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Skippy (dog)

Skippy was a Wire Fox Terrier dog actor who appeared in dozens of movies during the 1930s. Skippy is best known for the role of the pet dog "Asta" in the 1934 detective comedy The Thin Man, starring William Powell and Myrna Loy. Due to the popularity of the role, Skippy is sometimes credited as Asta in public and in other films. Skippy was trained by his owners Henry East and Gale Henry East, by Frank Weatherwax, assistant trainers Rudd Weatherwax, Frank Inn. In 1936, Skippy and several other movie dogs were profiled in the book Dog Stars of Hollywood by Gertrude Orr. At the time Skippy was said to be four and a half years old, giving him a birth year of 1931–32, he was said to be one of the most intelligent of animal stars working in pictures. In addition to verbal commands, he worked to hand cues, essential for a dog performing in sound films, his training began when he was three months old, he made his first professional film appearances at the age of one year, in 1932–33, as a bit player providing "atmosphere."

In Orr's book Skippy was shown in a series of publicity shots with Wendy Barrie in It's a Small World, Mae Clarke in The Daring Young Man and Mary Carlisle in an unidentified film. He became a star overnight in The Thin Man. Skippy made a hit as "Mr. Smith" in the 1937 film The Awful Truth, in which his character was the subject of a custody dispute between characters portrayed by Cary Grant and Irene Dunne. In Bringing Up Baby, Skippy played "George," the bone-hiding pup belonging to Katharine Hepburn's aunt. In Topper Takes a Trip, he was "Mr. Atlas"; the American Magazine detailed Skippy's professional life in an August 1938 profile of the East kennels, titled "A Dog's Life in Hollywood": Movie actresses stroke Skippy lovingly. They coo at murmur endearing terms in his ears, he takes it all in his stride, what with contracts and exacting work before the movie cameras, he hasn't much time for the attentions of Hollywood's most beautiful stars. But if he's paid for it and given the proper cue he will snuggle in the arms of the loveliest of stars, gaze into her limpid eyes, and, if necessary—howl.

Skippy, a smart little wire-haired terrier, is one of the leading stars in pictures. He leads a glamorous life—a dog's life de luxe, he is rated as one of the smartest dogs in the world, when contracts are signed for his appearance in a picture he gets $200 a week for putting his paw-print on the dotted line. His trainer gets a mere $60, his owner is Mrs. Gale Henry East, once a prominent movie comedienne... When Skippy has to drink water in a scene, the first time he does it he drinks. If there are retakes and he's had all the water he can drink, he'll go through the scene just as enthusiastically as though his throat were parched, but he'll fake it. If you watch you'll see he's just going through the motions of lapping and isn't picking up water at all. And, because he has a sense of humor, he loves it when you laugh and tell him you've caught him faking but that it's all right with you. "Treat a dog kindly and he'll do anything in the world for you." At a time when most canine actors in Hollywood films earned $3.50 a day, Skippy's weekly salary was $250.00.

As a character in the movie The Thin Man, Asta was the playful pet dog of Nick and Nora Charles, tugging them around town on his walks, hiding from danger, sniffing out corpses. The character appeared in the sequels After the Thin Man, Another Thin Man, Shadow of the Thin Man, The Thin Man Goes Home, Song of the Thin Man, as well as the 1950s television show The Thin Man. Loy wrote. Skippy once bit Loy during filming; the original character of Asta in Dashiell Hammett's book of The Thin Man was not a male Wire-Haired Fox Terrier, but a female Schnauzer. Due to the enormous popularity of the Asta character as played by Skippy, interest in pet terriers skyrocketed. Asta's enduring fame is such that the name is a frequent answer in The New York Times crossword puzzles, in response to clues such as "Thin Man dog" or "Dog star."Skippy played Asta in the first three Thin Man films. Other terriers, trained by the Weatherwax family and by Frank Inn, took on the role in subsequent films of the series, in the television show.

Asta on IMDb

List of mathematicians (K)

