Society of Jesus
The Society of Jesus is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church for men founded by Ignatius of Loyola and approved by Pope Paul III. The members are called Jesuits; the society is engaged in evangelization and apostolic ministry in 112 nations. Jesuits work in education, intellectual research, cultural pursuits. Jesuits give retreats, minister in hospitals and parishes, sponsor direct social ministries, promote ecumenical dialogue. Saint Ignatius of Loyola, a Basque nobleman from the Pyrenees area of northern Spain, founded the society after discerning his spiritual vocation while recovering from a wound sustained in the Battle of Pamplona, he composed the Spiritual Exercises to help others follow the teachings of Jesus Christ. In 1534, Ignatius and six other young men, including Francis Xavier and Peter Faber and professed vows of poverty and obedience, including a special vow of obedience to the Pope in matters of mission direction and assignment. Ignatius's plan of the order's organization was approved by Pope Paul III in 1540 by a bull containing the "Formula of the Institute".
Ignatius was a nobleman who had a military background, the members of the society were supposed to accept orders anywhere in the world, where they might be required to live in extreme conditions. Accordingly, the opening lines of the founding document declared that the society was founded for "whoever desires to serve as a soldier of God to strive for the defence and propagation of the faith and for the progress of souls in Christian life and doctrine." Jesuits are thus sometimes referred to colloquially as "God's soldiers", "God's marines", or "the Company", which evolved from references to Ignatius' history as a soldier and the society's commitment to accepting orders anywhere and to endure any conditions. The society participated in the Counter-Reformation and in the implementation of the Second Vatican Council; the Society of Jesus is consecrated under the patronage of Madonna Della Strada, a title of the Blessed Virgin Mary, it is led by a Superior General. The headquarters of the society, its General Curia, is in Rome.
The historic curia of Ignatius is now part of the Collegio del Gesù attached to the Church of the Gesù, the Jesuit mother church. In 2013, Jorge Mario Bergoglio became the first Jesuit to be elected Pope, taking the name Pope Francis; as of 2012, the Jesuits formed the largest single religious order of priests and brothers in the Catholic Church. The Jesuits have experienced a decline in numbers in recent decades; as of 2017 the society had 16,088 members, 11,583 priests and 4,505 Jesuits in formation, which includes brothers and scholastics. This represents a 42.6 percent decline since 1977, when the society had a total membership of 28,038, of which 20,205 were priests. This decline is most pronounced in Europe and the Americas, with modest membership gains occurring in Asia and Africa. There seems to be no "Pope Francis effect" in counteracting the fall of vocations among the Jesuits; the society is divided into 83 provinces along with six independent regions and ten dependent regions. On 1 January 2007, members served in 112 nations on six continents with the largest number in India and the US.
Their average age was 57.3 years: 63.4 years for priests, 29.9 years for scholastics, 65.5 years for brothers. The current Superior General of the Jesuits is Arturo Sosa; the society is characterized by its ministries in the fields of missionary work, human rights, social justice and, most notably, higher education. It operates colleges and universities in various countries around the world and is active in the Philippines and India. In the United States the Jesuits have historical ties to 28 colleges and universities and 61 high schools; the degree to which the Jesuits are involved in the administration of each institution varies. As of September 2018, 15 of the 28 Jesuit universities in the US had non-Jesuit lay presidents. According to a 2014 article in The Atlantic, "the number of Jesuit priests who are active in everyday operations at the schools isn’t nearly as high as it once was". Worldwide it runs 172 colleges and universities. A typical conception of the mission of a Jesuit school will contain such concepts as proposing Christ as the model of human life, the pursuit of excellence in teaching and learning, lifelong spiritual and intellectual growth, training men and women for others.
