A pornographic film actor or actress, adult entertainer, or porn star is a person who performs sex acts in video, characterized as a pornographic movie. Such videos tend to be made in a number of distinct pornographic subgenres and attempt to present a sexual fantasy and the actors selected for a particular role are selected on their ability to create or fit that fantasy. Pornographic videos are characterized as either "softcore", which does not contain depictions of sexual penetration or "extreme fetishism" and "hardcore", which can contain depictions of penetration or extreme fetishism, or both; the genres and sexual intensity of videos is determined by demand. Depending on the genre of the film, the on-screen appearance and physical features of the main actors and their ability to create the sexual mood of the video is of critical importance. Most actors specialize in certain genres, such as gay sex, lesbian sex, strap-on sex, anal sex, double penetration, semen swallowing, teenage women, interracial or MILFs.
The pornography industry in the United States was the first to develop its own movie star system for commercial reasons. In other countries, the "star" system is not common, with most actors being amateurs. Most performers strive to maintain off-screen anonymity. A number of pornographic actors and actresses have written autobiographies, it is rare for pornographic actors and actresses to cross over to the mainstream film industry. The number of pornographic film actors who have worked in the United States can be indicated by number of actors tested by Adult Industry Medical Health Care Foundation; when in 2011 its patient database was leaked it contained details of over 12,000 pornographic actors that it had tested since 1998. As of 2011, it was reported that 1,200–1,500 performers were working in California's "Porn Valley". Production of risqué films commenced with the start of photography. "Moving pictures" that featured nudity were popular in "penny arcades" of the early 1900s which had hand-cranked films and rotoscope glasses.
These penny arcade attractions featured topless women, full frontal nudity, sexual coupling. Production of erotic films commenced immediately after the invention of the motion picture; the first erotic film was the 7-minute 1896 film Le Coucher de la Mariée directed by Frenchman Albert Kirchner which had Louise Willy performing a bathroom striptease. Other French filmmakers started making this type of risqué films, showing women disrobing; the Pathé brothers supplied the demand throughout Europe. In Austria, Johann Schwarzer produced 52 erotic productions between 1906 and 1911, each of which contained young local women nude, to provide an alternative local source to the French productions. Performers in these early productions were uncredited or used pseudonyms to avoid legal sanction and social disapprobation; the use of pseudonyms was the norm in the industry. The use of pseudonyms has remained a tradition in the industry, actors would perform under a number of pseudonyms, depending on the genre of film, or changed a pseudonym when the previous one ceased to be a draw card.
Casey Donovan starred in the first mainstream pornographic hit, Boys in the Sand, in 1971. However, arguably the first pornstar to become a household name was Linda Lovelace from New York City, who starred in the 1972 feature Deep Throat; the film grossed millions of dollars worldwide, success, echoed by similar stars and productions such as Marilyn Chambers, Gloria Leonard, Georgina Spelvin, Bambi Woods. The period from the early 1970s through the late-70s or early 1980s has been called The Golden Age of Porn, when erotic films were produced in the United States with narratives, backed by movie-style promotional budgets, were shown in public theaters and accepted for public consumption. Performers in these productions became celebrities including Peter Berlin, John Holmes, Ginger Lynn Allen, Porsche Lynn, Desireé Cousteau, Juliet Anderson, Lisa De Leeuw, Veronica Hart, Nina Hartley, Harry Reems, Annette Haven and Amber Lynn. Meanwhile in Europe, many pornographic actresses and actors come from the so-called pornographic bloc countries, such as Russia, Czech Republic and Hungary.
In France, popular female performers have included Brigitte Lahaie, Clara Morgane, Céline Tran, Yasmine Lafitte. In Italy, the Swedish Marina Lothar rose to prominence in the early 1980s, as well as Moana Pozzi, Ilona Staller, Lilli Carati. Most pornographic films are directed at a heterosexual male viewer, the primary focus and most on-screen time is on the women in them. Pornographic films attempt to present a sexual fantasy and actresses are selected on their ability to create or fit that fantasy. Many times the fantasy can be an actress' physical features and appearance, such as figure, breast size, hair style, ethnicity, as well as on her willingness and expertise in performing particular sex acts. Actresses are required to present a positive attitude to on-screen sexual performance with all sex acts being presented as enjoyable and joyfully entered into. Actresses are presented as always being available and willing to engage in any sex acts that their on-screen partner, as the proxy of the viewer, wishes.
Depending on the genre of a film, the on-screen appearance and physical features of the main actors and the
An ice divide is the boundary on an ice sheet, ice cap or glacier separating opposing flow directions of ice, analogous to a water divide. Such ice divides are important for geochronological investigations using ice cores, because such coring is made at highest point of an ice sheet dome in order to avoid the disturbance arising from horizontal ice movement. Ice divides are used for looking at. Coring at dome peaks increases accuracy because it is the place where horizontal motion is at its least; the Raymond Effect operates at ice divides, creating anticlines in the radar-detected isochrones, allowing greater capture of older ice when coring. Analysis of ice cores relies on the downward motion of ice, trapping gases over time into its layers. Scientist locate ice divides and take ice cores from them, which are long cylindrical poles of ice, analyse them. Once they have acquired these ice cores, they are able to look through them and find chemical elements that the snow and ice transported during that time period, e.g. sulfate and other ions.
The ice cores are important in determining how our atmosphere has changed for the better or worse, how we can remedy changes such as the greenhouse effect, discovered when scientist found more greenhouse gases was in our atmosphere at present compared with the past. Scientists from around the United States came together to find the best ice divide in order to go the further into the past, they formed the WAIS project. This project is funded by the United States National Science Foundation, is run by scientists from many organizations such as National Ice Core Laboratory, Ice Drilling Design and Operations, over fifty Universities; the WAIS project is located in West Antarctica, the goal is to look into the past 100,000 years. WAIS is better; this large amount of snow causes there to be a small off-set between the ages of the ice to the air and gases trapped inside. This allows scientists to give much more precise statements about what the atmosphere was like in the past. If the WAIS project is a success it will educate scientists around the world how the atmosphere of Earth has changed over 100,000 years
Aquamarine Fukushima is an aquarium located in Iwaki, Japan. The aquarium opened on 15 July 2000; the nickname "Aquamarine Fukushima" was selected in 1998 from a total of 4,722 applications. The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011 resulted in power being cut off to the aquarium. Many fish died, but some marine mammals and sea birds were subsequently transferred to Kamogawa Sea World, 100 kilometers to the south, Ueno Zoo in Tokyo, Tokyo Sea Life Park, Mito Sea Paradise, New Enoshima Aquarium. Although the main building sustained only minor damage, outside pools were washed away, there was major damage to the electrical system; the facility was closed after the tsunami, reopened to the public on 15 July 2011, following restoration. The aquarium highlights the sea life in the Shiome Sea, where rivers flow into the sea and meet the collision of the Kuroshio and Oyashio ocean currents; the centerpiece tank, "The Shiome Sea", holds 2,050 cubic meters and contains a triangular tunnel that separates two tanks with different water temperatures.
The aquarium includes a botanical garden on the fourth floor that shows the plant life of Fukushima, from which visitors can see the top of the main tank. Official website