To cities, towns, charter townships and boroughs. The term can be used to describe municipally owned corporations. Municipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which they are located; this event is marked by the award or declaration of a municipal charter. A city charter or town charter or municipal charter is a legal document establishing a municipality, such as a city or town. In Canada, charters are granted by provincial authorities; the Corporation of Chennai is the oldest Municipal Corporation in the world after UK. The title "corporation" was used in boroughs from soon after the Norman conquest until the Local Government Act 2001. Under the 2001 act, county boroughs were renamed "cities" and their corporations became "city councils". After the Partition of Ireland, the corporations in the Irish Free State were Dublin, Cork and Waterford and Drogheda, Sligo and Wexford. Dún Laoghaire gained borough status in 1930 as “The Corporation of Dun Laoghaire".
Galway's borough status, lost in 1840, was restored in 1937. The New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 allowed municipal corporations to be established within the new Provinces of New Zealand; the term fell out of favour following the abolition of the Provinces in 1876. In the United States, such municipal corporations are established by charters that are granted either directly by a state legislature by means of local legislation, or indirectly under a general municipal corporation law after the proposed charter has passed a referendum vote of the affected population. Under the enterprise meaning of the term, municipal corporations are "organisations with independent corporate status, managed by an executive board appointed by local government officials, with majority public ownership"; some MOCs rely on revenue from user fees, distinguishing them from agencies and special districts funded through taxation, although this is not always the case. Municipal corporation follows a process of externalization that requires new skills and orientations from the respective local governments, follow common changes in the institutional landscape of public services.
They are argued to be more efficient than bureaucracy but have higher failure rates because of their legal and managerial autonomy. Unincorporated area German town law Municipal incorporationA Brief Summary of Municipal Incorporation Procedures by State - University of Georgia Characteristics and State Requirements for Incorporated Places - United States CensusMunicipal disincorporation / dissolutionDissolving Cities - University of California, Berkeley Municipal Disincorporation in California - California City Finance
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west and the Americas in the east. At 165,250,000 square kilometers in area, this largest division of the World Ocean—and, in turn, the hydrosphere—covers about 46% of Earth's water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of Earth's land area combined; the centers of both the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean. The equator subdivides it into the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean, with two exceptions: the Galápagos and Gilbert Islands, while straddling the equator, are deemed wholly within the South Pacific, its mean depth is 4,000 meters. The Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 meters; the western Pacific has many peripheral seas. Though the peoples of Asia and Oceania have traveled the Pacific Ocean since prehistoric times, the eastern Pacific was first sighted by Europeans in the early 16th century when Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama in 1513 and discovered the great "southern sea" which he named Mar del Sur.
The ocean's current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish circumnavigation of the world in 1521, as he encountered favorable winds on reaching the ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means "peaceful sea". Important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. About 3000 BC, the Austronesian peoples on the island of Taiwan mastered the art of long-distance canoe travel and spread themselves and their languages south to the Philippines and maritime Southeast Asia. Long-distance trade developed all along the coast from Mozambique to Japan. Trade, therefore knowledge, extended to the Indonesian islands but not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a significant Islamic settlement in Canton much of this trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims. In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality. From 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean; the first contact of European navigators with the western edge of the Pacific Ocean was made by the Portuguese expeditions of António de Abreu and Francisco Serrão, via the Lesser Sunda Islands, to the Maluku Islands, in 1512, with Jorge Álvares's expedition to southern China in 1513, both ordered by Afonso de Albuquerque from Malacca.
The east side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 after his expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama and reached a new ocean. He named it Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. In 1519, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific East to West on a Spanish expedition to the Spice Islands that would result in the first world circumnavigation. Magellan called the ocean Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters; the ocean was called the Sea of Magellan in his honor until the eighteenth century. Although Magellan himself died in the Philippines in 1521, Spanish Basque navigator Juan Sebastián Elcano led the remains of the expedition back to Spain across the Indian Ocean and round the Cape of Good Hope, completing the first world circumnavigation in a single expedition in 1522. Sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands, the Aru Islands, Papua New Guinea.
