1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Hurricane Harvey of 2017 is tied with 2005's Hurricane Katrina as the costliest tropical cyclone on record, inflicting $125 billion in damage from catastrophic rainfall-triggered flooding in the Houston metropolitan area and Southeast Texas. It was the first major hurricane to make landfall in the United States since Wilma in 2005, ending a record 12-year span in which no hurricanes made landfall at the intensity of a major hurricane throughout the country. In a four-day period, many areas received more than 40 inches of rain as the system meandered over eastern Texas and adjacent waters, causing unprecedented flooding. With peak accumulations of 60.58 in, in Nederland, Harvey was the wettest tropical cyclone on record in the United States. The resulting floods inundated hundreds of thousands of homes, which displaced more than 30,000 people and prompted more than 17,000 rescues; the eighth named storm, third hurricane, first major hurricane of the active 2017 Atlantic hurricane season, Harvey developed from a tropical wave to the east of the Lesser Antilles, reaching tropical storm status on August 17.
The storm crossed through the Windward Islands on the following day, making landfall on the southern end of Barbados and a second landfall on Saint Vincent. Upon entering the Caribbean Sea, Harvey began to weaken due to moderate wind shear, degenerated into a tropical wave north of Colombia, late on August 19; the remnants were monitored for regeneration as it continued west-northwestward across the Caribbean and the Yucatán Peninsula, before redeveloping over the Bay of Campeche on August 23. Harvey began to intensify on August 24, regaining tropical storm status and becoming a hurricane that day. While the storm moved northwest, Harvey's intensification phase stalled overnight from August 24–25. Hours Harvey made landfall at San José Island, Texas, at peak intensity, followed by another landfall at Holiday Beach at Category 3 intensity. Afterwards, rapid weakening ensued, Harvey had downgraded to a tropical storm as it stalled near the coastline, dropping torrential and unprecedented amounts of rainfall over Texas.
On August 28, it emerged back over the Gulf of Mexico, strengthening before making a fifth and final landfall in Louisiana on August 29. As Harvey drifted inland, it weakened again as it became extratropical on September 1, before dissipating two days later. Harvey caused at least 107 confirmed deaths: 1 in Guyana, 106 in the United States. Total damage from the hurricane is estimated at $125 billion, making it among the costliest natural disasters in the United States, comparable with Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Hurricane Harvey originated from a westward-moving tropical wave that emerged from Africa over the eastern Atlantic Ocean, on August 12, 2017. A surface circulation developed and convection consolidated around the low over the subsequent days. Maintaining its brisk westward motion, the system strengthened and became a tropical storm that day, at which time it was assigned the name Harvey. With maximum sustained winds of 45 mph, Harvey made landfalls in Barbados and St. Vincent on August 18 before entering the Caribbean Sea.
Hostile environmental conditions, namely wind shear, imparted weakening and caused Harvey to degenerate into a tropical wave by August 19. Though it lacked an organized surface low, the remnants of Harvey continued to produce significant convection as it traversed the Caribbean Sea and Yucatán Peninsula; the system reached the Bay of Campeche in the Gulf of Mexico on August 23 and soon consolidated around a new surface low. Late on August 23, the remnants of Harvey regenerated into a tropical cyclone and reattained tropical storm intensity by 18:00 UTC. Initial reorganization was slow. After becoming a hurricane on August 24, Harvey continued to strengthen over the next day reaching peak intensity as a Category 4 hurricane. Around 03:00 UTC on August 26, the hurricane made landfall at peak intensity on San Jose Island, just east of Rockport, with winds of 130 mph and an atmospheric pressure of 937 mbar, it made a second landfall on the Texas mainland, at Rockport, three hours in a weakened state.
Harvey became the first major hurricane to make landfall in the United States since Wilma in 2005. After striking land, Harvey weakened as its speed slowed to a crawl, Harvey weakened to a tropical storm on August 26. For about two days the storm stalled just inland, dropping heavy rainfall and causing widespread flash flooding. Harvey's center drifted back towards the southeast re-emerging into the Gulf of Mexico on August 28. Once offshore, the poorly organized system struggled against strong wind shear. Deep convection persisted north of the cyclone's center near the Houston metropolitan area along a stationary front, resulting in several days of record-breaking rain. Early on August 30, the former hurricane made its fifth and final landfall just west of Cameron, Louisiana with winds of 45 mph. Associated convection with Harvey became focused north of the center and along a warm front on September 1 as it moved further inland, indicating that the system transitioned into a post-tropical cyclone by 06:00 UTC that day.