Ignatius laid out his original vision for the new order in the "Formula of the Institute of the Society of Jesus", "the fundamental charter of the order, of which all subsequent official documents were elaborations and to which they had to conform." He ensured that his formula was contained in two papal bulls signed by Pope Paul III in 1540 and by Pope Julius III in 1550. The formula expressed the nature, community life, apostolate of the new religious order, its famous opening statement echoed Ignatius' military background: Whoever desires to serve as a soldier of God beneath the banner of the Cross in our Society, which we desire to be designated by the Name of Jesus, to serve the Lord alone and the Church, his spouse, under the Roman Pontiff, the Vicar of Christ on earth, after a solemn vow of perpetual chastity and obedience, keep what follows in mind. He is a member of a Society founded chiefly for this purpose: to strive for the defence and propagation of the faith and for the progress of souls in Christian life and doctrine, by means of public preaching and any other ministration whatsoever of the Word of God, further by means of ret
Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV, known as Louis the Great or the Sun King, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715. Starting on 14 May 1643 when Louis was 4 years old, his reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest recorded of any monarch of a sovereign country in European history. In the age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIV's France was a leader in the growing centralisation of power. Louis began his personal rule of France in 1661, after the death of his chief minister, the Italian Cardinal Mazarin. An adherent of the concept of the divine right of kings, Louis continued his predecessors' work of creating a centralised state governed from the capital, he sought to eliminate the remnants of feudalism persisting in parts of France and, by compelling many members of the nobility to inhabit his lavish Palace of Versailles, succeeded in pacifying the aristocracy, many members of which had participated in the Fronde rebellion during Louis' minority. By these means he became one of the most powerful French monarchs and consolidated a system of absolute monarchical rule in France that endured until the French Revolution.
Louis encouraged and benefited from the work of prominent political and cultural figures such as Mazarin, Louvois, the Grand Condé, Turenne, Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban, André Charles Boulle, Molière, Boileau, La Fontaine, Marais, Le Brun, Bossuet, Le Vau, Charles, Claude Perrault, Le Nôtre. Under his rule, the Edict of Nantes, which granted rights to Huguenots, was abolished; the revocation forced Huguenots to emigrate or convert in a wave of dragonnades, which managed to destroy the French Protestant minority. During Louis' long reign, France was the leading European power, it fought three major wars: the Franco-Dutch War, the War of the League of Augsburg, the War of the Spanish Succession. There were two lesser conflicts: the War of Devolution and the War of the Reunions. Warfare defined the foreign policy of Louis XIV, his personality shaped his approach. Impelled "by a mix of commerce and pique", Louis sensed that warfare was the ideal way to enhance his glory. In peacetime he concentrated on preparing for the next war.
He taught his diplomats that their job was to create tactical and strategic advantages for the French military. Louis XIV was born on 5 September 1638 in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, to Louis XIII and Anne of Austria, he was named Louis Dieudonné and bore the traditional title of French heirs apparent: Dauphin. At the time of his birth, his parents had been married for 23 years, his mother had experienced four stillbirths between 1619 and 1631. Leading contemporaries thus regarded him as his birth a miracle of God. Sensing imminent death, Louis XIII decided to put his affairs in order in the spring of 1643, when Louis XIV was four years old. In defiance of custom, which would have made Queen Anne the sole Regent of France, the king decreed that a regency council would rule on his son's behalf, his lack of faith in Queen Anne's political abilities was his primary rationale. He did, make the concession of appointing her head of the council. Louis' relationship with his mother was uncommonly affectionate for the time.
Contemporaries and eyewitnesses claimed. Both were interested in food and theatre, it is likely that Louis developed these interests through his close relationship with his mother; this long-lasting and loving relationship can be evidenced by excerpts in Louis' journal entries, such as: "Nature was responsible for the first knots which tied me to my mother. But attachments formed by shared qualities of the spirit are far more difficult to break than those formed by blood." It was his mother who gave Louis his belief in the absolute and divine power of his monarchical rule. During his childhood, he was taken care of by the governesses Françoise de Lansac and Marie-Catherine de Senecey. In 1646, Nicolas V de Villeroy became the young king's tutor. Louis XIV became friends with Villeroy's young children François de Villeroy, divided his time between the Palais-Royal and the nearby Hotel de Villeroy. On 14 May 1643, with Louis XIII dead, Queen Anne had her husband's will annulled by the Parlement de Paris.