In 1542–43 the Portuguese reached Japan. In 1564, five Spanish ships carrying 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi, sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands. For the remainder of the 16th century, Spanish influence was paramount, with ships sailing from Mexico and Peru across the Pacific Ocean to the Philippines via Guam, establishing the Spanish East Indies; the Manila galleons operated for two and a half centuries, linking Manila and Acapulco, in one of the longest trade routes in history. Spanish expeditions discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific. In the quest for Terra Australis, Spanish explorations in the 17th century, such as the expedition led by the Portuguese navigator Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, discovered the Pitcairn and Vanuatu archipelagos, sailed the Torres Strait between Australia and New Guinea, named after navigator Luís Vaz de Torres. Dutch explorers, sailing around southern Africa engaged in discovery and trade.
In the 16th and 17th centuries Spain considered the Pacific Ocean a mare clausum—a sea closed to other naval powers. As the only known entrance from the Atlantic, the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. On the western side of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines; the 18th cen
Naval Base Ventura County
Naval Base Ventura County is a United States Navy base located near Oxnard, California. The base was formed in 2000 through the merger of Naval Air Station Point Mugu and Naval Construction Battalion Center Port Hueneme. NBVC is a diverse installation comprising three main facilities—Point Mugu, Port Hueneme and San Nicolas Island—and serving as an all-in-one mobilization site, deep water port and airfield. NBVC supports more than 100 tenant commands with a base population of more than 19,000 personnel, making it the largest employer in Ventura County; the facility at Port Hueneme was built as a temporary depot in the early days of World War II to train and supply the newly created Seabees. The base was established and began operating May 18, 1942 as the Advance Base Depot. In 1945 the Advance Base Depot was renamed the Naval Construction Battalion Center. During the Korean War all Navy construction equipment and supplies for the war were routed through CBC Port Hueneme. In 1941, as the United States entered World War II, Point Mugu became a training area for the Seabees.
The Seabees put down a section of Marston mat runway. NAS Point Mugu served as an anti-aircraft training center during the war and was developed in the late 1940s into the Navy's major missile development and test facility; this facility was the site where most of the Navy's missiles were developed and tested during the 1950s and 1960s, including the AIM-7 Sparrow family and the AIM-54 Phoenix air-to-air, Bullpup air-to-surface, Regulus surface-to-surface missiles. NAS Point Mugu has dominated the area since the 1940s, is one of the few places in the area, not agricultural; the base has been home to many ordnance testing programs, the test range extends offshore to the Navy-owned San Nicolas Island in the Channel Islands. In 1963 the U. S. Navy Marine Mammal Program was established on a sand spit between the ocean; the facility was relocated in 1967 to Point Loma in California. NAS Point Mugu was the airfield used by former President Ronald Reagan during his presidency on visits to his Santa Barbara ranch.
The airfield was used during the state funeral in 2004, as the place where the former President's body was flown to Washington, D. C. to lie in state in the Capitol Rotunda. The body was flown to Point Mugu aboard presidential aircraft SAM 28000 two days later; until the late 1990s, the base hosted Antarctic Development Squadron SIX, the squadron of LC-130s equipped to land on ice in Antarctica, to supply the science stations there. Now, the New York Air National Guard's 109th Airlift Wing has assumed that responsibility. Naval Base Ventura County was established on October 2000, during a ceremony held at Point Mugu; the two commands of NAS Point Mugu and CBC Port Hueneme were consolidated into a new organization. San Nicolas Island was transferred to NBVC on October 1, 2004, after several years under the Naval Air Warfare Center, Weapons Division. NBVC provides the Pacific Fleet with an all-in-one mobilization site, deep water port and airfield. NBVC hosts more than 100 tenant commands and, as of 2006, is the largest employer in Ventura County, with over 19,000 military and civilian personnel working for or stationed on the base.
The base contributes indirectly to another 8200 jobs throughout the county. In February 2013, the U. S. Navy proposed to base four MQ-4C Tritons beginning in 2020. In September 2016, the Coast Guard Air Station in Los Angeles was relocated to Naval Base Ventura County from its former location at Los Angeles International Airport when the lease on the existing facility ended. Administratively, it was merged with/became a satellite of the Coast Guard Air Station in San Francisco; this allowed LAX to accommodate the planned improvements for LAX's midfield, including the Midfield Satellite Concourse North terminal. At Point Mugu, NBVC operates two runways and a 36,000-square-mile sea test range, anchored by San Nicolas Island; the range allows the military to test and track weapons systems in restricted air- and sea-space without encroaching on civilian air traffic or shipping lanes. The range can be expanded through interagency coordination between the U. S. Navy and the Federal Aviation Administration.
