A swamp is a wetland, forested. Many swamps occur along large rivers where they are critically dependent upon natural water level fluctuations. Other swamps occur on the shores of large lakes; some swamps have hammocks, or dry-land protrusions, covered by aquatic vegetation, or vegetation that tolerates periodic inundation or soil saturation. The two main types of swamp swamp forests and "transitional" or shrub swamps. In the boreal regions of Canada, the word swamp is colloquially used for what is more termed a bog, fen, or muskeg; the water of a swamp may be brackish water or seawater. Some of the world's largest swamps are found along major rivers such as the Amazon, the Mississippi, the Congo. A marsh is a wetland composed of grasses and reeds found near the fringes of lakes and streams, serving as a transitional area between land and aquatic ecosystems. A swamp is a wetland composed of shrubs found along large rivers and lake shores. Swamps are characterized by slow-moving to stagnant waters.
Many adjoin rivers or lakes. Swamps are features of areas with low topographic relief. Humans have drained swamps to provide additional land for agriculture and to reduce the threat of diseases borne by swamp insects and similar animals. Many swamps have undergone intensive logging, requiring the construction of drainage ditches and canals; these ditches and canals contributed to drainage and, along the coast, allowed salt water to intrude, converting swamps to marsh or to open water. Large areas of swamp were therefore degraded. Louisiana provides a classic example of wetland loss from these combined factors. Europe has lost nearly half its wetlands. New Zealand lost 90 percent of its wetlands over a period of 150 years. Ecologists recognise that swamps provide valuable ecological services including flood control, fish production, water purification, carbon storage, wildlife habitat. In many parts of the world authorities protect swamps. In parts of Europe and North America, swamp restoration projects are becoming widespread.
The simplest steps to restoring swamps involve plugging drainage ditches and removing levees. Swamps and other wetlands have traditionally held a low property value compared to fields, prairies, or woodlands, they have a reputation for being unproductive land that cannot be utilized for human activities, other than hunting and trapping. Farmers, for example drained swamps next to their fields so as to gain more land usable for planting crops. Many societies now realize that swamps are critically important to providing fresh water and oxygen to all life, that they are breeding grounds for a wide variety of species. Indeed, floodplain swamps are important in fish production. Government environmental agencies are taking steps to protect and preserve swamps and other wetlands. In Europe, major effort is being invested in the restoration of swamp forests along rivers. Conservationists work to preserve swamps such as those in northwest Indiana in the United States Midwest that were preserved as part of the Indiana Dunes.
The problem of invasive species has been put into greater light such as in places like the Everglades. Swamps can be found on all continents except Antarctica; the largest swamp in the world is the Amazon River floodplain, significant for its large number of fish and tree species. The Sudd and the Okavango Delta are Africa's best known marshland areas; the Bangweulu Floodplains make up Africa's largest swamp. The Tigris-Euphrates river system is a large swamp and river system in southern Iraq, traditionally inhabited in part by the Marsh Arabs. In Asia, tropical peat swamps are located in mainland East Southeast Asia. In Southeast Asia, peatlands are found in low altitude coastal and sub-coastal areas and extend inland for distance more than 100 km along river valleys and across watersheds, they are to be found on the coasts of East Sumatra, West Papua, Papua New Guinea, Peninsular Malaya, Sarawak, Southeast Thailand, the Philippines. Indonesia has the largest area of tropical peatland. Of the total 440,000 km2 tropical peat swamp, about 210,000 km2 are located in Indonesia.
The Vasyugan Swamp is a large swamp in the western Siberia area of the Russian Federation. This is one of the largest swamps in the world; the Atchafalaya Swamp at the lower end of the Mississippi River is the largest swamp in the United States. It is an important example of southern cypress swamp but it has been altered by logging and levee construction. Other famous swamps in the United States are the forested portions of the Everglades, Okefenokee Swamp, Barley Barber Swamp, Great Cypress Swamp and the Great Dismal Swamp; the Okefenokee is located in extreme southeastern Georgia and extends into northeastern Florida. The Great Cypress Swamp is in Delaware but extends into Maryland on the Delmarva Peninsula. Point Lookout State Park on the southern tip of Maryland contains a large amount of swamps and marshes; the Great Dismal Swamp lies in extreme southeastern Virginia and extreme northeastern North Carolina. Both are National Wildlife Refuges. Another swamp area, Reelfoot Lake of extreme western Tennessee and Kentucky, was created by the 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes.
