Birmingham Museum of Art
Founded in 1951, the Birmingham Museum of Art in Birmingham, today has one of the finest collections in the Southeastern United States, with more than 24,000 paintings, prints and decorative arts representing a numerous diverse cultures, including Asian, American, Pre-Columbian, Native American. Among other highlights, the Museum’s collection of Asian art is considered the finest and most comprehensive in the Southeast, its Vietnamese ceramics one of the finest in the U. S; the Museum is home to a remarkable Kress Collection of Renaissance and Baroque paintings and decorative arts from the late 13th century to c.1750, the 18th-century European decorative arts include superior examples of English ceramics and French furniture. The Birmingham Museum of Art is owned by the City of Birmingham and encompasses 3.9 acres in the heart of the city’s cultural district. Erected in 1959, the present building was designed by architects Warren and Davis, a major renovation and expansion by Edward Larrabee Barnes of New York was completed in 1993.
The facility encompasses 180,000 square feet, including an outdoor sculpture garden. The Museum’s growing collection of nearly 2,000 objects is derived from the major culture groups of sub-Saharan Africa and dates from the 12th century to the present; the collection features fine examples of figure sculpture, ritual objects and household and utilitarian objects, textiles and metal arts, with an Egyptian false door, Yoruba mask, Benin bronze hip pendant, a divination portrait of a king from Dahomey. Spanning the late 18th through mid-20th century, the Museum’s collection of American painting, works on paper, decorative arts features paintings by Gilbert Stuart, Childe Hassam, Georgia O'Keeffe. Considered one of the three most important American landscape paintings, the Museum’s Looking Down Yosemite Valley, California by Bierstadt was chosen by The National Endowment for the Humanities as one of 40 American masterpieces that best depict the people and events that have shaped our country and tell America’s story.
Since its doors opened to the public in 1951, the Birmingham Museum of Art has collected and exhibited the art of Alabama. Among the earliest works to enter the collection were paintings by significant Alabama artists including the miniaturist Hannah Elliott and the landscapist Carrie Hill. Throughout its history, the Museum has continued its commitment to the arts of Alabama. In 1995, it organized Made in Alabama, a groundbreaking survey of artistic production in the state during the 19th century. In addition to collecting the works of academically trained native artists, the Museum has built an impressive collection of folk art, including painting, sculpture and pottery. Thanks to the generosity of Robert and Helen Cargo, the Museum possesses one of the largest and most comprehensive collections of Southern quilts in the country. Several major private collectors are helping the Museum build the most significant repository of Alabama pottery in the State; the Museum’s Asian art collection started with a gift of Chinese textiles in 1951 and today, with more than 4,000 objects, is the largest and most comprehensive in the Southeast.
The collection hails from China, Japan and Southeast Asia, featuring the finest collection of Vietnamese ceramics in the U. S. as well as outstanding examples of Buddhist and Hindu art, lacquer ware, paintings and sculpture. Highlights include Tang dynasty tomb figures from China. On long-term loan from The Smithsonian Institution is the Vetlesen Jade Collection of 16th- to 19th-century pieces, one of the most important jade collections in the U. S; the Museum has the only gallery for Korean art in the Southeast. The collection features painting, video, works on paper, installation art that illuminate movements and trends from the 1960s to the present, by renowned artists such as Joan Mitchell, Andy Warhol, Bill Viola, Lynda Benglis, Cham Hendon, Kerry James Marshall, Callum Innes, Grace Hartigan, Larry Rivers, Louise Nevelson, Frank Fleming and Philip Guston, as well as works by a younger generation who are defining the new century. Since 2009 a permanent display of Folk art will feature works by Bill Traylor, Thornton Dial, Alabama’s outstanding quilters, other self-taught artists.
