the village of Hethersett, 6 miles south-west of Norwich. The full address is Whitegates, Hethersett, NR9 3DN. Whitegates was commandeered for use by the National Fire Service during the Second World War and was purchased by Norfolk County Council in 1950; the building was built as a family home in the late eighteenth century and has had various owners over the years. New building at the rear of the original house in recent times has replaced the coach house and stables of earlier times. In 2014-15 the NFRS attended 7,285 incidents where 749 people were 63 fatalities. Consisting of 2143 fires, 2809 special services and 2333 false alarms which required no further action; the service have noticed a reduction in the number of fire's they attend, however an increasing response to Road Traffic Collisions on Norfolk's roads.
30 Rescue Pumps: the standard firefighting vehicle mobilised to all emergency calls. These appliances are equipped with a high-pressure two-stage main pump capable of making foam via an onboard foam inductor system, two high-pressure hose reels, a set of rescue ladders, a light portable fire pump, four breathing apparatus sets, two spare breathing air cylinders and hydraulic rescue equipment, as well as other miscellaneous tools. 4 Heavy Rescue Pumps: similar to the rescue pump, however more emphasis on rescue operations and incidents. 24 Water Tenders: similar to the rescue pump, however less emphasis on rescue equipment but more water capacity. 3 Aerial Ladder Platforms: extendible ladder platforms with rescue cages and additional lighting, these vehicles provide high-level access and firefighting capability, with a vertical reach of 100 ft 80 ft sideways, up to 55 ft below ground level. Rescue Pump: P1 / P2 Water Ladder: P3 / P4 Heavy Rescue Pump: P7 Rural Response Pump: P8 Foam / Water Carrier: W9 Aerial Ladder Platform: A6 Command & Control Unit: C0 Environmental Protection Unit: H0 Fire & Emergency Support Service: FESS Operational & Welfare Support Unit: S1 Technical Rescue Unit: S0 Inshore Rescue Boat Prime Mover: T9Pods: High Volume Pump High Volume Hose Layer CBRN Response: Incident Response Unit: H9 Urban Search & Rescue Unit: Norfolk hosts one of the UK's Urban Search and Rescue teams, these were set up as a response to the 9/11 tragedy in New York.
The Norfolk team comprises 15 wholetime USAR technicians and 16 retained technicians along with a search dog. The team is based in Dereham in central Norfolk alongside the town's retained crew. Search & Rescue Dog Unit: R9 Technical Rescue Unit: S0 Inshore Rescue Boat Operational Support Unit: S1 Prime Mover: T6 / T7 / T8Pods: Module 1 - Technical Search Equipment Module 2 - Heavy Transport, Confined Space & Hot Cutting Equipment Module 3 - Breaching & Breaking Equipment Module 4 - Multi Purpose Vehicle Module 5 - Shoring Operations 1966 Neatishead - three firefighters lost their lives tackling a fire in a bunker at RAF Neatishead; the cause was arson. 1991 Thetford - Plastic recycling centre. A large fire which burned for four days 1994 Norwich - Norwich library destroyed by fire; the main fire station of Norwich was opposite the library but due to the dramatic spread of the fire the building could not be saved 1995 Wroxham - a ten-hour blaze in a department store 1995 Norwich - a fire in the historic Assembly Rooms 1998 Attleborough - Poultry processing plant fire 1999 Ditchingham - Maltings fire 2011 Great Yarmouth - four men killed in industrial accident.