The remnants continued northeastwards, before being absorbed into another extr
Calhoun County, Texas
Calhoun County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 21,381, its county seat is Port Lavaca. The county is named for the seventh vice president of the United States. Calhoun County comprises the Port Lavaca, TX Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Victoria-Port Lavaca, TX Combined Statistical Area. Paleo-Indians Hunter-gatherers, Comanche and Karankawa tribes, first inhabitants. 1685-1690 René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle lands near Powderhorn Lake in Calhoun County. France plants its flag on Texas soil, but departs after only five years. 1689 The future county is explored including Alonso De León. 1825 Martín De León of Mexico establishes a ranch near the old La Salle fort. 1831 Linnville becomes the first Anglo settlement, established by Irish-born merchant, soldier John J. Linn. 1840 Comanche Indians loot and sack Linnville. 1842-1847 Empresario Henri Castro contracts to bring Alsatian immigrants from France, who use Port Lavaca as a holding site before moving on to settle Castroville in Medina County.
1845 Thousands of German immigrants are stranded at port of disembarkation Indianaola on Matagorda Bay. 1846 Calhoun County is formed from parts of Victoria and Matagorda counties. It is named for Chairman of the Senate Finance Committee John C. Calhoun. Lavaca was the first county seat. 1852 Indianola becomes the county seat. The Morgan steamship lines runs regular service from Indianola to New York City. Slave trading peaks at Indianola. 1854 Poles begin to arrive in Indianaola. 1858 Half Moon Reef Lighthouse is constructed in Matagorda Bay. 1860 County population is 2,642, including 414 slaves. 1861 Calhoun County 276-18 votes for secession from the Union. Contributes volunteer companies-to the Confederate cause. Fort Esperanza, on Matagorda Island is constructed by Confederate forces using slave labor. 1862 Union gunboats bombard Port Lavaca. 1875 A Gulf tropical storm damages Indianola. 1886 A hurricane causes much damage to Houston. 1892 The Lutheran community of Olivia is established by Swedes. 1909 Port O’Connor is established.
The St. Louis and Mexico Railway establishes a terminus at Port O’Connor. 1920 Port Lavaca builds a seawall to protect itself against hurricanes. 1931 Lavaca Bay causeway is constructed. 1934-1935 Oil and natural gas discovered near Port Lavaca. 1947 Alcoa opens a plant at Point Comfort. 1952 Union Carbide opens a plant near Seadrift. 1961 Category 5 Hurricane Carla makes landfall between Port O'Connor. 1983 Matagorda Island State Park and Wildlife Management Area is run by the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department under an agreement between the United States Department of the Interior and the state of Texas. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,033 square miles, of which 507 square miles is land and 526 square miles is water, it borders the Gulf of Mexico. Jackson County Matagorda County Aransas County Refugio County Victoria County Aransas National Wildlife Refuge As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 21,381 people residing in the county. 81.5% were White, 4.4% Asian, 2.6% Black or African American, 0.5% Native American, 8.8% of some other race and 2.1% of two or more races.
46.4% were Hispanic or Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 20,647 people, 7,442 households, 5,574 families residing in the county; the population density was 40 people per square mile. There were 10,238 housing units at an average density of 20 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 78.04% White, 2.63% Black or African American, 0.49% Native American, 3.27% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 13.19% from other races, 2.32% from two or more races. 40.92% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 11.4% were of German, 9.4% American and 5.5% English ancestry according to Census 2000. 67.9 % spoke 29.1 % Spanish and 1.2 % Chinese as their first language. There were 7,442 households out of which 35.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.20% were married couples living together, 11.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.10% were non-families. 21.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.20. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.50% under the age of 18, 8.70% from 18 to 24, 27.30% from 25 to 44, 22.30% from 45 to 64, 13.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,849, the median income for a family was $39,900. Males had a median income of $35,957 versus $19,772 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,125. About 12.70% of families and 16.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.30% of those under age 18 and 11.70% of those age 65 or over. All of Calhoun County is served by the Calhoun County Independent School District. Our Lady of the Gulf Catholic school, pre-K through grade 8, has served the county since 1996. U. S. Highway 87 State Highway 35 State Highway 185 Calhoun County Airport, a general aviation airport, is located in unincorporated Calhoun County northwest of Port Lavaca.