Telemetry data can be tracked and recorded using technology housed at San Nicolas Island, Point Mugu and Laguna Peak, a Tier 1 facility controlled by NBVC.. Additionally, the air traffic control facility contains a TRACON that provides terminal radar services for nearby busy Class D airports Camarillo Airport and Oxnard Airport. At Port of Hueneme, NBVC operates the only deep-water port between San Francisco; the port boasts 16 miles of rail with dedicated access for on- and off-loading military freight for the various branches of service. The port is the west coast homeport of the U. S. Navy Seabees and supports the training and mobilization requirements for more than 2,600 active-duty personnel; the port facility is located on the vast agricultural Oxnard Plain, about 60 miles northwest of Los Angeles, on the Southern California coast. At San Nicolas Island, NBVC operates Naval Outlying Field San Nicolas Island, which has a 10,002-foot concrete and asphalt runway capable of accommodating aircraft the size of a C-5 Galaxy.
Other facilities on the island include radar tracking instrumentation, electro optical devices, communications equipment and target launch areas, as well as personnel support. SNI serves as a launch platform for short and medium missile testing and a
Julia Andrews Brownley is an American politician, the United States Representative for California's 26th congressional district since 2013. She served in the California State Assembly from 2006 to 2012, she is a Democrat. Before her political career, she worked in marketing and sales. Brownley grew up in Virginia, attended Fairfax Hall, an established girls Boarding School in Waynesboro, for four years, she came from a Republican family. Brownley received a bachelor's degree in political science from Mount Vernon College for Women of George Washington University in 1975 and a master's degree in business administration from American University in 1979. Brownley served on the Santa Monica-Malibu Unified School District Board of Education from 1994 to 2006. During her time on the school board, she served three terms as president. In 2006, she ran for the California State Assembly in California's 41st Assembly District. Brownley won a five-way Democratic primary with 35% of the vote. Brownley won the general election with 62% of the vote.
In 2008, she won re-election to a second term with 66% of the vote. In 2010, she won re-election to a third term with 59% of the vote. Brownley was term-limited in 2012, having served the maximum of three terms in the Assembly permitted under California law, she was endorsed by the League of Conservation Voters. In 2010, Brownley authored a bill; the bill did not pass. Brownley served on the following California State Assembly committees: Aging and Long-Term Care Committee Education Committee Higher Education Committee Judiciary Committee Legislative Budget Committee Natural Resources Joint Legislative Budget Committee Select Committee on Community Colleges In February 2012, Brownley announced her candidacy for California's 26th congressional district; the district had been the 24th district, represented by 13-term Republican Elton Gallegly. In the general election, Brownley defeated Republican Tony Strickland by a margin of 53%-47%, she was endorsed by Planned Parenthood. Brownley ran for re-election in 2014.
Brownley is a member of the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee's Frontline Program, designed to help protect vulnerable Democratic incumbents. After Republican candidates garnered over 50% of the vote in the June 2014 blanket primary, the Cook Political Report changed the rating of the race from "Leans Democratic" to "Toss-up." The election did making for closer scrutiny of the results. Initial results show Brownley winning 51% to 49%, with about 4,000 votes separating the candidates. Brownley supports the DREAM Act, the Affordable Care Act, same-sex marriage, she has advocated in favor of increased insurance company regulation, job training funds, toxic clean-up, increased public education funding. Since her election to Congress, Brownley has voted with the Democratic Party 93% of the time. Brownley voted on Nov. 19, 2015, for HR 4038, legislation that would halt the resettlement of refugees from Syria and Iraq to the United States. Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure Subcommittee on Aviation Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation Subcommittee on Highways and Transit Committee on Veterans' Affairs Subcommittee on Economic Opportunity Subcommittee on Health Select Committee on the Climate Crisis New Democrat Coalition House Baltic Caucus Congressional Arts Caucus Brownley is divorced and has two children.