The signal box was not alerted to the accident for 24 minutes 2013 Swaffham - Fish and Chip shop destroyed in blaze with 10 appliances in attendance. 2014 Fakenham - 90 firefighters attended a fire in a department store 2014 Cley-next-the-Sea - a US Air Force Sikorsky HH-60 Pave Hawk crashed, killing four crew 2014 Gillingham - four men killed in helicopter crash in thick fog. 2016 Great Yarmouth - 20 plus appliances and 88 fire crews attend large fire on Regent road inside Regent Arcade and Super Bowl UK Regent. Building destroyed. Facilities UK Firefighter dispute 2002/2003 Historical Fire Brigades of the United Kingdom History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom List of British firefighters killed in the line of duty The Fire Service College Fire Service Chief Fire Officers' Association UK Fire News
East of England
The East of England is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It was created in 1994 and was adopted for statistics from 1999, it includes the ceremonial counties of Bedfordshire, Essex, Hertfordshire and Suffolk. Essex has the highest population in the region, its population at the 2011 census was 5,847,000. Bedford, Basildon, Southend-on-Sea, Ipswich, Colchester and Cambridge are the region's most populous towns; the southern part of the region lies in the London commuter belt. The region has the lowest elevation range in the UK. North Cambridgeshire and the Essex Coast have most of the around 5% of the region, below 10 metres above sea level; the Fens are in North Cambridgeshire, notable for the lowest point in the country in the land of the village of Holme 2.75 metres below mean sea level, once Whittlesey Mere. The highest point is at Clipper Down at 817 ft, in the far south-western corner of the region in the Ivinghoe Hills. Basildon and Harlow, with Stevenage and Hemel Hempstead, were main New Towns in the 1950s and 1960s, with much industry located there.
In the late 1960s, the Roskill Commission considered Thurleigh in Bedfordshire, Nuthampstead in Hertfordshire and Foulness in Essex as a possible third airport for London. The East of England succeeded the standard statistical region East Anglia; the East of England civil defence region was identical to today's region. England between the Wash and just south of the town of Colchester has since post-Roman times been and continues to be known as East Anglia, including the county traversing the west of this line, Cambridgeshire; the inclusion of Essex as part of East Anglia is open to debate, notably because it was a Saxon kingdom, separate from the kingdom of the East Angles. Essex, despite meaning East-Saxons formed part of the South East England, as did Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire, a mixture of definite and debatable Home Counties; the earliest use of the term is from 1695. Charles Davenant, in An essay upon ways and means of supplying the war, wrote, "The Eleven Home Counties, which are thought in Land Taxes to pay more than their proportion..." cited a list including these four.
The term does not appear to have been used in taxation since the 18th century. East Anglia is one of the driest parts of the United Kingdom with average rainfall ranging from 450 mm to 750 mm; this is because low pressure systems and weather fronts from the Atlantic have lost a lot of their moisture over land by the time they reach Eastern England. However the Fens in Cambridgeshire are prone to flooding. Winter is cool but non-prevailing cold easterly winds can affect the area from the continent, these can bring heavy snowfall if the winds interact with a low pressure system over the Atlantic or France. Northerly winds can be cold but are not as cold as easterly winds. Westerly winds bring milder and wetter weather. Southerly winds bring mild air but chill if coming from further east than Spain. Spring is a transitional season that can be chilly to start with but is warm by late-April/May; the weather at this time is changeable and showery. Summer is warm and continental air from mainland Europe or the Azores High leads to at least a few weeks of hot, balmy weather with prolonged warm to hot weather.
The number of summer storms from the Atlantic, such as the remnants of a tropical storm coincides with the location of the jet stream. The East tends to receive much less of their rain than the other regions. Autumn is mild with some days being unsettled and rainy and others warm. At least part of September and early October in the East have warm and settled weather but only in rare years is there an Indian summer where fine weather marks the entire traditional harvest season; the most deprived districts, according to the Indices of deprivation 2007 in the region are, in descending order, Great Yarmouth, Luton and Ipswich. At county level, after Luton and Peterborough, which have a similar level of deprivation, in descending order there is Southend-on-Sea Thurrock; the least deprived districts, in descending order, are South Cambridgeshire, Mid Bedfordshire, East Hertfordshire, St Albans, Rochford, Huntingdonshire, Mid Suffolk, North Hertfordshire, Three Rivers, South Norfolk, East Cambridgeshire and Suffolk Coastal.
At county level, the least deprived areas in the region, in descending order, are Cambridgeshire and Bedfordshire, with all three having a similar level of deprivation Essex. The region has the lowest proportion of jobless households in the UK – 0.5%. In March 2011 the region's unemployment claimant count was 3.0%. Inside the region, the highest rate is Great Yarmouth with 6.2%, followed by Peterborough and Southend-on-Sea on 4.7%. In the 2015 general election, there was an overall swing of 0.25% from the Conservatives to Labour, the Liberal Democrats lost 16% of its vote. All of Hertfordshire and Suffolk is now Conservative; the region's electorate voted 49% Conservative, 22% Labour, 16% UKIP, 8% Liberal Democrat and 4% Green. Like other regions, the division of seats favours th