The Simpsons (season 1)
The first season of the American animated television series The Simpsons aired on the Fox network between December 17, 1989 and May 13, 1990, beginning with the Christmas special "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire". The executive producers for the first production season were Matt Groening, James L. Brooks, Sam Simon; the series was set to debut in autumn 1989 with the episode "Some Enchanted Evening", meant to introduce the main characters. The producers considered aborting the series if the next episode turned out as bad, but it only suffered from fixable problems; the producers convinced Fox to move the debut to December 17, aired "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire" as the first episode of the series. The first season won one Emmy Award, received four additional nominations; the DVD boxset was released on September 25, 2001 in Region 1 and September 24, 2001 in both Region 2 and Region 4. The Simpsons creator Matt Groening conceived the idea for the Simpsons in the lobby of James L. Brooks's office.
Brooks, the producer of the sketch comedy program The Tracey Ullman Show, wanted to use a series of animated shorts as bumpers between sketches. He had asked Groening to pitch an idea for a series of animated shorts, which Groening intended to present as his Life in Hell series; when Groening realized that animating Life in Hell would require the rescinding of publication rights for his life's work, he chose another approach and formulated his version of a dysfunctional family. The Simpson family first appeared as shorts in The Tracey Ullman Show on April 19, 1987. Groening submitted only basic sketches to the animators and assumed that the figures would be cleaned up in production; the animators re-traced his drawings, which led to the crude appearance of the characters in the initial short episodes. In 1989, a team of production companies adapted The Simpsons into a half-hour series for the Fox Broadcasting Company; the team included. During the years of producing the shorts, everything was created in-house.
Due to the increased workload of the full-length episodes, production was subcontracted to South Korean animation studio AKOM. While character and background layout is done by the domestic studio, tweening and filming are done by the overseas studio; the Simpsons was co-developed by Groening, James L. Brooks, Sam Simon, a writer-producer with whom Brooks had worked on previous projects. Groening and Simon, did not get along and were in conflict over the show. Groening said his goal in creating the show was to offer the audience an alternative to what he called "the mainstream trash" that they were watching. Brooks negotiated a provision in the contract with the Fox network that prevented Fox from interfering with the show's content. Fox was nervous about the show because they were unsure if it could sustain the audience's attention for the duration of the episode, they proposed doing three seven-minute shorts per episode and four specials until the audience adjusted, but in the end, the producers gambled by asking Fox for 13 full-length episodes.
Simon assembled and led the initial team of writers, consisting of John Swartzwelder, Jon Vitti, George Meyer, Jeff Martin, Al Jean, Mike Reiss, Jay Kogen and Wallace Wolodarsky. Simon has been credited as "developing sensibility". Ken Levine says he "brought a level of honesty to the characters" and made them "three-dimensional", adding that Simon's "comedy is all about character, not just a string of gags. In The Simpsons, the characters are motivated by their emotions and their foibles.'What are they thinking?'—that is Sam's contribution. The stories come from the characters." Simon saw The Simpsons as a chance to solve "what didn't like about the Saturday-morning cartoon shows worked on... wanted all the actors in a room together, not reading their lines separated from each other. The Simpsons would have been a great radio show. If you just listen to the sound track, it works." The music for all 13 episodes was composed by former Oingo Boingo member Richard Gibbs, who would depart the show at the end of the season.
The series was set to debut in the fall of 1989 with the episode "Some Enchanted Evening", meant to introduce the main characters. A debacle erupted when the episode "Some Enchanted Evening", the first to return from animation in Korea, was screened in front of the production staff at the Gracie Films bungalow; the executive producer and developer James L. Brooks' initial reaction to the animation was "This is shit." After that reaction the room cleared. A heated argument ensued between Brooks and Klasky-Csupo animation studio head Gábor Csupó, who denied that there was anything wrong with the animation and suggested that the real problem was the quality of the show's writing; the problem with the animation from the producers' point-of-view was that it did not exhibit a distinct style envisioned for the show. At the time there were only a few choices for animation style, they would either follow the style of Disney, Warner Bros. or Hanna-Barbera. Disney and Warner Bros. cartoons had a universe, bendy and the characters seemed to be made of rubber.