Caddo Lake, the Great Dismal and Reelfoot are swamps. Swamps are called bayous in the southeastern United States in the Gulf Coast region; the worl
Los Angeles County, California
Los Angeles County the County of Los Angeles, in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of the U. S. state of California, is the most populous county in the United States, with more than 10 million inhabitants as of 2017. As such, it is the largest non–state level government entity in the United States, its population is larger than that of 41 individual U. S. states. It is the third-largest metropolitan economy in the world, with a Nominal GDP of over $700 billion—larger than the GDPs of Belgium and Taiwan, it has 88 incorporated cities and many unincorporated areas and, at 4,083 square miles, it is larger than the combined areas of Delaware and Rhode Island. The county is home to more than one-quarter of California residents and is one of the most ethnically diverse counties in the U. S, its county seat, Los Angeles, is California's most populous city and the nation's second largest city with about 4 million people. Los Angeles County is one of the original counties of California, created at the time of statehood in 1850.
The county included parts of what are now Kern, San Bernardino, Inyo, Tulare and Orange counties. In 1851 and 1852, Los Angeles County stretched from the coast to the border of Nevada; as the population increased, sections were split off to organize San Bernardino County in 1853, Kern County in 1866, Orange County in 1889. Prior to the 1870s, Los Angeles County was divided into townships, many of which were amalgamations of one or more old ranchos, they were: Azusa El Monte Azusa and El Monte Townships were merged for the 1870 census. City of Los Angeles Los Angeles Township Los Nietos San Jose San Gabriel Santa Ana. For the 1870 census, Annaheim district was enumerated separately. San Juan. San Pedro. Tejon When Kern County was formed, the portion of the township remaining in Los Angeles County became Soledad Township According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 4,751 square miles, of which 4,058 square miles is land and 693 square miles is water. Los Angeles County borders 70 miles of coast on the Pacific Ocean and encompasses mountain ranges, forests, lakes and desert.
The Los Angeles River, Rio Hondo, the San Gabriel River and the Santa Clara River flow in Los Angeles County, while the primary mountain ranges are the Santa Monica Mountains and the San Gabriel Mountains. The western extent of the Mojave Desert begins in the Antelope Valley, in the northeastern part of the county. Most of the population of Los Angeles County is located in the south and southwest, with major population centers in the Los Angeles Basin, San Fernando Valley and San Gabriel Valley. Other population centers are found in the Santa Clarita Valley, Pomona Valley, Crescenta Valley and Antelope Valley; the county is divided west-to-east by the San Gabriel Mountains, which are part of the Transverse Ranges of southern California, are contained within the Angeles National Forest. Most of the county's highest peaks are in the San Gabriel Mountains, including Mount San Antonio 10,068 feet ) at the Los Angeles-San Bernardino county lines, Mount Baden-Powell 9,399 feet, Mount Burnham 8,997 feet and Mount Wilson 5,710 feet.
Several lower mountains are in the northern and southwestern parts of the county, including the San Emigdio Mountains, the southernmost part of Tehachapi Mountains and the Sierra Pelona Mountains. Los Angeles County includes San Clemente Island and Santa Catalina Island, which are part of the Channel Islands archipelago off the Pacific Coast. East: Eastside, San Gabriel Valley, portions of the Pomona Valley West: Westside, Beach Cities South: South Bay, South Los Angeles, Palos Verdes Peninsula, Gateway Cities, Los Angeles Harbor Region North: San Fernando Valley, Crescenta Valley, portions of the Conejo Valley, portions of the Antelope Valley and Santa Clarita Valley Central: Downtown Los Angeles, Mid-Wilshire, Northeast Los Angeles Angeles National Forest Los Padres National Forest Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area Los Angeles County had a population of 9,818,605 in the 2010 United States Census; the racial makeup of Los Angeles County was 4,936,599 White, 1,346,865 Asian, 856,874 African American, 72,828 Native A
A tram is a rail vehicle which runs on tramway tracks along public urban streets. The lines or networks operated by tramcars are called tramways; the term electric street railways was used in the United States. In the United States, the term tram has sometimes been used for rubber-tyred trackless trains, which are unrelated to other kinds of trams. Tram vehicles are lighter and shorter than main line and rapid transit trains. Today, most trams use electrical power fed by a pantograph sliding on an overhead line. In some cases by a contact shoe on a third rail is used. If necessary, they may have dual power systems—electricity in city streets, diesel in more rural environments. Trams carry freight. Trams are now included in the wider term "light rail", which includes grade-separated systems; some trams, known as tram-trains, may have segments that run on mainline railway tracks, similar to interurban systems. The differences between these modes of rail transport are indistinct, a given system may combine multiple features.