This action made Anne sole Regent of France. Anne exiled some of her husband's ministers, she nominated Brienne as her minister of foreign affairs. Anne nominated Saint Vincent de Paul as her spiritual adviser, which helped her deal with religious policy and the Jansenism question. Anne kept the direction of religious policy in her hand until 1661. Anne wanted to give her son a victorious kingdom, her rationales for choosing Mazarin were his ability and his total dependence on her, at least until 1653 when she was no longer regent. Anne protected Mazarin by arresting and exiling her followers who conspired against him in 1643: the Duke of Beaufort and Marie de Rohan, she left the direction of the daily administration of policy to Cardinal Mazarin. The best example of Anne's statesmanship and the partial change in her heart towards her native Spain is seen in her keeping of one of Richelieu's men, the Chancellor of France Pierre Séguier, in his post. Séguier was the pers
The Arnauld or Arnaud family Lord de la Mothe, de Bessac, de la Besse, de Villeneuve, de Ronzière et d'Artonne d'Andilly, de Corbeville and Marquess de Pomponne is a noble French family prominent in the 17th century, associated with Jansenism, associating with the Jansenist religious communities in Port-Royal de Paris and Port-Royal des Champs. While their base of operations was in Paris, the family's roots is in the Auvergne region of France. Ennobled in 1464, the Arnauld family held many prestigious functions: Isaac Arnauld was general of the Carabineers in the Royal Army, Simon Arnauld de Pomponne was a royal ambassador and Antoine Arnauld was the royal State Counselor to King Henry IV and General Prosecutor for Queen Catherine of Medicis in 1582 The family is divided into several branches; the oldest, Arnauld de Pomponne and Arnauld d'Andilly are now extinct. Another branch of the family, divided into two sub-branches. One of the most memorable figure is Antoine Arnauld. Legendarily, the "original sin" that led to the Jesuits becoming bitter foes to the Arnaulds was a speech given in 1594 by Antoine apologizing for the University of Paris against the Jesuits.
Of Antoine's and Catherine Marion de Druy's 20 children, only ten would survive childhood- but 9 of them would become involved in the Port-Royal projects, going on variously to become poets, translators, monks etc. Indeed, Marie Angélique de Sainte Madeleine, would become an abbess of the Port-Royal Cistercian house, where she is remembered for her reforms. One of the aforementioned authors was Antoine Arnauld, who spent his efforts on attacking the Jesuits from his position in the Sorbonne, while his elder brother Robert Arnauld d'Andilly, spent his life at the Port-Royal translating texts and writing noted religious poetry. Article at Encyclopædia Britannica Northcote, Stafford Henry. "Arnauld". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2. Pp. 626–628. Article at the Columbia Encyclopedia Fournet, Pierre Auguste. "Arnauld". Catholic Encyclopedia. 1
Louise-Magdeleine Horthemels, or Louise-Madeleine Hortemels called Magdeleine Horthemels, was a French engraver, the mother of Charles-Nicolas Cochin. She is sometimes credited under her married name of Louise Madeleine Cochin or Madeleine Cochin; the parish register of the parish of Saint-Benoit, shows that Louise-Magdeleine, baptized in 1686, was one of at least six children of Daniel Horthemels, a bookseller, his wife Marie Cellier. The Horthemels family had come from The Netherlands. Protestants, they became followers of the Dutch Roman Catholic theologian Cornelis Jansen and had links with the Parisian abbey of Port-Royal-des-Champs, the centre of Jansenist thought in France. Active as a copperplate engraver by 1707, on 10 August 1713 Horthemels married another engraver, Charles-Nicolas Cochin the Elder. There were several more engravers in their extended family, including Cochin's brother Frédéric and the two sisters of Horthemels, Marie-Anne-Hyacinthe, the wife of Nicolas-Henri Tardieu, an eminent engraver, a member of the Academy from 1720, Marie-Nicole, married to the portrait artist Alexis Simon Belle.
Louise-Magdeleine Horthemels' son Charles-Nicolas Cochin the Younger became an engraver to the court of King Louis XV, a designer and art critic. Horthemels died in Paris at her son's house on 2 October 1767. Horthemels was active in Paris as an engraver for nearly fifty years and produced more than sixty signed copper plates, her first published work was a frontispiece for Alain-René Lesage's novel Le Diable boiteux, which she signed Magdeleine Horthemels fec. Her work is signed variously Magd. Horthemels, L. Mag. Horthemels, M. Horthemels, Magd. Horthemels Sponsa C. Cochin, Magdeleine Cochin, it was long believed that Louise-Magdeleine and her sisters Marie-Nicole and Marie-Anne-Hyacinthe all signed work Marie Horthemels, but a careful study has shown that the signed work of the sisters can be distinguished. The members of the family worked together on a single composition. Louise-Magdeleine Horthemels engraved paintings by Nicolas Poussin, Charles Le Brun, Antoine Coypel, Michel Corneille the Younger, Claude Vignon, Nicolas Lancret, produced illustrations for a history of the Hôtel des Invalides and for a history of the Languedoc, in collaboration with her husband Charles-Nicolas Cochin the Elder.