The producers wanted a realistic environment in which the characters and objects could not do anything, not possible in the real world. One example with the early animation being cartoonish was that the doors behaved liked rubber when slammed; the style of Hanna-Barbera featured the use of cartoon sounds. However, during th
The Simpsons (season 29)
The twenty-ninth season of the animated television series The Simpsons premiered on Fox in the United States on October 1, 2017, ended on May 20, 2018. On November 4, 2016, The Simpsons was renewed for seasons 29 and 30; this season marked the show's surpassing Gunsmoke as the longest-running scripted series in primetime television by number of episodes, with the series' 636th episode "Forgive and Regret". The season features guest appearances from Norman Lear, Martin Short, Ray Liotta and Nikolaj Coster-Waldau. In addition, Bill Plympton animated a sixth couch gag in "3 Scenes Plus a Tag from a Marriage", having done so in season 23's "Beware My Cheating Bart", season 24's "Black Eyed, Please", season 25's "Married to the Blob", season 27's "Lisa the Veterinarian", season 28's "22 for 30"; this season features Kelsey Grammer reprising his role as Sideshow Bob for a singing cameo and Homer seeking help from Shaquille O'Neal, a song written by guest star Rachel Bloom. The season includes the Simpson family traveling to New Orleans for JazzFest, an episode that reimagines Stephen King's It featuring Krusty the Clown.
On August 30, 2017, it was announced that longtime Simpsons score composer Alf Clausen was let go from the series. The series switched from a live orchestrated score to a produced score by Bleeding Fingers Music. Hans Zimmer and Russel Emanuel are score producers, with Steve Kofsky executive producing. Clausen's last episode was "Whistler's Father". During February 2018, episodes of The Simpsons were held back to avoid competing with the 60th Annual Grammy Awards, Super Bowl LII, the 2018 Winter Olympics, the 90th Academy Awards; this resulted in a nine-week gap in between new episodes, is the second season to not have any new episodes airing in February, after the twenty-fifth season
Rob LaZebnik is an American television writer. He graduated from David H. Hickman High School in Columbia and Harvard University, he works as a co-executive producer on The Simpsons and is credited with having written 19 episodes: "Treehouse of Horror XI", "Homer vs. Dignity", "Father Knows Worst", "Boy Meets Curl", "The Blue and the Gray", "The Daughter Also Rises", "The Changing of the Guardian", "The War of Art", "The Kids Are All Fight", "Friend with Benefit", "The Girl Code", "The Burns Cage", "Pork and Burns", "Throw Grampa from the Dane", "Baby You Can't Drive My Car", "101 Mitigations" and “E My Sports”, he co-created the Macromedia Flash cartoon series Starship Regulars on Icebox.com, it was picked up by television network Showtime but never aired. He co-created the series Greetings from Tucson, which aired for one season on The WB. LaZebnik has been credited with writing episodes of Monk, The War at Home, Less Than Perfect, The Ellen Show and Empty Nest, his wife, Claire LaZebnik, is an author.
Rob LaZebnik on Twitter Rob LaZebnik on IMDb
The Simpsons (season 19)
The Simpsons' nineteenth season aired on the Fox network between September 23, 2007 and May 18, 2008. The nineteenth season of The Simpsons is the first one produced after the movie and contained seven hold-over episodes from season 18's JABF production line. Al Jean served as a position he has held since the thirteenth season. Army Archerd reported that due to the 100-day Writers Guild of America strike only 22 episodes would be produced instead of the planned 23, much closer to the length of a regular season than most live-action and animated programs that were affected by the strike. Entertainment Weekly reported that at the time, there were only six episodes remaining that were ready, which would make the season's production run consist of a total of 22 episodes; the nineteenth season featured the returns of several characters from previous seasons. Kelsey Grammer made his tenth appearance as Sideshow Bob and David Hyde Pierce made his second as Bob's brother Cecil Terwilliger in "Funeral for a Fiend".
Beverly D'Angelo made her second appearance as Lurleen Lumpkin, who first appeared in season three's "Colonel Homer". Glenn Close returned as Grandma Mona Simpson for the third time. Matt Groening described this season as "just about our most ambitious yet"; the season's "The Homer of Seville" was nominated for a Writers Guild of America Award. Robert Canning of IGN gave the series a 6.6 saying that it was "Passable" and that "Heck, read through the comments section at the bottom of our IGN Simpsons reviews and more than half will in some way be talking about the poor quality of recent episodes." Although he praised the late episodes of the season. "Eternal Moonshine of the Simpson Mind" won a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Animated Program, the tenth in the history of the show. Alf Clausen received an Emmy Award nomination for Outstanding Music Composition For A Series for the episode "Treehouse of Horror XVIII"; the Simpsons ranked 83rd in the seasonal ratings getting a viewership of 7.950 million viewers and an 18–49 Nielsen Rating of 3.8 making it the highest-ranking show from "Animation Domination" right above Family Guy.