One of the advantages over earlier forms of transit was the low rolling resistance of metal wheels on steel rails, allowing the trams to haul a greater load for a given effort. Problems included the fact that any given animal could only work so many hours on a given day, had to be housed, groomed and cared for day in and day out, produced prodigious amounts of manure, which the streetcar company was charged with disposing of. Electric trams replaced animal power in the late 19th and early 20th century. Improvements in other forms of road transport such as buses led to decline of trams in mid 20th century. Trams have seen resurgence in recent years; the English terms tram and tramway are derived from the Scots word tram, referring to a type of truck used in coal mines and the tracks on which they ran. The word tram derived from Middle Flemish trame; the identical word la trame with the meaning "crossbeam" is used in the French language. Etymologists believe that the word tram refers to the wooden beams the railway tracks were made of before the railroad pioneers switched to the much more wear-resistant tracks made of iron and steel.
The word Tram-car is attested from 1873. Although the terms tram and tramway have been adopted by many languages, they are not used universally in English; the term streetcar is first recorded in 1840, referred to horsecars. When electrification came, Americans began to speak of trolleycars or trolleys. A held belief holds the word to derive from the troller, a four-wheeled device, dragged along dual overhead wires by a cable that connected the troller to the top of the car and collected electrical power from the overhead wires. "Trolley" and variants refer to the verb troll, meaning "roll" and derived from Old French, cognate uses of the word were well established for handcarts and horse drayage, as well as for nautical uses. The alternative North American term'trolley' may speaking be considered incorrect, as the term can be applied to cable cars, or conduit cars that instead draw power from an underground supply. Conventional diesel tourist buses decorated to look like streetcars are sometimes called trolleys in the US.
Furthering confusion, the term tram has instead been applied to open-sided, low-speed segmented vehicles on rubber tires used to ferry tourists short distances, for example on the Universal Studios backlot tour and, in many countries, as tourist transport to major destinations. The term may apply to an aerial ropeway, e.g. the Roosevelt Island Tramway. Although the use of the term trolley for tram was not adopted in Europe, the term was associated with the trolleybus, a rubber-tyred vehicle running on hard pavement, which draws its power from pairs of overhead wires; these electric buses, which use twin trolley poles, are called trackless trolleys, or sometimes trolleys. The New South Wales, government has decided to use the term "light rail" for their trams; the history of trams, streetcars or trolley systems, began in early nineteenth century. It can be divided up into several discrete periods defined by the principal means of motive power used; the world's first passenger train or tram was the Swansea and Mumbles Railway, in Wales, UK.
The Mumbles Railway Act was passed by the British Parliament in 1804, horse-drawn service started in 1807. The service was restarted in 1860, again using horses, it was worked by steam from 1877, from 1929, by large electric tramcars, until closure in 1961. The Swansea and Mumbles Railway was something of a one-off however, no street tramway would appear in Britain until 1860 when one was built in Birkenhead by the American George Francis Train. Street railways developed in America before Europe due to the poor paving of the streets in American cities which made them unsuitable for horsebuses, which were common on the well-paved streets of European cities. Running the horsecars on rails allowed for a much smoother ride. There are records of a street railway running in Baltimore as early as 1828, however the first authenticated streetcar in America, was the New York and Harle
Avalon is the only incorporated city on Santa Catalina Island of the California Channel Islands, the southernmost city in Los Angeles County. The city is a resort community with the waterfront dominated by tourism-oriented businesses; the older parts of the town on the valley floor consist of small houses and two and three-story buildings in various traditional architectural styles. In 1919, William Wrigley, Jr. gained control of Avalon and oversaw much of the development of Avalon, including the construction of the landmark Catalina Casino. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, several different developers tried to develop Avalon into a resort destination community, but most before Wrigley went bankrupt; the population was 3,728 at the 2010 census. Avalon attracts about 1 million visitors a year and is visited by cruise ships. Before European colonization, the island was inhabited by the Tongva people. Prior to the modern era, Avalon Bay was inhabited by people of the Gabrielino/Tongva tribe.