Kaasalainen, Mikko Kaashoek, Rien Kac, Mark Kac, Victor Kaczmarz, Stefan Kaczynski, Ted Kadets, Mikhail Kadison, Richard Kagan, Veniamin Kahan, William Kahane, Jean-Pierre Kähler, Erich Kahn, Jeff Kahn, Margarete Kahn, Philippe Kahramaner, Suzan Kai-lai, Chung Kainen, Paul Chester Kaiser, Gabriele Kaitai, Fang Kak, Avinash Kak, Subhash Kakeya, Sōichi Kakutani, Shizuo Kalai, Gil Kalfagianni, Efstratia Kalicki, Jan Kaliski, Burt Kallenberg, Olav Kallianpur, Gopinath Kallin, Eva Kálmán, Rudolf E. Kalmár, László Kalme, Charles Kaloshin, Vadim Kalotay, Andrew Kaltenbacher, Barbara Kalton, Nigel Kalustyan, Hermine Agavni Kaluza, Theodor Kaluznin, Lev Kamalakara Kambartel, Friedrich Kambule, Thamsanqa Kamin, Shoshana Kamke, Erich van Kampen, Egbert Kamran, Niky Kan, Alexander Rinnooy Kan, Daniel Kanada, Yasumasa Kanagasabapathy, P. Kanamori, Akihiro Kane, Daniel Kane, Thomas R. Kang, Feng Kangro, Gunnar Kannan, Ravindran Kanold, Timothy Kanovei, Vladimir Kantor, Isaiah Kantor, Seligmann Kantorovich, Leonid Kao, Chiu-Yen Kaper, Hans G. Kaplan, Edward L. Kaplan, Wilfred Kaplansky, Irving Kappraff, Jay Kaprekar, D. R. Kapustin, Nikolai Karaali, Gizem Al-Karaji Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad ibn al-Husayn Karamata, Jovan Karandikar, Rajeeva Laxman Karapetyan, Garnik A. Karatsuba, Anatoly Karhumäki, Juhani Karhunen, Kari Kari, Jarkko Karl, Mary Cordia Karlin, Samuel Karmarkar, Narendra Karnaugh, Maurice Karniadakis, George Karoubi, Max Karoui, Nicole El Karp, Carol Karp, Richard M. Karpelevich, Fridrikh Karpinski, Louis Charles Karpinski, Marek Karshon, Yael Karsten, Wenzeslaus Johann Gustav Karush, William Karzanov, Alexander V. al-Kāshī, Jamshīd Kashin, Boris Kashiwara, Masaki Kasner, Edward Kaspi, Haya Kass, Rob Kassabov, Martin Kassel, Fanny Kästner, Abraham Gotthelf Kasturirangan, Rajesh Katehakis, Michael Katětov, Miroslav al-Katibi, Najm al-Din al-Qazwini Kato, Kazuya Kato, Tosio Katok, Anatole Katok, Svetlana Katona, Gyula O. H. Katona, Gyula Y.

Katsav, Moshe Kātyāyana Katz, Eric Katz, Leo Katz, Mikhail Katz, Nick Katz, Sheldon Katz, Victor J. Katznelson, Yitzhak Kauers, Manuel Kauffman, Louis Kaufman, Bruria Kaufmann, George Adams Kaufmann, Ralph Kawai, Takahiro Kawamata, Yujiro Kawarabayashi, Ken-ichi Kayastha, Bakul Kazdan, Jerry Kazemi, Elham Kazhdan, David Keating, Jonathan Kechris, Alexander S. Kedem, Rinat Kedlaya, Kiran Keeler, Emmett Keeler, Ken Keen, Linda Keener, James Keevash, Peter Keill, John Keilson, Julian Keisler, Howard Jerome Keith, Mike Keldysh, Lyudmila Keldysh, Mstislav Kelland, Philip Kelleher, Stephen B. Keller, Bernhard Keller, Hannes Keller, Herbert Keller, Joseph Keller, Ott-Heinrich Kellerhals, Ruth Kelley, Henry J. Kelley, John L. Kellogg, Oliver Dimon Kelly, David Kelly, Frank Kelly, Leroy Milton Kelly, Max (Australia, 1930–20

2012 United States presidential election in New York

The 2012 United States presidential election in New York took place on November 6, 2012, as part of the 2012 United States presidential election in which all 50 states plus the District of Columbia participated. New York voters chose 29 electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote pitting incumbent Democratic President Barack Obama and his running mate, Vice President Joe Biden, against Republican challenger and former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney and his running mate, Congressman Paul Ryan. Barack Obama carried the state of New York by a landslide margin, winning 63.35% of the vote to Mitt Romney's 35.17%. As in previous elections, the Democratic ticket racked up large margins in the populated New York City area, as well as in upstate cities like Buffalo, Rochester and the college town of Ithaca; the Republicans won only in some rural parts of western New York. New York was 1 of only 6 states to swing in President Obama's favor from 2008 to 2012, giving him the largest percentage of the vote for any presidential candidate in the state since 1964 and the second largest Democratic vote share in the state in history.