Showrunner Al Jean stated he is lobbying for a release on DVD. Commentaries have been recorded for a potential release. Season 19 at The Simpsons.com
The Simpsons (season 25)
The Simpsons' twenty-fifth season began airing on Fox on September 29, 2013, ended on May 18, 2014. In this season, Homer sells his Mapple stock to buy a bowling ball. Guest stars for this season include Judd Apatow, Will Arnett, Anderson Cooper, Harlan Ellison, Zach Galifianakis, Stan Lee, Eva Longoria, Rachel Maddow, Elisabeth Moss, Joe Namath, Daniel Radcliffe, Aaron Sorkin, Max von Sydow, Kristen Wiig; this is Al Jean's 13th consecutive season as showrunner and 15th overall. Matt Groening, James L. Brooks, Matt Selman, John Frink serve as executive producers. Executive producer Al Jean stated that Edna Krabappel was retired from the show following the death of Marcia Wallace on October 25, 2013. February 2014 held back Simpsons episodes, due to the transmission of the Super Bowl XLVIII in East Rutherford, New Jersey, United States; this season The Simpsons won three Primetime Emmy Awards out of four nominations, including a Primetime Emmy Award for Character Voice-Over Performance to Harry Shearer, the last member of the main cast to earn the award.
The Simpsons (season 12)
The Simpsons' twelfth season aired between November 2000 and May 2001. It began on Wednesday, November 1, 2000 with "Treehouse of Horror XI"; the season contains four hold-over episodes from the season 11 production line. The showrunner for the twelfth production season was Mike Scully; the season won and was nominated for numerous awards including two Primetime Emmy Awards wins and an Annie Award. Season 12 was released on DVD in Region 1 on August 18, 2009, Region 2 on September 28, 2009, Region 4 on September 2, 2009; the season's executive producer was once again Mike Scully, in his last season as executive producer. He returned to the series in season fourteen as a writer and executive producer for the episode "How I Spent My Strummer Vacation". Mike Scully has stated his goal during his tenure was to "not wreck the show". Don Payne, John Frink and Bob Bendetson began writing for the series, while Larry Doyle, Julie Thacker and Tom Martin left following the completion of this season. Rob LaZebnik received his first sole writing credit for the episode "Homer vs.
Dignity". LaZebnik would not get a writing credit for another episode until the 20th season, where he was credited for writing "Father Knows Worst". Shaun Cashman received his sole directing credit on the series this season, while Neil Affleck received his final directorial credit. Tom Gammill and Max Pross have been promoted to produce this season; as of 2009, Gammill & Pross are still credited as such, along with David Mirkin. Mike Reiss returned to the writing staff as a producer; the season began with the annual Treehouse of Horror episode, beginning a practice of starting the season with the episodes, as well as airing the episodes shortly after Halloween in November, due to Fox's coverage of the World Series. This season brought back Sideshow Bob, who had not been seen since the eighth-season episode "Brother from Another Series". Ian Maxtone-Graham's episode "Tennis the Menace" became the second episode of the series to be animated using digital ink and paint, which had not been used since the season seven episode "Radioactive Man" and would not be used again until the 14th season.
The season would have four episodes that would air the following season. The twelfth season has received positive reviews from critics. Matt Haigh of Den of Geek said that "The bad episodes are never terrible, it's more that they're a bit boring and will most have you yawning 10 minutes in. With this in mind, season 12 ends up being much a 50/50 affair". Nancy Basile gave a list of "Must See TV" episodes and "Not So Must See TV" episodes — with more of the former. "HOMR" was nominated for various awards. Al Jean received a nomination for Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Animated Program the eleventh win for the series. Another Primetime Emmy Award nomination is for Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Music Composition for a Series. Another win for "HOMR" is an Annie Award for Outstanding Writing in an Animated Television Production. Other Primetime Emmy Awards nominations include Hank Azaria for "Worst Episode Ever". Lisa Simpson won a Board of Directors Ongoing Commitment Award; the show won at the 2002 Kids' Choice Awards.
