Pornography is the portrayal of sexual subject matter for the exclusive purpose of sexual arousal. Pornography may be presented in a variety of media, including books, postcards, sculpture, painting, sound recording, phone calls, film and video games; the term applies to the depiction of the act rather than the act itself, so does not include live exhibitions like sex shows and striptease. The primary subjects of present-day pornographic depictions are pornographic models, who pose for still photographs, pornographic actors or "porn stars", who perform in pornographic films. If dramatic skills are not involved, a performer in pornographic media may be called a model. Various groups within society have considered depictions of a sexual nature immoral and noxious, labeling them pornographic, attempting to have them suppressed under obscenity and other laws, with varying degrees of success; such works have often been subject to censorship and other legal restraints to publication, display, or possession, leading in many cases to their loss.
Such grounds, the definition of pornography, have differed in various historical and national contexts. Social attitudes towards the discussion and presentation of sexuality have become more tolerant in Western countries, legal definitions of obscenity have become more limited, notably beginning in 1969 with Blue Movie by Andy Warhol, the first adult erotic film depicting explicit sex to receive wide theatrical release in the United States, the subsequent Golden Age of Porn, leading to an industry for the production and consumption of pornography in the latter half of the 20th century; the introduction of home video and the Internet saw a boom in the worldwide porn industry that generates billions of dollars annually. Commercialized pornography accounts for over US$2.5 billion in the United States alone, including the production of various media and associated products and services. The general porn industry is between $10–$12 billion in the U. S. In 2006, the world pornography revenue was 97 billion dollars.
This industry employs thousands of performers along with production staff. It is followed by dedicated industry publications and trade groups as well as the mainstream press, private organizations, government agencies, political organizations. More sites such as Pornhub, RedTube, YouPorn, in addition to much pirated porn posted by individuals, have served as repositories for home-made or semi-professional pornography, made available free by its creators, they present a significant challenge to the commercial pornographic film industry. Irrespective of the legal or social view of pornography, it has been used in a number of contexts, it is used, at fertility clinics to stimulate sperm donors. Some couples use pornography at times for variety and to create a sexual interest or as part of foreplay. There is some evidence that pornography can be used to treat voyeurism; the word pornography was coined from the ancient Greek words πόρνη, γράφειν, the suffix -ία, thus meaning "a written description or illustration of prostitutes or prostitution".
No date is known for the first use of the word in Greek. The Modern Greek word pornographia is a reborrowing of the French pornographie."Pornographie" was in use in the French language during the 1800s. The word did not enter the English language as the familiar word until 1857 or as a French import in New Orleans in 1842; the word was introduced by classical scholars as "a bookish, therefore nonoffensive, term for writing about prostitutes", but its meaning was expanded to include all forms of "objectionable or obscene material in art and literature". As early as 1864, Webster's Dictionary defined the word bluntly as "a licentious painting"; the more inclusive word erotica, sometimes used as a synonym for "pornography", is derived from the feminine form of the ancient Greek adjective ἐρωτικός, derived from ἔρως, which refers to lust and sexual love. Pornography is abbreviated to porn or porno in informal language. Depictions of a sexual nature have existed since prehistoric times, as seen in the Venus figurines and rock art.
A vast number of artifacts have been discovered from ancient Mesopotamia depicting explicit heterosexual sex. Glyptic art from the Sumerian Early Dynastic Period shows scenes of frontal sex in the missionary position. In Mesopotamian votive plaques from the early second millennium BC, the man is shown entering the woman from behind while she bends over, drinking beer through a straw. Middle Assyrian lead votive figurines represent the man standing and penetrating the woman as she rests on top of an altar. Scholars have traditionally interpreted all these depictions as scenes of ritual sex, but they are more to be associated with the cult of Inanna, the goddess of sex and prostitution. Many sexually explicit images were found in the temple of Inanna at Assur, which contained models of male and female sexual organs. Depictions of sexual intercourse were not part of the general repertory of ancient Egyptian formal art, but rudimentary sketches of heterosexual intercourse have been found on pottery fragments and in graffiti.
The final two thirds of the Turin Erotic Papyrus (
George Walter de la Warr was born in the Northern England, in life became a civil engineer in the pay of Oxfordshire County Council. In 1953 he resigned from this post to work on within the discredited field of radionics, in which he was a pioneer, his devices were denounced by medical experts. Warr was influenced by the devices of Albert Abrams, he claimed to have invented a camera that could cure diseases by remote control. In June 1960, he was sued in the High Court by Catherine Phillips, a disgruntled former customer who said that her health had been ruined by using the Delawarr Diagnostic Instrument. In particular, she said that the box could not have the benefits that de la Warr claimed for it. Warr said that his device operated above the physical plane, the box was only used as a focus for thought. After ten days of argument, the judge found for de la Warr, but considered the box to be bogus, he founded the De La Warr Laboratories in Oxford where he did his research and built many radionic devices.