Candidate Ballot Access: Mitt Romney/Paul Ryan, Republican Barack Obama/Joseph Biden, Democratic Gary Johnson/James P. Gray, Libertarian Jill Stein/Cheri Honkala, Green Virgil Goode/Jim Clymer, Constitution Peta Lindsay/Yari Osorio, Party for Socialism and LiberationWrite-In Candidate Access: Rocky Anderson/Luis J. Rodriguez, Justice The politics of New York State are dominated by the populated area of New York City, which Barack Obama won in a historic landslide, taking over 80% of the vote and sweeping all 5 boroughs. Obama took 1,995,241 votes in New York City, to Mitt Romney's 436,889, giving Obama 81.19% of the vote to Romney's 17.78%. No other presidential candidate of either party has received more than 80% of the vote in New York City. Discounting New York City's votes, Obama still would have carried New York State, but by a closer margin. Excluding New York City, Obama's vote total in the state was 2,490,636 to Romney's 2,053,607, giving Obama a 54.03%-44.54% win outside of NYC. See full list of sources See full list of sources The 2012 New York Republican primary took place on April 24, 2012.

By county, Romney won a plurality in every county, a majority in all but 6: Niagara, Wyoming, Schuyler and Oswego. Paul finished second in most counties. Santorum finished second in Otsego County. Gingrich finished second in two geographic areas: a cluster of counties in the Catskills and Hudson Valley and in most of the counties of Western New York, in addition to Herkimer and Oneida counties. Gingrich's relative strength in Western New York, as well as in Herkimer, can be attributed to the continued popularity and efforts of Carl Paladino, who carried those counties in the previous gubernatorial election and campaigned on Gingrich's behalf; the majority of New York politicians had endorsed Romney while the primary election was still competitive. 2012 Republican Party presidential debates 2012 Republican Party presidential primaries Results of the 2012 Republican Party presidential primaries New York Republican Party The Green Papers: for New York The Green Papers: Major state elections in chronological order


An escharotomy is a surgical procedure used to treat full-thickness circumferential burns. In full-thickness burns, both the epidermis and the dermis are destroyed along with sensory nerves in the dermis; the tough leathery tissue remaining after a full-thickness burn has been termed eschar. Following a full-thickness burn, as the underlying tissues are rehydrated, they become constricted due to the eschar's loss of elasticity, leading to impaired circulation distal to the wound. An escharotomy can be performed as a prophylactic measure as well as to release pressure, facilitate circulation and combat burn-induced compartment syndrome. An escharotomy is performed by making an incision through the eschar to expose the fatty tissue below. Due to the residual pressure, the incision will widen substantially. Full-thickness circumferential and near-circumferential skin burns result in the formation of a tough, inelastic mass of burnt tissue; the eschar, by virtue of this inelasticity, results in the burn-induced compartment syndrome.

This is caused by the accumulation of extracellular and extravascular fluid within confined anatomic spaces of the extremities or digits. The excessive fluid causes the intracompartmental pressures to increase, resulting in collapse of the contained vascular and lymphatic structures and, loss of tissue viability; the capillary closure pressure of 30 mm Hg measured as the compartment pressure, is accepted as that which requires intervention to prevent tissue death. If ischemia persists for over six hours the irreversible process of muscle necrosis will begin; the circumferential eschar over the torso can lead to significant compromise of chest wall excursions and can hinder ventilation. Abdominal compartment syndrome with visceral hypoperfusion is associated with severe burns of the abdomen and torso. Due to the diaphragmatic breathing done by children, anterior burns may be enough to warrant an escharotomy. Airway patency and venous return may be compromised by circumferential burns involving the neck.

Escharotomy is the surgical division of the nonviable eschar, which allows the cutaneous envelope to become more compliant. Hence, the underlying tissues have an increased available volume to expand into, preventing further tissue injury or functional compromise. Indications for emergency escharotomy are the presence of a circumferential eschar with one of the following: Impending or established vascular compromise of the extremities or digits. Impending or established respiratory compromise due to circumferential torso burns. Burned extremities should be elevated and range of motion exercises performed every 15–30 minutes as tolerated by the patient; this can help to minimize tissue edema and elevated tissue pressures. Neurovascular integrity should be monitored and in a scheduled manner. Capillary refilling time, Doppler signals, pulse oximetry, sensation distal to the burned area should be checked every hour. Limb deep compartment pressures should be checked to establish a baseline. Subsequently, any increase in capillary refill time, decrease in Doppler signal, or change in sensation should lead to rechecking the compartment pressures.