The island was a major source of soapstone to the Tongva, who used the material to make stone vessels for cooking. The Tongva referred to themselves as the Pimugnans. However, by the 1830s, the entire island's native population had either died off, or had been relocated to the mainland to work in the missions or as ranch hands for the many private land owners. In the 1860s, German immigrant Augustus William Timms ran a sheep herding business on Catalina Island. One of his vessels, the Rosita, would ferry pleasure seekers across the channel to Avalon Bay for bathing and fishing; the settlement in Avalon was referred to as Timms's Landing in his honor. By the summer of 1883, there were three wooden buildings at Timms's Landing; the first owner to try to develop Avalon Bay into a resort destination was George Shatto, a real estate speculator from Grand Rapids, Michigan. Shatto purchased the island for $200,000 from the estate of James Lick at the height of a real estate boom in Southern California in 1887.
Shatto created the settlement that would become Avalon, can be credited with building the town's first hotel, the original Hotel Metropole, pier. Though early maps labeled the town Shatto, Shatto's sister-in-law Etta Whitney came up with the permanent name of Avalon in reference from a poem by Lord Tennyson called "Idylls of the King" about the legend of King Arthur. Shatto laid out Avalon's streets, introduced it as a vacation destination to the general public. Despite Shatto's efforts, in a few years he had to default on his loan and the island went back to the Lick estate; the sons of Phineas Banning bought the island in 1891 from the Lick estate and established the Santa Catalina Island Company to develop it as a resort. The Banning brothers fulfilled Shatto's dream of making Avalon a resort community, they built a dance pavilion in the center of town, made additions to the Hotel Metropole and steamer-wharf, built an aquarium, created the Pilgrim Club. Just as the Bannings were anticipating the construction of a new, Hotel Saint Catherine, their efforts were set back on November 29, 1915, when a fire burned half of Avalon's buildings, including six hotels and several clubs.
In 1919, due to debt related to the 1915 fire and a general decline in tourism during World War I, the Bannings were forced to sell the island in shares. In February 1919, chewing gum magnate William Wrigley, Jr. bought a controlling interest in Santa Catalina Island and its associated properties from the Banning Brothers. Wrigley devoted himself to preserving and promoting it, investing millions in needed infrastructure and attractions, including the construction of the new Catalina Casino, completed May 29, 1929. In order to encourage growth, Wrigley purchased additional steamships to service Avalon, including the SS Virginia and the SS Catalina, launched on the morning of May 3, 1924. Wrigley brought attention to the town of Avalon by having his Chicago Cubs use the island for the team's spring training from 1921 to 1951, absent the war years of 1942–45; the ball field was between Tremont Street and the golf course. Following the death of William Wrigley, Jr. in 1932, his son Philip K. Wrigley took over the Santa Catalina Island Company.
Philip continued his father's work in the improvement of the infrastructure of the City of Avalon. During World War II, the island was closed to tourists and used for military training facilities, including a U. S. Maritime Service training facility in Avalon. Catalina's steamships were expropriated for use as troop transports, the U. S. Maritime Service set up a training facility in Avalon; the Maritime Service announced on September 19, 1945, that the facility would soon be abandoned and all apprentice seaman on the west coast trained aboard three ocean-going vessels at Long Beach. In 1975, Philip Wrigley deeded the Wrigley shares in the Santa Catalina Island Company to the Catalina Island Conservancy that he had helped create; the Conservancy now stewards 88 percent of the island outside of the City of Avalon. The Santa Catalina Island Company maintains control of much of its resort properties and operations within the City of Avalon, it still owns and operates many of the main tourist attractions in Avalon, including the Catalina Visitors Country Club, Catalina Island Golf Course, Descanso Beach Club and the Casino Ballroom.
In May 2007, a fire ripped through 4,750 acres of land just outside Avalon's city limits. Over 200 firefighting recruits were brought over by U. S. Marine helicopter to protect the city. Only one residence and six commercial structures were destroyed
Mar Vista, Los Angeles
Mar Vista is a residential and commercial neighborhood on the Westside of Los Angeles, California. It is the home of two private schools, a branch public library and a city park. According to the Mapping L. A. project of the Los Angeles Times, Mar Vista is adjoined on the northeast by Palms, on the east and south by Culver City, on the west by Venice and on the northwest by Santa Monica. Mar Vista's street and other boundaries are: the San Diego Freeway to the Culver City boundary at Venice Boulevard on the northeast, the Culver City line on the southeast, Walgrove Avenue on the southwest and the Santa Monica city boundary on the northwest; the northern apex of the Mar Vista neighborhood is at the San Diego Freeway and National Boulevard and the southern is at Washington Boulevard and Tivoli Avenue. The Zip Code for Mar Vista California is 90066. Relation of Mar Vista to nearby places, not contiguous: The 2000 U. S. census counted 35,492 residents in the 2.9-square-mile Mar Vista neighborhood—an average of 12,259 people per square mile, about the norm for Los Angeles.