The season ranked 21st in the seasonal ratings with an average of 14.7 million viewers an episode rising 6% from last season. The DVD boxset for season twelve was released by 20th Century Fox in the United States and Canada on Tuesday, August 18, 2009, eight years after it had completed broadcast on television; as well as every episode from the season, the DVD release feature bonus material including deleted scenes and commentaries for every episode. The boxart features Comic Book Guy, a special limited edition "embossed head case" package was released. Bibliography Season 12 at The Simpsons.com
Animal-assisted therapy is an alternative or complementary type of therapy that involves animals as a form of treatment. It falls under the realm of Animal Assisted Interventions. AAI is general term that encompasses any intervention or treatment that includes an animal in a therapeutic context such as Emotional-Support Animals, Service/Assistance Animals, Animal Assisted Activity. AAT contains sub-sections based on the type of animal, the targeted population, how the animal is being incorporated into the therapeutic plan; the most used types of AAT are canine-assisted therapy and equine-assisted therapy. The goal of AAT is to improve a patient's social, emotional, or cognitive functioning and literature reviews state that animals can be useful for educational and motivational effectiveness for participants. There are various studies documenting the positive effects of AAT reported through subjective self-rating scales and objective physiological measures, such as blood pressure, hormone levels, etc. Wilson's biophilia hypothesis is based on the premise that our attachment to and interest in animals stems from the strong possibility that human survival was dependent on signals from animals in the environment indicating safety or threat.
The biophilia hypothesis suggests that if we see animals at rest or in a peaceful state, this may signal to us safety and feelings of well-being which in turn may trigger a state where personal change and healing are possible. Six neurotransmitters that influence mood have been documented to release after a 15-minute or more interaction with animals. Mirror neuron activity and disease-perception through olfactory ability in dogs may play important roles in helping dogs connect with humans during therapeutic encounters. Animals can be used in a variety of settings such as prisons, nursing homes, mental institutions, hospitals and in the home. Assistance dogs can assist people with many different disabilities; as with all other interventions, assessing whether a program is effective as far as its outcomes are concerned is easier when the goals are clear and are able to be specified. There are a range of goals for animal assisted therapy programs relevant to children and young people, including enhanced capacity to form positive relationships with others.
It is understood that pets provide benefits to those with mental health conditions, but further research is required to test the nature and extent of this relationship with an animal as a pet and how it differs between pets, emotional support animals, service animals, animal-assisted therapy. Acquired Brain Injury survivors with cognitive impairments can benefit from AAT as part of a comprehensive and holistic rehabilitation treatment plan. Therapists rely on techniques such as monitoring a child's behavior with the animal, their tone of voice, indirect interviewing. AAT can be used in children with mental health problems, can be used as a stand-alone treatment or it can be used along with conventional methods. Animals can be used as a distraction method when it comes to various situations or pain, animals can help bring happiness and entertainment to the pediatric population. Animals can help improve children's moods and reinforce positive behaviors while helping to decrease negative ones.
AAT research most reported results were decreased anxiety and pain within the pediatric population. Dogs have shown to increase decrease pain in pediatric palliative care. Specific tactics have not been researched, but collective reviews of varied techniques displayed similar results of increased comfort reports by children and guardians. Animal-assistance programs may be useful in prisons to relieve stress of the inmates and workers, or to provide other benefits, but further study is needed to confirm the effectiveness of such programs in these settings; the findings offer proof of the concept that canine-assisted therapies are feasible and can elicit positive quality-of-life experiences in institutionalized people with dementia. Researchers and practitioners need to elucidate the theoretical foundations of AATs; the Lived Environment Life Quality Model may serve as a guide for client-centered, occupation-focused, ecologically valid approaches to animal-assisted occupational therapy beyond people with dementia.
When elderly people are transferred to nursing homes or LTC facilities, they become passive, withdrawn and inactive because of the lack of regular visitors or the loss of loved ones. Supporters of AAT say that animals can be helpful in motivating the patients to be active mentally and physically, keeping their minds sharp and bodies healthy. Therapists or visitors who bring animals into their sessions at the nursing home are viewed as less threatening, which increases the relationship between the therapist/visitor and patient. There are numerous techniques used depending on the needs and condition of the patient. For elderly dementia patients, animal assisted therapy provides opportunities to have close physical contact with the animals, which may be helpful for people whose loved ones have passed and who do not receive visitors. There are various animal species used in animal-assisted therapy. Individual animals are evaluated with strict criteria before being used in AAT; the criteria include appropriate size, aptitude, typical behaviors and the correct level of training.
The most common forms of AAT are with horses. There is published research on dolphin therapy. In canine-assisted therapy, therapy dogs interact with c