She designed a series of twenty-three plates depicting the nuns of the abbey of Port-Royal and their everyday life. The abolition of the abbey had been ordered by a bull of Pope Clement XI in September 1708, the remaining nuns were forcibly removed in 1709, most of the buildings were razed to the ground in 1710, on the orders of the Conseil du Roi of King Louis XIV. Horthemels completed a great plate called Le feu d'artifice de la place de Navone, after Giovanni Pannini, begun by her son Charles Nicolas Cochin, she engraved portraits, such as a copper engraving of Prince James Francis Edward Stuart, after an early eighteenth-century painting by her brother-in-law Alexis Simon Belle. In the early work of Horthemels as an engraver, there is a certain rigidity of line, while architectural detail is emphasized. However, her skill lay in engraving the work of others so that their genius was revealed and her own style was suppressed, her hand was sure, her work shows a delicacy and clarity of touch which were much admired in her own time.
Abbey of Port-Royal des Champs, by Louise-Magdeleine Horthemels, c. 1709 Louise Madeleine Cochin at the web site of the National Portrait Gallery, London
Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve
Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve was a literary critic of French literature. He was born in Boulogne, educated there, studied medicine at the Collège Charlemagne in Paris. In 1828, he served in the St Louis Hospital. Beginning in 1824, he contributed literary articles, the Premier lundis of his collected Works, to the newspaper Globe, in 1827 he came, by a review of Victor Hugo's Odes et Ballades, into close association with Hugo and the Cénacle, the literary circle that strove to define the ideas of the rising Romanticism and struggle against classical formalism. Sainte-Beuve became friendly with Hugo after publishing a favourable review of the author's work but had an affair with Hugo's wife, Adèle Foucher, which resulted in their estrangement. Curiously, when Sainte-Beuve was made a member of the French Academy in 1845, the ceremonial duty of giving the reception speech fell upon Hugo. Sainte-Beuve published collections of poems and the autobiographical novel Volupté in 1834, his articles and essays were collected the volumes Portraits littéraires.
During the rebellions of 1848 in Europe, he lectured at Liège on Chateaubriand and his literary circle. He returned to Paris in 1849 and began his series of topical columns, Causeries du lundi in the newspaper, Le Constitutionnel; when Louis Napoleon became Emperor, he made Sainte-Beuve professor of Latin poetry at the Collège de France, but anti-Imperialist students hissed him, he resigned. After several books of poetry and a couple of failed novels, Sainte-Beuve began to do literary research, of which the most important publication resulting is Port-Royal, he continued to contribute to La Revue contemporaine. Port-Royal Sainte-Beuve's masterpiece, is an exhaustive history of the Jansenist abbey of Port-Royal-des-Champs, near Paris, it not only influenced the historiography of religious belief, i.e. the method of such research, but the philosophy of history and the history of esthetics. He was made Senator in 1865, in which capacity he distinguished himself by his pleas for freedom of speech and of the press.
According to Jules Amédée Barbey d'Aurevilly, "Sainte-Beuve was a clever man with the temper of a turkey!" In his last years, he lived much in retirement. One of Sainte-Beuve's critical contentions was that, in order to understand an artist and his work, it was necessary to understand that artist's biography. Marcel Proust refuted it in a set of essays, Contre Sainte-Beuve. Proust developed. In 1880 Friedrich Nietzsche, though an avowed opponent of Sainte-Beuve, prompted the wife of his friend Franz Overbeck, Ida Overbeck, to translate the Causeries du lundi into German; until Sainte-Beuve was never published in German despite his great importance in France, since it was considered representative of a French way of thinking detested in Germany. Ida Overbeck's translation appeared in 1880 under the title Die Menschen des XVIII. Jahrhunderts. Nietzsche wrote to Ida Overbeck on August 18, 1880: "An hour ago I received the Die Menschen des XVIII. Jahrhunderts, It is just a marvellous book. I think I've cried."
Ida Overbeck's translation is an important document of the cultural transfer between Germany and France in a period of strong tension, but it was ignored. It was not until 2014 that a annotated edition of this translation appeared in print. Sainte-Beuve died in Paris, aged 64. Non-fiction Tableau Historique et Critique de la Poésie Française et du Théâtre Français au XVIe Siècle. Port-Royal. Portraits Littéraires. Portraits Contemporains. Portraits de Femmes. Causeries du Lundi. Nouveaux Lundis. Premiers Lundis. Étude sur Virgile. Chateaubriand et son Groupe Littéraire. Le Général Jomini. Madame Desbordes-Valmore. M. de Talleyrand. P.-J. Proudhon. Chroniques Parisiennes. Les Cahiers de Sainte-Beuve. Mes Poisons. Fiction Volupté. Madame de Pontivy. Christel. La Pendule. Poetry Vie, Poésies et Pensées de Joseph Delorme. Les Consolations. Pensées d'août. Livre d'Amour. Poésies Complètes. Poésies françaises d'une Italienne by Agathe-Sophie Sasserno, preface by Sainte-BeuveIn English translation Portraits of Celebrated Women.