The median age for residents was 35, considered the average for Los Angeles. The neighborhood was diverse ethnically, but the percentage of Asian people was high for the county; the breakdown was whites, 51.3%. Mexico and Korea were the most common places of birth for the 33.5% of the residents who were born abroad—considered an average figure for Los Angeles. The median yearly household income in 2008 dollars was an average figure for Los Angeles; the average household size of 2.3 people was low for the county. Renters occupied 60.6% of the housing stock and house- or apartment owners held 39.4%. The percentages of never-married men, divorced men and divorced women were among the county's highest; the percentages of veterans who served during World War II or the Korean War were among the county's highest. Cameron Mcnall - Architect and maker of Surveillance Art Neil Denari - Architect Jennifer Steinkamp - Installation artist. Jimmy Fallon - host of Tonight show Belita Moreno- Actress, played Benita Lopez on the George Lopez show.
John Frusciante- musician, most notable for being the guitarist of The Red Hot Chili Peppers, who produced several solo albums, collaborated with other artists. Kevin Tenglin - writer William Basinski - avant-garde composer best known for his work The Disintegration Loops; the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services SPA 5 West Area Health Office serves Mar Vista. The Mar Vista Recreation Center has an auditorium, barbecue pits, an unlighted baseball diamond, lighted indoor basketball courts, lighted outdoor basketball courts, a children's play area, an indoor gymnasium without weights, an outdoor roller hockey rink, an outdoor AstroTurf soccer field, picnic tables, a lighted tennis court, an outdoor pool and a lighted volleyball court; the Los Angeles Fire Department operates Station 62. Los Angeles Police Department operates the Pacific Division Police Station, serving the neighborhood; the Mar Vista Community Council is the city-sanctioned neighborhood council for Mar Vista and other small neighborhoods including Hilltop, North Westdale, others.
Forty-two percent of Mar Vista residents aged 25 and older had earned a four-year degree by 2000, a high figure for both the city and the county. The percentages of residents of that age with a bachelor's degree or a master's degree were considered high for the county; the schools within Mar Vista are as follows: Windward School, private high school, 11350 Palms Boulevard. Accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges, Windward was founded by writer/teacher Shirley Windward in 1971; the school enrolls 540 students in grades 7 through 12 Mar Vista Elementary School, LAUSD, 3330 Granville Avenue Walgrove Avenue Elementary School, LAUSD, 1630 Walgrove Avenue Beethoven Street Elementary School, LAUSD, 3711 Beethoven Street Mark Twain Middle School, LAUSD, 2224 Walgrove Avenue James J. McBride Special Education Center, LAUSD, 3960 Centinela Avenue Venice Senior High School, LAUSD, 13000 Venice Boulevard, established in 1910 when classes were held in an old lagoon bathhouse two blocks from the beach.