Women in the United States House of Representatives Congresswoman Julia Brownley official U. S. House website Julia Brownley for Congress Julia Brownley at Curlie Appearances on C-SPAN Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress Profile at Vote Smart Financial information at the Federal Election Commission Legislation sponsored at the Library of Congress
Channel Islands (California)
The Channel Islands form an eight-island archipelago along the Santa Barbara Channel in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of southern California. Five of the islands are part of Channel Islands National Park, the waters surrounding these islands make up Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary; the islands were first colonized by the Chumash and Tongva Native Americans 13,000 years ago, who were displaced by Spaniards who used the islands for fishing and agriculture. The U. S. military uses the islands as training grounds, weapons test sites, as a strategic defensive location. The Channel Islands and the surrounding waters house a diverse ecosystem with many endemic species and subspecies; the islands harbor 150 unique species of plant that are found only on the Islands and nowhere else in the world. The eight islands are split among the jurisdictions of three separate California counties: Santa Barbara County, Ventura County, Los Angeles County; the islands are divided into two groups. The four northern Islands used to be a single landmass known as Santa Rosae.
The archipelago extends for 160 miles between San Miguel Island in the north and San Clemente Island in the south. Together, the islands' land area totals about 346 square miles. Five of the islands were made into the Channel Islands National Park in 1980; the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary encompasses the waters six nautical miles off these islands. Santa Catalina Island is the only one of the eight islands with a significant permanent civilian settlement—the resort city of Avalon and the unincorporated town of Two Harbors. University of Southern California houses its USC Wrigley Institute for Environmental Studies marine lab in Two Harbors. Natural seepage of oil occurs at several places in the Santa Barbara Channel. Tar balls or pieces of tar in small numbers are found on the beaches. Native Americans used occurring tar, for a variety of purposes which include roofing, waterproofing and some ceremonial purposes; the Channel Islands at low elevations are frost-free and constitute one of the few such areas in the 48 contiguous US states.
It snows only on higher mountain peaks. Separated from the California mainland throughout recent geological history, the Channel Islands provide the earliest evidence for human seafaring in the Americas, it is the site of the discovery of the earliest paleontological evidence of humans in North America. The northern Channel Islands are now known to have been settled by maritime Paleo-Indian peoples at least 13,000 years ago. Archaeological sites on the island provide a unique and invaluable record of human interaction with Channel Island marine and terrestrial ecosystems from the late Pleistocene to historic times; the Anacapa Island Archeological District is a 700-acre historic district, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1979. The northern islands were occupied by the island Chumash, while the southern islands were occupied by the Tongva. Author Scott O'Dell wrote about the indigenous peoples living on the island in his novel Island of the Blue Dolphins. Aleut hunters visited the islands to hunt otters in the early 1800s.
The Aleuts purportedly clashed with the native Chumash. Aleut interactions with the natives were detailed in O'Dell's book; the Chumash and Tongva were removed from the islands in the early 19th century and taken to Spanish missions and pueblos on the adjacent mainland. For a century, the Channel Islands were used for ranching and fishing activities, which had significant impacts on island ecosystems, including the local extinction of sea otters, bald eagles, other species. Several of the islands were used by whalers in the 1930s to hunt for sperm whales. With most of the Channel Islands now managed by federal agencies or conservation groups, the restoration of the island ecosystems has made significant progress. An example of conservation progress has been the bald eagle, threatened due to DDT contamination, but whose populations are now recovering. With the help of scientists from the USC Wrigley Institute for Environmental Studies, the Catalina Island Fox has recovered from a low of 100 individual foxes to over 1,500 foxes in 2018.
In 1972, in "a bit of political theater”, twenty-six Brown Berets sailed to Catalina Island on tourist boats, set up a small encampment near the town of Avalon, put up a Mexican flag and claimed the island on behalf of all Chicanos, citing the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Twenty-four days sheriff's deputies took everyone back to the mainland. Channel Islands National Park's mainland visitor center received 342,000 visitors in 2014; the islands attract around 70,000 tourists a year, most during the summer. Visitors can travel to the islands via public airplane transportation. Camping grounds are available on Anacapa, Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, San Miguel, Santa Barbara Islands in the Channel Islands National Park. Attractions include whale watching, snorkeling and camping; the United States Navy controls San Nicolas Island and San Clemente Island, has installations elsewhere in the chain. During World War II all of southern California’s Channel Islands were put under military control, including the civilian-populated Santa Catalina where tourism was halted and established residents needed permits to travel to and from the mainland.