Point Comfort Port Lavaca Seadrift Port O'Connor Alamo Beach Long Mott Magnolia Beach Indianola List of museums in the Texas Gulf Coast National Register of Historic Places listings in Calhoun County, Texas Recorde
A storm surge, storm flood, tidal surge or storm tide is a coastal flood or tsunami-like phenomenon of rising water associated with low pressure weather systems, the severity of, affected by the shallowness and orientation of the water body relative to storm path, as well as the timing of tides. Most casualties during tropical cyclones occur, it is a measure of the rise of water beyond what would be expected by the normal movement related to tides. The two main meteorological factors contributing to a storm surge are a long fetch of winds spiraling inward toward the storm, a low-pressure-induced dome of water drawn up under and trailing the storm's center; the deadliest storm surge on record was the 1970 Bhola cyclone, which killed up to 500,000 people in the area of the Bay of Bengal. The low-lying coast of the Bay of Bengal is vulnerable to surges caused by tropical cyclones; the deadliest storm surge in the twenty-first century was caused by the Cyclone Nargis, which killed more than 138,000 people in Myanmar in May 2008.
The next deadliest in this century was caused by the Typhoon Haiyan, which killed more than 6,000 people in the central Philippines in 2013 and resulted in economic losses estimated at $14 billion. The Galveston Hurricane of 1900, a Category 4 hurricane that struck Galveston, drove a devastating surge ashore; the highest storm tide noted in historical accounts was produced by the 1899 Cyclone Mahina, estimated at 44 ft at Bathurst Bay, but research published in 2000 concluded that the majority of this was wave run-up because of the steep coastal topography. In the United States, one of the greatest recorded storm surges was generated by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, which produced a maximum storm surge of more than 25 ft in southern Mississippi, with a storm surge height of 27.8 ft in Pass Christian. Another record storm surge occurred in this same area from Hurricane Camille in 1969, with a storm tide of 24.6 ft at Pass Christian. A storm surge of 14 ft occurred in New York City during Hurricane Sandy in October 2012.
At least five processes can be involved in altering tide levels during storms: The atmospheric pressure effect The direct wind effect The effect of the Earth's rotation The effect of waves near the shore The rainfall effect. The pressure effects of a tropical cyclone will cause the water level in the open ocean to rise in regions of low atmospheric pressure and fall in regions of high atmospheric pressure; the rising water level will counteract the low atmospheric pressure such that the total pressure at some plane beneath the water surface remains constant. This effect is estimated at a 10 mm increase in sea level for every millibar drop in atmospheric pressure. Strong surface winds cause surface currents at a 45° angle to the wind direction, by an effect known as the Ekman Spiral. Wind stresses cause a phenomenon referred to as "wind set-up", the tendency for water levels to increase at the downwind shore and to decrease at the upwind shore. Intuitively, this is caused by the storm blowing the water toward one side of the basin in the direction of its winds.
Because the Ekman Spiral effects spread vertically through the water, the effect is proportional to depth. The pressure effect and the wind set-up on an open coast will be driven into bays in the same way as the astronomical tide; the Earth's rotation causes the Coriolis effect, which bends currents to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. When this bend brings the currents into more perpendicular contact with the shore, it can amplify the surge, when it bends the current away from the shore it has the effect of lessening the surge; the effect of waves, while directly powered by the wind, is distinct from a storm's wind-powered currents. Powerful wind whips up strong waves in the direction of its movement. Although these surface waves are responsible for little water transport in open water, they may be responsible for significant transport near the shore; when waves are breaking on a line more or less parallel to the beach, they carry considerable water shoreward.
As they break, the water particles moving toward the shore have considerable momentum and may run up a sloping beach to an elevation above the mean water line, which may exceed twice the wave height before breaking. The rainfall effect is experienced predominantly in estuaries. Hurricanes may dump as much as 12 in of rainfall in 24 hours over large areas and higher rainfall densities in localized areas; as a result, surface runoff can flood Streams and rivers. This can increase the water level near the head of tidal estuaries as storm-driven waters surging in from the ocean meet rainfall flowing downstream into the estuary. In addition to the above processes and wave heights on shore are affected by the flow of water over the underlying topography, i.e. the configuration and bathymetry of the ocean bottom and affected coastal area. A narrow shelf, for example, or one that has a steep drop from the shoreline and subsequently produces deep water in proximity to the shoreline, tends to produce a lower surge but a higher and more powerful wave.