The De La Warr Laboratories closed in 1987. Most of the radionic artifacts have unknown whereabouts. However, the radionic camera was given to Marcel J. Vogel, Psychic Research Inc. in San Jose, California. Vogel and Dan Willis did extensive trials with the camera. Vogel died in 1992; the whereabouts of the camera since is unknown. Leslie Weatherhead who had known Warr, had supported his devices. Warr's radionic devices have been criticized by health experts as quackery. Warr was notable for making unproven claims such using a photograph of insecticide on his machine to kill pests in a field miles away. French patent number 1,084,318 – "Perfectionnements à la recherche d'une radiation fondamentale" UK patent number 741,651 – "Therapeutic apparatus" UK patent number 761,976 – "Therapeutic apparatus" Experiments Relating to Increases in Crop Yield by Radionic Stimulation New Worlds Beyond the Atom Wallace Sampson, Lewis Vaughn.. Science Meets Alternative Medicine: What the Evidence Says about Unconventional Treatments.
Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-57392-803-8
William Bateman Leeds was an American businessman. He dominated the tin plate industry, becoming known as the "Tin Plate King". Together with William Henry Moore, Daniel G. Reid and James Hobart Moore, he became known as one of the'big four' or'tin plate crowd' in American industry. Leeds was born to parents Noah Smith Leeds and Hannah Star Leeds in Richmond, Indiana. After receiving an education at public schools, Leeds worked as a florist. In 1883, he married Jeannette Gaar, a relative of Harry Miller, general superintendent of the Pennsylvania Railroad. In 1883, Leeds joined an engineering corps. Three years Leeds was employed by the Cincinnati and Richmond Railroad, where he became division superintendent in 1890. Leeds first went into the tin-plate industry with partners who invested about $250,000, the company failed. Leeds founded the American Tin Plate Co. in 1898, with his partners Daniel G. Reid, William H. Moore and James H. Moore; the company grew to consist of over 200 companies, gained control of as much as 90% of the tinplate industry.
The company expanded to comprise over 28 mills in Elwood. William McKinley passed a tin tariff, in part to protect their business, they organized the National Steel Corporation in 1899 to provide steel to the tin company, with about $50 million in stock. The company sold for as much as $40 million to U. S. Steel. Leeds was involved in founding the National Steel Corporation, American Sheet Steel Company and the American Steel Hoop Company He became president of Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad in 1902. In 1904, he was ousted from the company after a disagreement with his partners. Leeds was involved with National Biscuit Company, Diamond Match Company, Tobacco Products Corporation and American Can Company. Additionally, he was the director of the Audit Co. of New York, Elwood, St. Louis and San Francisco Railroad, Cedar Rapids and Northern Railway and Eastern Illinois Railroad, United States Mortgage and Trust Co. Anderson and Lapelle Railroad Company, Nassau Gas and Power Co. Nassau Light and Power Co. and the Windsor Trust Co.
The SS William B. Leeds was named after him. Leeds was an avid yachtsman, had membership in the New York, the Seawanhaka Corinthian, Brooklyn and American Yacht Clubs, he maintained membership in the Meadow Brook club, Automobile Club of America, The Brook club. The'Billy Bi' soup was named after him. Leeds was an avid horseman. Leeds purchased a pearl necklace for his wife; the necklace cost $360,000 when he bought it, but he only paid the ten percent tariff on pearls, rather than the sixty percent tariff on a pearl necklace. The United States filed suit, for several years, as the case was litigated, the "Leeds pearls were the most famous jewels in America." On August 16, 1883, Leeds married Jeanette Irene Gaar, in Wayne, Indiana. She was a relative of superintendent of Pennsylvania Railroad. On March 15, 1886, their only child, Rudolf Gaar Leeds, was born in Indiana. On August 2, 1900, Leeds married his second wife, Nonie May Stewart-Worthington, whose first husband was George Ely Worthington. On September 19, 1902, their only child, William Bateman Leeds Jr. was born in New York City.
On June 23, 1908, Leeds died in France. Leeds was 46. Leeds is buried in Indiana, his second wife, went on to marry Prince Christopher of Greece and Denmark, an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Nonie was created a princess in her own right and took the name “Anastasia” upon joining the Greek Orthodox Church, becoming known as “Princess Anastasia of Greece and Denmark”. Nonie and Leeds's son, William Jr. married one of Prince Christopher's nieces, Princess Xenia Georgievna of Russia. The couple were married in Paris, lived in Long Island, they had one daughter before divorcing in March 1930. Princess Anastasia of Greece and Denmark, title of Leeds' second wife after his death William B. Leeds Sr at major-smolinski.com