It moved to a new neo-romanesque structure at its present location a decade later. Venice Community Adult School, LAUSD, 13000 Venice Boulevard Phoenix Continuation School, LAUSD, 12971 Zanja Street Grand View Boulevard Elementary School, LAUSD, Summit View / Westside, private, 12101 Washington Boulevard Wildwood School, private K-12, 12201 Washington Boulevard. At the elementary school, Wildwood incorporates multi-age primary classes. For kindergarten and first grade, students learn together in "Pods". There are four pods, each pod contains children mixed together in small class size; the reasoning behind this is that the older children can influence and lead the younger children, starting at a young age. As of 2014 the Wiseburn School District allows parents in Mar Vista to send their children to Wiseburn schools on inter-district transfers. Los Angeles Public Library operates the Mar Vista Branch. Mapping L. A. - Mar Vista
Arcadia is a city in Los Angeles County, United States located about 13 miles northeast of downtown Los Angeles in the San Gabriel Valley and at the base of the San Gabriel Mountains. It is the site of the Santa Anita Park racetrack and home to the Los Angeles County Arboretum and Botanic Garden; the city had a population of 56,364 at the 2010 census, up from 53,248 at the 2000 census. The city is named after Greece. In 2016, Arcadia was ranked the 5th most expensive housing market in the United States by Business Insider, with an average list of $1,748,680 for a four-bedroom home. In 2012, Arcadia was ranked 7th in the nation on CNN Money magazine's list of towns with highest median home costs. Arcadia's Upper Rancho neighborhood was ranked the 23rd richest neighborhood in Southern California by Business Insider in 2014, with a mean household income of $310,779. In 2010, Bloomberg Businessweek named Arcadia as one of the "Best Places to Raise Your Kids" for the second year in a row. Located northeast of downtown Los Angeles, Arcadia is bordered by six other communities: Pasadena, Sierra Madre, El Monte, San Marino and Temple City.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 11.1 square miles. 10.9 square miles of it is land and 0.2 square miles of it is water. The 2010 United States Census reported that Arcadia had a population of 56,364; the population density was 5,062.5 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Arcadia was 33,353 Asian, 18,191 White, 681 African American, 186 Native American, 16 Pacific Islander, 2,352 from other races, 1,585 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6,799 persons; the Census reported that 55,502 people lived in households, 639 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 223 were institutionalized. There were 19,592 households, out of which 7,336 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 11,703 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 2,437 had a female householder with no husband present, 865 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 469 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 92 same-sex married couples or partnerships.
3,855 households were made up of individuals and 1,926 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.83. There were 15,005 families; the population was spread out with 12,290 people under the age of 18, 4,102 people aged 18 to 24, 13,409 people aged 25 to 44, 17,349 people aged 45 to 64, 9,214 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43.1 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.7 males. There were 20,686 housing units at an average density of 1,858.0 per square mile, of which 12,371 were owner-occupied, 7,221 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.1%. 37,000 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 18,502 people lived in rental housing units. These were the ten neighborhoods in Los Angeles County with the largest percentage of Asian residents, according to the 2000 census: For over 8,000 years the site of Arcadia was part of the homeland of the Tongva people, a Californian Native American tribe whose territory spanned the greater Los Angeles Basin, the San Gabriel and San Fernando Valleys.
Their fluid borders stretched between: the Santa Susana Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains, San Gabriel Mountains in the north. A Tongva settlement site within present-day Arcadia was known as Alyeupkigna; the town's site became part of the Spanish Mission San Gabriel Arcángel lands in 1771. After Indian Reductions to become Mission Indians, the Tongva were known as the Gabrieliños after the Mission's name, and under whose control these people worked during the mission period in California. There are 1,700 people self-identifying as members of the Tongva or Gabrieliño tribe; the Mexican land grant for Rancho Santa Anita was issued to Perfecto Hugo Reid and his Tongva wife, Victoria Bartolomea Comicrabit, in 1845. It was named after Anita Cota, on his wife's side. Reid documented the Gabrieliño Native Americans in a series of letters written in 1852, served as a delegate to the 1849 California Constitutional Convention. In 1847, Reid sold Rancho Santa Anita to Henry Dalton; the rancho changed owners several times before being acquired by Gold Rush immigrant and major regional land owner Elias Jackson "Lucky" Baldwin in 1875.
Baldwin purchased 8,000 acres of Rancho Santa Anita for $200,000. Upon seeing the area, he gasped “By Gads! This is paradise!” Upon buying the land, Baldwin chose to make the area his home and started erecting buildings and cultivating the land for farming and ranches. Baldwin built the Queen Anne Cottage for his fourth wife and himself in 1885-1886, now preserved within the Arboretum. In 1885, the main line of the Los Angeles and San Gabriel Valley Railroad, in which Baldwin was a stockholder, was opened through the ranch, making subdivision of part of the land into a town site practical; this rail line became a Santa Fe Railroad line. In 1889, on a site just north of
Port of Long Beach
The Port of Long Beach known as the Harbor Department of the City of Long Beach, is the second-busiest container port in the United States, after the Port of Los Angeles, which it adjoins. Acting as a major gateway for US–Asian trade, the port occupies 3,200 acres of land with 25 miles of waterfront in the city of Long Beach, California; the Port of Long Beach is located less than two miles southwest of downtown Long Beach and 25 miles south of downtown Los Angeles. The seaport generates US$100 billion in trade and employs more than 316,000 people in Southern California; the San Pedro Breakwater was started in 1899 and over time was expanded to protect the current site of the Port of Long Beach. The Port of Long Beach was founded on 800 acres of mudflats on June 24, 1911, at the mouth of the Los Angeles River. In 1917, the first Board of Harbor Commissioners was formed to supervise harbor operations. Due to the booming economy, Long Beach voters approved a $5 million bond to improve the inner and outer harbor in 1924.