San Miguel Island was used as a bombing range and Santa Barbara Island as an early warning outpost under the presumed threat of a
A submarine canyon is a steep-sided valley cut into the seabed of the continental slope, sometimes extending well onto the continental shelf, having nearly vertical walls, having canyon wall heights of up to 5 km, from canyon floor to canyon rim, as with the Great Bahama Canyon. Just as above-sea-level canyons serve as channels for the flow of water across land, submarine canyons serve as channels for the flow of turbidity currents across the seafloor. Turbidity currents are flows of dense, sediment laden waters that are supplied by rivers, or generated on the seabed by storms, submarine landslides and other soil disturbances. Turbidity currents travel down slope at great speed, eroding the continental slope and depositing sediment onto the abyssal plain, where the particles settle out. About 3% of submarine canyons include shelf valleys that have cut transversely across continental shelves, which begin with their upstream ends in alignment with and sometimes within the mouths of large rivers, such as the Congo River and the Hudson Canyon.
About 28.5% of submarine canyons cut back into the edge of the continental shelf, whereas the majority of submarine canyons have not managed at all to cut across their continental shelves, having their upstream beginnings or "heads" on the continental slope, below the edge of continental shelves. The formation of submarine canyons is believed to occur as the result of at least two main process: 1) erosion by turbidity current erosion. While at first glance, the erosion patterns of submarine canyons may appear to mimic those of river-canyons on land, due to the markedly different erosion processes that have been found to take place underwater at the soil/ water interface, several notably different erosion patterns have been observed in the formation of typical submarine canyons. Many canyons have been found at depths greater than 2 km below sea level; some may extend seawards across continental shelves for hundreds of kilometres before reaching the abyssal plain. Ancient examples have been found in rocks dating back to the Neoproterozoic.
Turbidites are deposited at the downstream ends of canyons, building an abyssal fan. Submarine canyons are more common on the steep slopes found on active margins compared to those on the gentler slopes found on passive margins, they show erosion from unlithified sediment to crystalline rock. Canyons are steeper, more dendritic and more spaced on active than on passive continental margins; the walls are very steep and can be near vertical. The walls are subject to slumping. There are an estimated 9,477 submarine canyons on Earth, covering about 11% of the continental slope. Avilés Canyon, off the coast of Asturias, reaches abyssal depths of more than 4,500 m. Amazon Canyon, extending from the Amazon River Baltimore and Wilmington Canyons, East Coast of Maryland and Delaware States Bering Canyon, in the Bering Sea Congo Canyon, the largest river canyon, extending from the Congo River, is 800 km long, 1,200 m deep. Hudson Canyon, extending from the Hudson River Ganges Canyon, extending from the Ganges Indus Canyon, extending from the Indus River Kaikoura Canyon, extending offshore from the Kaikoura Peninsula, New Zealand La Jolla and Scripps Canyon, off the coast of La Jolla, southern California Monterey Canyon, off the coast of central California Nazaré Canyon, off the coast of Portugal Pribilof Canyon, in the Bering Sea Whittard Canyon, Atlantic Ocean off southwest Ireland Zhemchug Canyon the largest submarine canyon in the world, in the Bering sea Different mechanisms have been proposed for the formation of submarine canyons.
Their primary causes have been subject to debate since the early 1930s. An early and obvious theory was that the canyons present today were carved during glacial times, when sea level was about 125 meters below present sea level, rivers flowed to the edge of the continental shelf. However, while many canyons are found offshore from major rivers, subaerial river erosion cannot have been active to the water depths as great as 3000 meters where canyons have been mapped, as it is well established that sea levels did not fall to those depths; the major mechanism of canyon erosion is thought to be underwater landslides. Turbidity currents are dense, sediment-laden currents which flow downslope when an unstable mass of sediment, deposited on the upper slope fails triggered by earthquakes. There is a spectrum of turbidity- or density-current types ranging from "muddy water" to massive mudflow, evidence of both these end members can be observed in deposits associated with the deeper parts of submarine canyons and channels, such as lobate deposits and levees along channels.