This situation is well exemplified by the southeast coast of Florida. The edge of the Floridian Plateau, where the water depths reach 91 metres, lies just 3,000 m offshore of Palm Beach; the 180 m depth contour followed southward from Palm Beach County
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Hurricane Carla ranks as the most intense U. S. tropical cyclone landfall on the Hurricane Severity Index. The third named storm and first Category 5 hurricane of the 1961 Atlantic hurricane season, Carla developed from an area of squally weather in the southwestern Caribbean Sea on September 3. A tropical depression, it strengthened while heading northwestward, by September 5, the system was upgraded to Tropical Storm Carla. About 24 hours Carla was upgraded to a hurricane. Shortly thereafter, the storm curved northward while approaching the Yucatán Channel. Late on September 7, Carla entered the Gulf of Mexico while passing just northeast of the Yucatán Peninsula. By early on the following day, the storm became a major hurricane after reaching Category 3 intensity. Resuming its northwestward course, Carla continued intensification and on September 11, it was upgraded to a Category 5 hurricane; that day, Carla weakened but was still a large and intense hurricane when the storm made landfall near Port O'Connor, Texas.
It weakened inland and was reduced to a tropical storm on September 12. Heading northward, Carla transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on September 13, while centered over southern Oklahoma. Moving northeastward, Carla's remnants reached the Labrador Sea and dissipated on September 17, 1961. While crossing the Yucatán Channel, the outer bands of Carla brought gusty winds and severe local flooding in western Cuba and the Yucatán Peninsula, though no damage or fatalities were reported. Although considered a significant threat to Florida, the storm brought only light winds and small amounts of precipitation, reaching no more than 3.15 in. In Texas, wind gusts as high as 170 mph were observed in Port Lavaca. Additionally, several tornadoes spawned in the state caused notable impacts, with the most destructive twister, an F4 near Galveston, resulting in 200 buildings damaged, of which at least 60 were destroyed, 8 deaths and 55 injuries; the aforementioned tornado remains the strongest hurricane-spawned tornado recorded, with wind speeds in the tornado nearly 50% greater than Carla's peak intensity.
Throughout the state, Carla destroyed 1,915 homes, 568 farm buildings, 415 other buildings. Additionally, 50,723 homes, 5,620 farm buildings, 10,487 other buildings suffered damage. There were at least $300 million in losses in Texas alone. Several tornadoes touched down in Louisiana, causing the destruction of 140 homes and 11 farms and other buildings, major damage to 231 additional homes and 11 farm and other buildings. Minor to moderate damage was reported to 748 homes and 75 farm and other buildings. Six deaths and $25 million in losses in Louisiana were attributed to Carla. Heavy rainfall occurred in several other states in Kansas, where flash flooding damaged crops and drowned 5 people. Overall, Carla resulted in $325.74 million in 43 fatalities. As early as September 1, a tropical disturbance – an area of convective activity – was observed tracking westward across the Caribbean Sea within the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Around that time, an anticyclone was situated over the western Caribbean Sea at the upper-tropospheric levels.
Surface charts indicate that a low-level circulation was developing early on September 3. Thus, it is estimated that a tropical depression – a tropical cyclone with sustained winds with winds of less than 39 mph – developed about 175 miles northwest of Barranquilla, Colombia at 1200 UTC; the center of circulation remained difficult to locate on surface charts due to lack of data. At San Andrés, winds shifted west at about 12 mph; the Weather Bureau Office in Miami, Florida issued its first bulletin at 1600 UTC on September 4, while the depression was centered about 250 miles east-southeast of Cabo Gracias a Dios, Nicaragua. It is estimated that sustained winds reached 45 mph at 1200 UTC on September 5, thus the depression strengthened into a tropical storm and was named Carla, while located just northeast of Cabo Gracias a Dios. A reconnaissance aircraft flight reported that Carla was continuing to intensify, with surface winds of 50 mph. Radars reported an unusually large tropical cyclone, with convective bands extending about 520 miles outward from the center.
Around 0000 UTC on September 6, Carla passed near Swan Island, which reported a barometric pressure of about 995 mbar and wind gusts of 60 mph from the southwest. Based on observations obtained by a reconnaissance aircraft at 1100 UTC on September 6 – namely a barometric pressure of 982 mbar – a bulletin issued by the Weather Bureau an hour indicated that the storm had "probably reached hurricane intensity". According to post-season analysis, Carla reached hurricane status at that time. Shortly after becoming a hurricane on September 6, Carla curved northward in the northwestern Caribbean Sea. At 1200 UTC on September 7, the storm intensified into a Category 2 hurricane while located east-northeast of Cozumel, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Shortly thereafter, Carla entered the Gulf of Mexico. A strong high pressure area forced Carla to resume its original northwesterly course. Early on September 8, the storm strengthened into a Category 3 hurricane while located just north of the Yucatán Peninsula. Thus, Carla was the third major hurricane of the season.
Carla was upgraded to a Category 4 hurricane early on September 10, while approaching the Gulf Coast of the United