The old Municipal Pier was rebuilt into the Municipal Wharf in 1925. In 1925 construction started on Pier A and Pier B, with opening of Pier A in 1930. By 1926 more than one million tons of cargo were handled, additional piers were constructed to accommodate the growing business. In 1921, oil was discovered at the Long Beach Oil Field around Signal Hill. In 1932, the fourth-largest oil field in the United States, Wilmington Oil Field, was discovered; the hundreds of oil wells from Wilmington Oil Field provided oil revenues to the City and Port of Long Beach. The first offshore oil well in the harbor was brought online in 1937, shortly after the discovery that the oil field far extended into the harbor. In the mid-1930s, the port was expanded due to the need to transport oil to foreign markets, as the immense output of oil from the Los Angeles Basin caused a glut in US markets; the extraction of hundreds of millions of barrels of oil caused concern for subsidence, as the overlying land collapsed into the empty space over time.
Engineers and geologists were promptly assigned to the problem, building dikes for flood control at high tide. On July 3, 1930 the Federal River and Harbor Act authorizes expanding the San Pedro Bay breakwater by 3.5-mile completed in 1949. Long Beach became a home port for the United States Navy's Pacific Fleet in 1932. In 1940 the navy purchased 105 acres on Terminal Island built the Long Beach Naval Shipyard there. In 1946, after World War II, the Port of Long Beach was established as "America’s most modern port" with the completion of the first of nine clear-span transit sheds. Pier E was completed and Pier B was expanded to two times its size in 1949. Pierpoint Landing completed on Pier F in 1948. Concerns regarding subsidence increased until Operation "Big Squirt," a water injection program, halted any progression of sinking land in 1960. In 1971 Pier J expansion is complete with a 55-acre container and car import terminal, becoming Toyota's Western distribution center. In 1972 International Transportation Service completes a 52-acre container terminal on Pier J with a 1,200-foot wharf and two gantry cranes.
Maersk Line Pacific completes on Pier G a 29-acre container terminal. Port of Long Beach is the largest container terminal in America. With the rapid expansion of the port pollution increased; the Port of Long Beach instituted programs to prevent and control oil spills, contain debris, manage vessel traffic. Due to its efforts, the port was awarded the American Association of Port Authorities Environmental "E" Award. Long Beach is the first harbor in the Western Hemisphere to receive such an award. In 1980, with improved relations between the United States and China, the port sent officials to the People’s Republic of China for the first time. Less than a year the China Ocean Shipping Co. inaugurated international shipping and designated Long Beach as its first US port of call. Relationships were forged with other international powers, South Korea's Hanjin Shipping opened a 57-acre container terminal on Pier C of the port in 1991. Following this, COSCO, a Chinese international shipping carrier, secured business with the Port of Long Beach in 1997.
From the late 1990s through 2011, the Port of Long Beach saw increased traffic and growth with the leasing of terminals. In 1997 one million containers were inbound to the port. By 2005, this number had tripled to nearly 3.3 million containers. If outbound containers are included the number increased from 3 million containers in 1997 to nearly 6.7 million containers in 2005. In 2001 U. S. Navy closed its footprint at Port of Long Beach, the Navy transfers it last lot of land on Terminal Island to the Port of Long Beach; the shipyard was closed in 1997. The surge in vessel traffic and cargo prompted increased environmental efforts by the port. In 2004, the Port of Long Beach reached compliance with an air pollution mandate by handling petroleum coke, one of the port's largest exports, in improved ways. By using enclosed conveyors and covered storage areas, the port reduced the amount of dust emitted by the petroleum coke by 5%, down 21% in 1997. In 2007, the seaport launched banned older diesel trucks from serving the port.
On October 1, 2011, the Clean Trucks Program was launched by the Ports of Long Beach and Los Angeles. The program set a goal to reduce air pollution from its truck fleet by 80% by 2012. Trucks built prior to 1987 that fail to meet the 2007 clean truck standards set forth by the United States Environmental Protection Agency are denied access to port terminals. In compliance with the clean truck initiative on October 1, all trucking