Mass wasting and submarine landslides are forms of slope failures observed in submarine canyons. Mass wasting is the term used for the smaller action of material moving downhill. Slumping is used for rotational movement of masses on a hillside. Landslides, or slides comprise the detachment and displacement of sediment masses, it is now understood that many mechanisms of submarine canyon creation have had effect to greater or lesser degree in different places within the same canyon, or at different times during a canyon's development. However, if a primary mechanism must be selected, the downslope lineal morphology of canyons and channels and the transportation of excavated or loose materials of the continental slope over extensive distances require that various kinds o
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers, with less than 40 mm of precipitation for at least three summer months. While the climate receives its name from the Mediterranean Basin, these are located on the western coasts of continents, between 30 and 45 degrees north and south of the equator between oceanic climates towards the poles, semi-arid and arid climates towards the equator. In essence, due to the seasonal shift of the subtropical high-pressure belts with the apparent movement of the Sun, a Mediterranean climate is an intermediate type between these other climates, with winters warmer and drier than oceanic climates and summers imitating sunny weather in semi-arid and arid climates; the resulting vegetation of Mediterranean climates are the garrigue or maquis in the Mediterranean Basin, the chaparral in California, the fynbos in South Africa, the mallee in Australia, the matorral in Chile. Areas with this climate are where the so-called "Mediterranean trinity" of agricultural products have traditionally developed: wheat and olive.
Most large, historic cities of the Mediterranean basin lie within Mediterranean climatic zones, including Algiers, Beirut, İzmir, Marseille, Rome and Valencia. Examples of major cities with Mediterranean climates that lie outside of the historic Mediterranean basin include major examples as Adelaide, Cape Town, Dushanbe, Los Angeles, Perth, San Francisco and Victoria. Under the Köppen climate classification, "hot dry-summer" climates and "cool dry-summer" climates are referred to as "Mediterranean". Under the Köppen climate system, the first letter indicates the climate group. Temperate climates or "C" zones have an average temperature above 0 °C, but below 18 °C, in their coolest months; the second letter indicates the precipitation pattern. Köppen has defined a dry summer month as a month with less than 30 mm of precipitation and with less than one-third that of the wettest winter month. Some, use a 40 mm level; the third letter indicates the degree of summer heat: "a" represents an average temperature in the warmest month above 22 °C, while "b" indicates the average temperature in the warmest month below 22 °C.
Under the Köppen classification, dry-summer climates occur on the western sides of continents. Csb zones in the Köppen system include areas not associated with Mediterranean climates but with Oceanic climates, such as much of the Pacific Northwest, much of southern Chile, parts of west-central Argentina, parts of New Zealand. Additional highland areas in the subtropics meet Cs requirements, though they, are not associated with Mediterranean climates, as do a number of oceanic islands such as Madeira, the Juan Fernández Islands, the western part of the Canary Islands, the eastern part of the Azores. Under Trewartha's modified Köppen climate classification, the two major requirements for a Cs climate are revised. Under Trewartha's system, at least eight months must have average temperatures of 10 °C or higher, the average annual precipitation must not exceed 900 mm. Thus, under this system, many Csb zones in the Köppen system become Do, the rare Csc zones become Eo, with only the classic dry-summer to warm winter, low annual rainfall locations included in the Mediterranean type climate.
During summer, regions of Mediterranean climate are influenced by cold ocean currents which keep the weather in the region dry and pleasant. Similar to desert climates, in many Mediterranean climates there is a strong diurnal character to daily temperatures in the warm summer months due to strong heating during the day from sunlight and rapid cooling at night. In winter, Mediterranean climate zones are no longer influenced by the cold ocean currents and therefore warmer water settles near land and causes clouds to form and rainfall becomes much more likely; as a result, areas with this climate receive all of their precipitation during their winter and spring seasons, may go anywhere from 3 to 6 months during the summer without having any significant precipitation. In the lower latitudes, precipitation decreases in both the winter and summer because they are closer to the Horse latitudes, thus bringing smaller amounts of rain. Toward the polar latitudes, total moisture increases; the rainfall tends to be more evenly distributed throughout the year in Southern Europe, while in the Eastern Mediterranean and in Southern California the summer is nearly or dry.
In places where evapotranspiration is higher, steppe climates tend to prevail, but still follow the weather pattern of the Mediterranean climate. The majority of the regions with Mediterranean climates have mild winters and warm summers; however winter and summer temperatures can vary between different regions with a Mediterranean climate. For instance, in the case of winters and Los Angeles experience mild temperatures in the winter, with frost and snowfall unknown, whereas Tashkent has colder winters with annual frosts and snowfall. Or to consider summer, Athens experiences rather high temperatures in that season. In contrast, San Francisco has cool summers with daily highs around 21 °C due to