Compartment pressures greater than 30 mm Hg should be treated by immediate decompression via escharotomy and fasciotomy, if needed. During an escharotomy the patient is sedated despite the insensible eschar; the burnt skin is incised down into the healthy skin. The incisions should be deep enough to release all restrictive effects from the eschar; the operation can be performed on the trunk, limbs, or neck, all while avoiding critical nerves and vessels. Following the operation the wounds are dressed with an absorbent, antimicrobial material wrapped in a bandage. Elevation and observation are encouraged. A basic primer on the procedure

Bolton v Stone

Bolton v. Stone AC 850, 1 All ER 1078 is a leading House of Lords case in the tort of negligence, establishing that a defendant is not negligent if the damage to the plaintiff was not a reasonably foreseeable consequence of his conduct; the plaintiff was hit by a cricket ball, hit out of the ground. On 9 August 1947, during a game of cricket against the Cheetham 2nd XI at Cheetham Cricket Ground in Manchester, a batsman from the visiting team hit the ball for six; the ball flew out of the ground, hitting the claimant, Miss Stone, standing outside her house in Cheetham Hill Road 100 yards from the batsman. The club had been playing cricket at the ground since 1864, before the road was built in 1910; the ground was surrounded by a 12-foot fence, but the ground sloped up so the fence was 17 feet above the level of the pitch where the ball passed, about 78 yards from the batsman. There was evidence that a ball had been hit that far out of the ground only rarely, about six times in the last 30 years, although people living closer to the ground reported that balls were hit out of the ground a few times each season.

The claimant argued that the ball being hit so far once was sufficient to give the club warning that there was a risk of injuring a passer-by, fixing it with liability in negligence for the plaintiff's injuries. The claimant claimed under the principle in Rylands v Fletcher, that the ball was a dangerous item that had "escaped" from the cricket ground, in nuisance. Oliver, J. heard the case at first instance in the Manchester Michaelmas Assizes on 15 December 1948. He delivered a short judgment on 20 December 1948, dismissing each ground of the claimant's case, holding that there was no evidence of any injury in the previous 38 years, so there was no negligence; the claimant's appeal was heard in the Court of Appeal on 13 October and 14 October 1949, judgment was delivered by on 2 November 1949. All three judges, Somervell and Jenkins LJJ, dismissed nuisance on the same grounds as Oliver J. Somervell LJ, held that the claimant had failed to establish that the defendants had not taken due and reasonable care, so was not negligent either.

However, the majority and Jenkins LJJ, held that an accident of this sort called for an explanation, that the defendants were aware of the potential risk. On that basis, applying the legal maxim of res ipsa loquitur, the defendants were found negligent; the defendants appealed to the House of Lords. The House of Lords heard argument on 5 March and 6 March 1951, delivering their judgment on 10 May 1951; the House of Lords unanimously found that there was no negligence, although most considered it a close call based on whether the reasonable person would foresee this as anything more than an remote risk. Most of the Lords agreed that the key issue was that of making the key question one of determining the fact of what the reasonable person would have in mind regarding assumption of this risk. Facts may be determined by judges, but may be determined by lesser mortals in juries; this was not considered to be a point of law, the province of judges. In this case the risk was considered too remote for the reasonable person, in spite of the observation by Lord Porter that hitting a ball out of the ground was an objective of the game, "and indeed, one which the batsman would wish to bring about".

The Lords believed there were policy implications in terms of the message of what liability would have meant in creating restrictions in what we can do in our everyday lives in an urbanised modern society. In words of Lord Atkin in Donoghue v Stevenson, "You must take reasonable care to avoid acts or omissions which you can reasonably foresee would be to injure your neighbour." Whether the defendant had a duty to the claimant to take precautions to take into account the foreseeability of the risk and the cost of measures to prevent the risk. The risk in this case may have been foreseeable, but it was so improbable that a reasonable person could not have anticipated the harm to the claimant and would not have taken any action to avoid it. In the words of Lord Normand, "It is not the law that precautions must be taken against every peril that can be foreseen by the timorous." By way of contrast, a cricket club was guilty of negligence and nuisance in a case, Miller v Jackson, where neighbours of the club were hit by cricket balls several times each season.

In the earlier case of Castle v St Augustine's Links, cited in Bolton v Stone, the defendant golf club was liable in nuisance for damage caused by golf balls hit out of the club. However, The Wagon Mound shows that the case does not establish a principle that small risks can be ignored, but rather that the risk must be balanced against the defendant's purpose in carrying on its activities and the practicability and cost of taking precautions. New York state's highest court in Rinaldo v. McGovern ruled that two golfers, one of whom hit a golf ball which struck the plaintiff's automobile, were not liable to the plaintiff; the court opined that golf is a game in which the most skilled players cannot avoid hitting shots off target on some occasion, a player would be liable for a mis-hit ball only if the player had "aimed so inaccurately as to unreasonably increase the risk of harm." Further Reading: Full text of the House of Lords decision from