Among the highlights of the European art holdings is the Kress Collection of Renaissance Art, featuring Renaissance and Baroque paintings and decorative arts dating from the late 13th century to c.1750, with works by Pietro Perugino, Antonio Canaletto, Paris Bordone. Other strengths include 17th-century Dutch paintings by Jacob van Ruisdael, Ferdinand Bol, Balthasar van der Ast. One of the foundations of the Museum’s permanent collection, the European decorative arts comprise more than 12,000 objects including ceramics and furniture dating from the Renaissance to present day. Notable holdings include the only public collection of late 19th-century European cast iron items in the U. S. and the Eugenia Woodward Hitt Collection of 18th-century French art, including furniture of the Louis
A bain-marie, a type of heated bath, is a piece of equipment used in science and cooking to heat materials and to fixed temperatures, or to keep materials warm over a period of time. A bain-marie is used to melt ingredients for cooking; the double boiler comes in a wide variety of shapes and types, but traditionally is a wide, cylindrical metal container made of three or four basic parts: a handle, an outer container that holds the working fluid, an inner, smaller container that fits inside the outer one and which holds the material to be heated or cooked, sometimes a base underneath. Under the outer container of the bain-marie is a heat source; the inner container is immersed about halfway into the working fluid. The smaller container, filled with the substance to be heated, fits inside the outer container filled with the working fluid, the whole is heated at, or below, the base, causing the temperature of the materials in both containers to rise as needed; the constant boiling temperature of the water helps to keep contents of the inner pot from boiling or scorching.
When the working fluid is water and the bain-marie is used at sea level, the maximum temperature of the material in the lower container will not exceed 100 degrees Celsius, the boiling point of water at sea level. Using different working fluids, for example, oil, in the lower container will result in different maximum temperatures. A contemporary alternative to the traditional, liquid-filled bain-marie is the electric "dry-heat" bain-marie, heated by elements below both pots; the dry-heat form of electric bains-marie consumes less energy, requires little cleaning, can be heated more than traditional versions. They can operate at higher temperatures, are much less expensive than their traditional counterparts. Electric bains-marie can be wet, using either hot water or vapor, or steam, in the heating process; the open, bath-type bain-marie heats via a small, hot-water tub, the vapour-type bain-marie heats with scalding-hot steam. In cooking applications, a bain-marie consists of a pan of water in which another container or containers of food to be cooked is placed within the pan of water.
Chocolate can be melted in a bain-marie to avoid caking onto the pot. Special dessert bains-marie are used as a chocolate fondue. Cheesecake is baked in a bain-marie to prevent the top from cracking in the centre. Custard may be cooked in a bain-marie to keep a crust from forming on the outside of the custard before the interior is cooked. In the case of the crème brûlée, placing the ramekins in a roasting pan and filling the pan with hot water until it is 1/2 to 2/3 of the way up the sides of the ramekins transfers the heat to the custard which prevents the custard from curdling; the humidity from the steam that rises as the water heats helps keep the top of the custard from becoming too dry. Classic warm sauces, such as Hollandaise and beurre blanc, requiring heat to emulsify the mixture but not enough to curdle or "split" the sauce, are cooked using a bain-marie; some charcuterie such as terrines and pâtés are cooked in an "oven-type" bain-marie. Thickening of condensed milk, such as in confection-making, is done in a bain-marie.
Controlled-temperature bains-marie can be used to heat frozen breast milk before feedings. Bains-marie can be used in place of chafing dishes for keeping foods warm for long periods of time, where stovetops or hot plates are inconvenient or too powerful. A bain-marie can be used to re-liquefy hardened honey by placing a glass jar on top of any improvised platform sitting at the bottom of a pot of boiling water. In small scale soap-making, a bain-marie's inherent control over maximum temperature makes it optimal for liquefying melt-and-pour soap bases prior to molding them into bars, it offers the advantage of maintaining the base in a liquid state, or reliquefying a solidified base, with minimal deterioration. Using a water bath, traditional wood glue can be melted and kept in a stable liquid state over many hours without damage to the animal proteins it incorporates; the name comes from the medieval-Latin term balneum Mariae—literally, Mary's bath—from which the French bain de Marie, or bain-marie, is derived.