Memoirs of Madame Desbordes-Valmore. English Portraits. Monday-chats Essays on Women. Essays. Portraits of Men. Portraits of Women. Select Essays of Sainte-Beuve; the Prince de Ligne. The Correspondence of Madame, Princess Palatine; the Essays of Sainte-Beuve. Memoirs and Letters of Cardinal de Bernis. Causeries du lundi. Volupté: The Sensual Man. Nicolson, Harold George. Sainte-Beuve. London: Constable. Williams, Roger L.. "Sainte-Beuve, Sultan of Literature". In: Gaslight and Shadow: The World of Napoleon III. New York: Macmillan. Quotatio
Jean Racine, baptismal name Jean-Baptiste Racine, was a French dramatist, one of the three great playwrights of 17th-century France, an important literary figure in the Western tradition. Racine was a tragedian, producing such "examples of neoclassical perfection" as Phèdre and Athalie, although he did write one comedy, Les Plaideurs, a muted tragedy, for the young. Racine's plays displayed his mastery of the dodecasyllabic alexandrine; the linguistic effects of Racine's poetry are considered to be untranslatable, although many eminent poets have attempted to do so, including Lowell, Richard Wilbur, Ted Hughes, Tony Harrison, Derek Mahon into English, Friedrich Schiller into German. The latest translations of Racine's plays into English have been by Alan Hollinghurst, by RADA director Edward Kemp, Neil Bartlett and earned a 2011 American Book Award for the poet Geoffrey Argent. Racine's dramaturgy is marked by his psychological insight, the prevailing passion of his characters, the nakedness of both plot and stage.
Racine was born on 22 December 1639 in La Ferté-Milon, in the province of Picardy in northern France. Orphaned by the age of four, he came into the care of his grandparents. At the death of his grandfather in 1649, his grandmother, Marie des Moulins, went to live in the convent of Port-Royal and took her grandson with her, he received a classical education at the Petites écoles de Port-Royal, a religious institution which would influence other contemporary figures including Blaise Pascal. Port-Royal was run by followers of Jansenism, a theology condemned as heretical by the French bishops and the Pope. Racine's interactions with the Jansenists in his years at this academy would have great influence over him for the rest of his life. At Port-Royal, he excelled in his studies of the Classics and the themes of Greek and Roman mythology would play large roles in his future works, he was expected to study law at the Collège d'Harcourt in Paris, but instead found himself drawn to a more artistic lifestyle.
Experimenting with poetry drew high praise from France's greatest literary critic, Nicolas Boileau, with whom Racine would become great friends. Racine took up residence in Paris where he became involved in theatrical circles, his first play, never reached the stage. On 20 June 1664, Racine's tragedy La Thébaïde ou les frères ennemis was produced by Molière's troupe at the Théâtre du Palais-Royal, in Paris; the following year, Molière put on Racine's second play, Alexandre le Grand. However, this play garnered such good feedback from the public that Racine secretly negotiated with a rival play company, the Hôtel de Bourgogne, to perform the play – since they had a better reputation for performing tragedies. Thus, Alexandre premiered for the second time, by a different acting troupe, eleven days after its first showing. Molière could never forgive Racine for this betrayal, Racine widened the rift between him and his former friend by seducing Molière's leading actress, Thérèse du Parc, into becoming his companion both professionally and personally.
From this point on the Hôtel de Bourgogne troupe performed all of Racine's secular plays. Though both La Thébaïde and its successor, had classical themes, Racine was entering into controversy and forced to field accusations that he was polluting the minds of his audiences, he broke all ties with Port-Royal, proceeded with Andromaque, which told the story of Andromache, widow of Hector, her fate following the Trojan War. Amongst his rivals were Pierre Corneille and his brother, Thomas Corneille. Tragedians competed with alternative versions of the same plot: for example, Michel le Clerc produced an Iphigénie in the same year as Racine, Jacques Pradon wrote a play about Phèdre; the success of Pradon's work was one of the events which caused Racine to renounce his work as a dramatist at that time though his career up to this point was so successful that he was the first French author to live entirely on the money he earned from his writings. Others, including the historian Warren Lewis, attribute his retirement from the theater to qualms of conscience.