The device's invention has been popularly attributed to an ancient alchemist. However, the water bath was known many centuries earlier. Heated bath Double steaming Laboratory water bath Media related to Bain-marie at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of bain marie at Wiktionary
Grab-Its are microwave-safe cookware identifiable by their tab handle. They were introduced by Corning Glass Works in 1977, under the Corning Ware brand and are now sold in a different form by Corelle Brands. Grab-Its are notable as being among the first cookware designed for microwave use - their design was recognized by the Smithsonian's Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum. Grab-Its resemble porringers. Grab-Its were made available in two sizes, smaller 15 ounce and larger "Grab-A-Meal" 24 ounce versions; the 15 ounce Grab-Its were available with a plastic cover and/or a Pyrex glass lid. 24 ounce versions came with a glass lid only. In addition to microwave use, Corning Ware and Visions Grab-Its made of Pyroceram are safe on the stovetop, in the oven, under a broiler. Newer Corning Ware Grab-Its made of stoneware are safe for oven use only. Grabits were produced and sold by Corning Glass Works, made from opaque Pyroceram glass-ceramic material. Corning introduced Grab-Its under the Visions brand in 1988.
These were made of transparent Pyroceram with an amber tint. A Cranberry variant was introduced in the early 1990s. Not long after the Corning Consumer Products Company was spun off in 1998, Pyroceram-based Grabits were discontinued in the USA with the close of the Martinsburg, WV plant in the early 2000's; the 15 ounce versions were re-introduced in the USA as a stoneware product under the Corning Ware brand a short time later. Amber 15 ounce Visions Grab-Its are still made of transparent Pyroceram in France for sales in select European and Asia-Pacific regions
Paul Revere was an American silversmith, early industrialist, Patriot in the American Revolution. He is best known for his midnight ride to alert the colonial militia in April 1775 to the approach of British forces before the battles of Lexington and Concord, as dramatized in Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem, "Paul Revere's Ride". At age 41, Revere was a prosperous and prominent Boston silversmith, he had helped organize an alarm system to keep watch on the British military. Revere served as a Massachusetts militia officer, though his service ended after the Penobscot Expedition, one of the most disastrous campaigns of the American Revolutionary War, for which he was absolved of blame. Following the war, Revere returned to his silversmith trade, he used the profits from his expanding business to finance his work in iron casting, bronze bell and cannon casting, the forging of copper bolts and spikes. In 1800 he became the first American to roll copper into sheets for use as sheathing on naval vessels.
Revere was born in the North End of Boston on December 21, 1734, according to the Old Style calendar in use, or January 1, 1735, in the modern calendar. His father, a French Huguenot born Apollos Rivoire came to Boston at the age of 13 and was apprenticed to the silversmith John Coney. By the time he married Deborah Hitchborn, a member of a long-standing Boston family that owned a small shipping wharf, in 1729, Rivoire had anglicized his name to Paul Revere, their son, Paul Revere, was the third of 12 children and the eldest surviving son. Revere grew up in the environment of the extended Hitchborn family, never learned his father's native language. At 13 he became an apprentice to his father; the silversmith trade afforded him connections with a cross-section of Boston society, which would serve him well when he became active in the American Revolution. As for religion, although his father attended Puritan services, Revere was drawn to the Church of England. Revere began attending the services of the political and provocative Jonathan Mayhew at the West Church.
His father did not approve, as a result father and son came to blows on one occasion. Revere relented and returned to his father's church, although he did become friends with Mayhew, returned to the West Church in the late 1760s. Revere's father died in 1754, when Paul was too young to be the master of the family silver shop. In February 1756, during the French and Indian War, he enlisted in the provincial army, he made this decision because of the weak economy, since army service promised consistent pay. Commissioned a second lieutenant in a provincial artillery regiment, he spent the summer at Fort William Henry at the southern end of Lake George in New York as part of an abortive plan for the capture of Fort St. Frédéric, he did not stay long in the army, but returned to Boston and assumed control of the silver shop in his own name. On August 4, 1757, he married Sarah Orne, he and Sarah had eight children, but two died young, only one, survived her father. Revere's business began to suffer when the British economy entered a recession in the years following the Seven Years' War, declined further when the Stamp Act of 1765 resulted in a further downturn in the Massachusetts economy.
Business was so poor that an attempt was made to attach his property in late 1765. To help make ends meet he took up dentistry, a skill set he was taught by a practicing surgeon who lodged at a friend's house. One client was Doctor Joseph Warren, a local physician and political opposition leader with whom Revere formed a close friendship. Revere and Warren, in addition to having common political views, were both active in the same local Masonic lodges. Although Revere was not one of the "Loyal Nine"—organizers of the earliest protests against the Stamp Act—he was well connected with its members, who were laborers and artisans. Revere did not participate in some of the more raucous protests, such as the attack on the home of Lieutenant Governor Thomas Hutchinson. In 1765, a group of militants who would become known as the "Sons of Liberty" formed, of which Revere was a member. From 1765 on, in support of the dissident cause, he produced engravings and other artifacts with political themes. Among these engravings are a depiction of the arrival of British troops in 1768 and a famous depiction of the March 1770 Boston Massacre.
Although the latter was engraved by Revere and he included the inscription, "Engraved, Printed, & Sold by Paul Revere Boston", it was modeled on a drawing by Henry Pelham, Revere's engraving of the drawing was colored by a third man and printed by a fourth. Revere produced a bowl commemorating the Massachusetts assembly's refusal to retract the Massachusetts Circular Letter. In 1770 Revere purchased a house on North Square in Boston's North End. Now a museum, the house provided space for his growing family while he continued to maintain his shop at nearby Clark's Wharf. Sarah died in 1773, on October 10 of that year, Revere married Rachel Walker, they had eight children. In November 1773 the merchant ship Dartmouth arrived in Boston harbor carrying the first shipment of tea made under the terms of the Tea Act; this act authorized the British East India Company to ship tea (of which it had huge surplu
Porridge is a food eaten as a breakfast cereal dish, made by boiling ground, crushed or chopped starchy plants—typically grain—in water or milk. It is cooked or served with added flavorings such as sugar, fruit or syrup to make a sweet cereal or mixed with spices or vegetables to make a savoury dish, it is served hot in a bowl. The term "porridge" is used for oat porridge, eaten for breakfast with salt, fruit, cream or butter and sometimes other flavorings. Oat porridge is sold in ready-made or cooked form as an instant breakfast. Other grains used for porridge include rice, barley, corn and buckwheat. Many types of porridge have their own names, such as polenta and kasha. Porridge was a staple food in much of the world, including Europe and Africa. Porridge remains a staple food in many parts of Africa; as well as a breakfast cereal, porridge is used in many cultures as a food for the sick and is eaten by athletes in training. This includes Mercedes AMG F1 Driver Valtteri Bottas before the 2019 Australian Grand Prix.
Unenriched porridge, cooked by boiling or microwave, is 84% water, contains 12% carbohydrates, including 2% dietary fiber, 2% each of protein and fat. In a 100 gram reference amount, cooked porridge provides 71 Calories and contains 29% of the Daily Value for manganese and moderate content of phosphorus and zinc, with no other micronutrients in significant content. A 2014 study found that daily intake of at least 3 grams of oat β-glucan lowers total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by 5-10% in people with normal or elevated blood cholesterol levels. Β-glucan lowers cholesterol by inhibiting cholesterol production, although cholesterol reduction is greater in those with higher total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in their blood. Maize porridge: Atole, a Mexican dish of corn flour in water or milk. Champurrado, a Mexican blend of sugar, milk and corn dough or corn flour; the Philippine dish tsampurado is similar, with rice instead of maize. Cir, Păsat or Mămăligă are all Romanian maize porridges.