However, one major incident which seems to have contributed to Racine's departure from public life was his implication in a court scandal of 1679. He got married at about this time to the pious Catherine de Romanet, his religious beliefs and devotion to the Jansenist sect were revived, he and his wife had two sons and five daughters. Around the time of his marriage and departure from the theater, Racine accepted a position as a royal historiographer in the court of King Louis XIV, alongside his friend Boileau, he kept this position in spite of the minor scandals he was involved in. In 1672, he was elected to the Académie française gaining much power over this organization. Two years he was bestowed the title of "treasurer of France", he was distinguished as an "ordinary gentleman of the king", as a secretary of the king; because of Racine's flourishing career in the court, Louis XIV provided for his widow and children after his death. When at last he returned to the theatre, it was at the request of Madame de Maintenon, morganatic second wife of King Louis
A novice is a person or creature, new to a field or activity. It can be seen as a person who has entered a religious order and is under probation, before taking vows. Additionally, it can be an animal a racehorse, that has not yet won a major prize or reached a level of performance to qualify for important events. In many Buddhist orders, a man or woman who intends to take ordination must first become a novice, adopting part of the monastic code indicated in the vinaya and studying in preparation for full ordination; the name for this level of ordination varies from one tradition to another. In Pali, the word is samanera, which means'small monk' or'boy monk'. A novice in Roman Catholic canon law and tradition, is a prospective member of a religious order, being tried and being proven for suitability of admission to a religious order of priests, religious brothers, or religious sisters, whether the community is one of monks or has an "active" ministry. After initial contact with the community, a period of time as a postulant, the person will be received as a novice in a ceremony that most involves being clothed with the religious habit of the particular religious community.
The novice's habit is slightly different from those of professed members of the order. For instance, in communities of women that wear a dark veil over the head, novices wear a white one. Novices are not admitted to vows until they have completed the prescribed period of training and proving, called the novitiate; this lasts one year, the minimum required by Canon Law, though in some orders and communities it is two. Novices have dormitories in separate areas within a monastery or community and are under the direct supervision of a novice master or novice mistress. In the Orthodox Church, a candidate may be clothed as a novice by the hegumen or hegumenia after at least three days in the monastery. There is no formal ceremony for the clothing of a novice. Novice nuns additionally wear a veil that covers the neck. A novice is given a prayer rope and instructed in the use of the Jesus Prayer. In large communities, the new novice may be assigned a starets who will guide his spiritual development. Frequent confession of sins and participation in the sacred mysteries of the church is an important part of Orthodox monastic life.
A novice is free to leave the monastery at any time, the superior is free to dismiss the novice at any time if, for instance, he or she feels the novice is not called to monasticism or if there have been discipline issues. If, the novice perseveres, after a period of around three years the hegumen may choose to clothe him in the first rank of monasticism: the rassaphore. In National Hunt racing, a novice is a horse that has not won a race under a particular code before the current season. In figure skating competitions, novice has two meanings. For the U. S. Figure Skating Association, it refers to a skill level, while the International Skating Union uses it to designate age. Novice is a level of minor hockey in Canada. Novice players are between the ages of 7 and 8. In the sport of crew, the term is used for an athlete in their first year of competition. In many sports, a novice athlete competing in their first season or league is referred to as a rookie, outstanding novice athletes can win Rookie of the Year.
With the rise of the internet, a novice is a person, a newcomer to a particular website, forum, or other social community. These people are inexperienced and unfamiliar with the traditions and protocols surrounding that community. Thus, it's a difficult task for online communities to get novices to contribute. One way to make novices contribute is to make them feel unique. In a study at Carnegie Mellon University, researchers looked at whether reminding users of their history of rating rarely-rated movies at MovieLens.com increased their contributions. The study found; the study looked at whether goal-setting could help users contribute more to the community. The study found. Slang terms include "newbie" and the more derogatory "noob". Newbie is used as a descriptor or qualifier, a name given to novices by more experienced users or community members to indicate someone who just entered the community and is eager to learn and participate. Noob is a word used to insult or deride novices who are disrespectful, uninterested, or unwilling to learn.
In gamer culture, a newbie is an inexperienced player with a low level, rank, or in-game abilities but wants to participate and improve, a noob is a bad player who seems disinterested in learning or teamwork and trolls other players. Online communities have five basic problems regarding newcomers: recruitment, retention and protection. Recruitment in online communities is about advertising to recruits and ensuring there is a healthy amount of newcomers because without newcomers, online communities can fail to survive. There many different methods that online communities use to recruit new members. For example, Blizzard entertainment used both im