Cornmeal mush, a traditional dish in southern and mid-Atlantic US states. Gachas, a Spanish porridge of maize or grass peas. Garnished with roasted almonds and croutons of bread fried in olive oil. Gofio, a Canary Islands porridge of toasted coarse-ground maize. Made from roasted sweetcorn and other grains, used in many ways in parts of the world to which Canary Islanders have emigrated. Grits, ground hominy, is common in the southern United States, traditionally served with butter and black pepper. Sometimes, it is served with cheese. Kachamak, a maize porridge from the Balkans. Mazamorra, a maize porridge from Colombia. Polenta, an Italian maize porridge, cooked to a solidified state and sliced for serving. Rubaboo was a staple food of the Voyageurs. Shuco, a Salvadoran dish of black, blue or purple corn flour, ground pumpkin seeds, chili sauce and red cooked kidney beans, traditionally drunk out of a hollowed-out gourd at early morning coming from a hunting or drinking trip. Suppawn called, better known as, hasty pudding, was common in American colonial times and consisted of cornmeal boiled with milk into a thick porridge.
Still eaten in modern times, it is no longer corn-based. Uji, a thick East African porridge made most from corn flour mixed with sorghum and many other different ground cereals, with milk or butter and sugar or salt. Ugali, a more solid meal, is made from maize flour often mixed with other cereals; these two, under various names, are staple foods over a wide part of the African continent, e.g. pap in South Africa, sadza in Zimbabwe, nshima in Zambia, tuwo or ogi in Nigeria, etc. though some of these may be made from sorghum. Žganci, a maize porridge prepared in the Kajkavian countries and Slovenia. Mielie Pap, is a maize porridge staple in South African cuisine. Millet porridge: Foxtail millet porridge is a staple food in northern China. A porridge made from pearl millet is surrounding regions of the Sahel. Oshifima or otjifima, a stiff pearl millet porridge, is the staple food of northern Namibia. Middle Eastern millet porridge seasoned with cumin and honey. Munchiro sayo, a millet porridge eaten by the Ainu, a native people of northern Japan.
Milium in aqua was a millet porridge made with goat's milk, eaten in ancient Rome. Koozh is a millet porridge sold in Tamil Nadu. Oat porridge and common in the English-speaking world and the Nordic countries. Oat porridge has been found in the stomachs of 5,000-year-old Neolithic bog bodies in Central Europe and Scandinavia. Varieties of oat porridge include: a porridge made from unprocessed oats or wheat. Gruel thin porridge drunk rather than eaten. Yod Kerc'h, a traditional oat porridge from the north-west of France Brittany, made with oats and water or milk. Owsianka, an east European traditional breakfast made with hot milk and sometimes with sugar and butter. Porridge made from rolled oats or ground oatmeal is common in the UK, Australia, New Zealand, North America and Scandinavia, it is known as "porridge" or, more in the United States and Canada, "oatmeal". In the US, oat and wheat porridge can both be called "hot cereal". Rolled oats are used in England, oatmeal in Scotland and steel-cut oats in Ireland.
In the Royal Navy during the Nap
John Coney (silversmith)
John Coney was an early American silversmith and goldsmith from Boston, Massachusetts. He specialised in engraving. From the 1690s on, Coney was considered the most important Bostonian silversmith of his day. In 1702, he engraved the paper money for Massachusetts. Coney designed a version of the seal of Harvard College. John Coney was the apprentice of and brother-in-law to Jeremiah Dummer, the first American-born silversmith, he married Mary Atwater, sister of Dummer's wife, in 1694. They were widower and widow, Coney was married twice before, he had twelve children in total, but only five daughters survived beyond infancy. His last apprentice, from 1716 until the time of Coney's death, was Apollos Rivoire, father of Paul Revere, his indirect influence on Revere was considerable. Other apprentices included the brothers Samuel and John Gray, early silversmiths from Connecticut, John Burt. Many examples of his work, including two sugar boxes and two chocolate pots, are in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
Other public collections containing Coney's work include the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Birmingham Museum of Art, the Yale University Art Gallery. A silver plate by Coney was sold for $324,750 at Sotheby's in New York in 2002
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag and atomic number 47. A soft, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, reflectivity of any metal; the metal is found in the Earth's crust in the pure, free elemental form, as an alloy with gold and other metals, in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold and zinc refining. Silver has long been valued as a precious metal. Silver metal is used in many bullion coins, sometimes alongside gold: while it is more abundant than gold, it is much less abundant as a native metal, its purity is measured on a per-mille basis. As one of the seven metals of antiquity, silver has had an enduring role in most human cultures. Other than in currency and as an investment medium, silver is used in solar panels, water filtration, ornaments, high-value tableware and utensils, in electrical contacts and conductors, in specialized mirrors, window coatings, in catalysis of chemical reactions, as a colorant in stained glass and in specialised confectionery.
Its compounds are used in X-ray film. Dilute solutions of silver nitrate and other silver compounds are used as disinfectants and microbiocides, added to bandages and wound-dressings and other medical instruments. Silver is similar in its physical and chemical properties to its two vertical neighbours in group 11 of the periodic table and gold, its 47 electrons are arranged in the configuration 4d105s1 to copper and gold. This distinctive electron configuration, with a single electron in the highest occupied s subshell over a filled d subshell, accounts for many of the singular properties of metallic silver. Silver is an soft and malleable transition metal, though it is less malleable than gold. Silver crystallizes in a face-centered cubic lattice with bulk coordination number 12, where only the single 5s electron is delocalized to copper and gold. Unlike metals with incomplete d-shells, metallic bonds in silver are lacking a covalent character and are weak; this observation explains the low high ductility of single crystals of silver.
Silver has a brilliant white metallic luster that can take a high polish, and, so characteristic that the name of the metal itself has become a colour name. Unlike copper and gold, the energy required to excite an electron from the filled d band to the s-p conduction band in silver is large enough that it no longer corresponds to absorption in the visible region of the spectrum, but rather in the ultraviolet. Protected silver has greater optical reflectivity than aluminium at all wavelengths longer than ~450 nm. At wavelengths shorter than 450 nm, silver's reflectivity is inferior to that of aluminium and drops to zero near 310 nm. High electrical and thermal conductivity is common to the elements in group 11, because their single s electron is free and does not interact with the filled d subshell, as such interactions lower electron mobility; the electrical conductivity of silver is the greatest of all metals, greater than copper, but it is not used for this property because of the higher cost.
An exception is in radio-frequency engineering at VHF and higher frequencies where silver plating improves electrical conductivity because those currents tend to flow on the surface of conductors rather than through the interior. During World War II in the US, 13540 tons of silver were used in electromagnets for enriching uranium because of the wartime shortage of copper. Pure silver has the highest thermal conductivity of any metal, although the conductivity of carbon and superfluid helium-4 are higher. Silver has the lowest contact resistance of any metal. Silver forms alloys with copper and gold, as well as zinc. Zinc-silver alloys with low zinc concentration may be considered as face-centred cubic solid solutions of zinc in silver, as the structure of the silver is unchanged while the electron concentration rises as more zinc is added. Increasing the electron concentration further leads to body-centred cubic, complex cubic, hexagonal close-packed phases. Occurring silver is composed of two stable isotopes, 107Ag and 109Ag, with 107Ag being more abundant.
This equal abundance is rare in the periodic table. The atomic weight is 107.8682 u. Both isotopes of silver are produced in stars via the s-process, as well as in supernovas via the r-process. Twenty-eight radioisotopes have been characterized, the most stable being 105Ag with a half-life of 41.29 days, 111Ag with a half-life of 7.45 days, 112Ag with a half-life of 3.13 hours. Silver has numerous nuclear isomers, the most stable being 108mAg, 110mAg and 106mAg. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives of less than an hour, the majority of these have half-lives of less than three minutes. Isotopes of silver range in relative atomic mass from 92.950 u