Gladstone railway station, South Australia
Gladstone railway station is located on the Crystal Brook-Broken Hill line in Gladstone, South Australia. Gladstone station opened in 1876 when a line opened from Port Pirie in the west, it was extended east to Peterborough and Broken Hill. In 1888, a line was built north to Laura and Wilmington; when the Hamley Bridge line from Balaklava in the south reached Gladstone in 1894, it became a four-way junction station. All were built as narrow gauge lines. In 1927, the line from the south was converted to broad gauge, making Gladstone a break of gauge station; as part of the standardisation project, the line between Port Augusta and Broken Hill was converted to standard gauge in 1969, thus Gladstone became a junction for three gauges. By 1993, the lines to the north and south had closed, today is only served by the standard gauge Crystal Brook-Broken Hill line; the only passenger rail service which stops at the station is Great Southern Rail's weekly Indian Pacific service operating between Sydney and Perth.
Media related to Gladstone railway station at Wikimedia Commons Flickr gallery Johnny's Pages gallery
Port Pirie is the sixth most populous city in South Australia after Adelaide, Mount Gambier, Murray Bridge and Port Lincoln. It is a seaport on the east coast of 223 km north of Adelaide. At June 2015 Port Pirie had an estimated urban population of 14,247; the settlement was founded in 1845 and is the site of the world's largest lead smelter, operated by Nyrstar. It produces refined silver, zinc and gold. Prior to European settlement, the location that became Port Pirie was occupied by the indigenous tribe of Nukunu; the location was called'Tarparrie', suspected to mean "Muddy Creek". The first European to see the location was Matthew Flinders in 1802 as he explored the Spencer Gulf by boat; the first land discovery by settlers of the location was by the explorer Edward Eyre who explored regions around Port Augusta. John Horrocks discovered a pass through the Flinders Ranges to the coast, now named Horrocks Pass; the town was called Samuel's Creek after the discovery of Muddy Creek by Samuel Germein.
In 1846, Port Pirie Creek was named by Governor Robe after the John Pirie, the first vessel to navigate the creek when transporting sheep from Bowman's Run near Crystal Brook. In 1848, Matthew Smith and Emanuel Solomon bought 85 acres and subdivided it as a township to be known as Port Pirie. Little development occurred on site and by the late 1860s there were only three woolsheds on the riverfront; the government town was surveyed in December 1871 by Charles Hope Harris. The thoroughfares and streets were named after the family of George Goyder, Surveyor General of South Australia, with the streets running parallel and at right angles to the river. In 1873 the land of Solomon and Smith was named Solomontown. On 28 September 1876, Port Pirie was declared a municipality, with a population of 947. With the discovery of rich silver-, lead- and zinc-bearing ore at Broken Hill in 1883, the completion of a narrow gauge railway from Port Pirie to close to the Broken Hill field in 1888, the economic activities of the town shifted.
In 1889 a lead smelter was built by the British Blocks company to treat Broken Hill ore. Broken Hill Proprietary leased the smelter from British Blocks and began constructing their own smelter from 1892. In 1915 the smelter was taken over by a major joint venture of Broken Hill-based companies, Broken Hill Associated Smelters. Led by the Collins House Group, BHAS became the biggest lead smelter in the world by 1934; the smelter passed to Pasminco Zinifex, is now operated by Nyrstar. By 1921 the town's population had grown to 9801 living in 2308 occupied dwellings. By this date there were 62 boarding houses to cater for the labour demands at the smelter and on the busy waterfront. Port Pirie was declared South Australia's first provincial city in 1953, today it is South Australia's second largest port, it is characterised by some interesting and unusual historic buildings. Port Pirie has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 1 Alexander Street: Barrier Chambers Offices 32 Ellen Street: Adelaide Steamship Company Building 64-68 Ellen Street: Sampson's Butcher Shop 69-71 Ellen Street: Port Pirie Customs House 73-77 Ellen Street: Port Pirie railway station 79-81 Ellen Street: Port Pirie Post Office 85 Ellen Street: Development Board Building 94 Ellen Street: Sample Rooms, rear of Portside Tavern 134 Ellen Street: Family Hotel 32 Florence Street: Carn Brae 50-52 Florence Street: Waterside Workers' Federation Building 105 Gertrude Street: Good Samaritan Catholic Convent School Memorial Drive: Second World War Memorial Gates 5 Norman Street: AMP Society Building, Port Pirie According to the 2006 Census, the population of the Port Pirie census area was 13,206 people.
51.8% of the population were female, 86.9% are Australian born, over 92.7% of residents are Australian citizens and 2.6% were Aboriginal people. The most popular industries for employment were Basic Non-Ferrous Metal Manufacturing, School Education, Hospitality and Animal Husbandry, while the unemployment rate is approx. 11%. The median weekly household income is A$608 or more compared with $924 in Adelaide. 27.1% of the population identify themselves as Catholic, while 23.7% identify with no religion at all. Port Pirie is at an elevation of 4 metres above sea level, it is 8 kilometres inland, on the Pirie River, a tidal saltwater inlet from Spencer Gulf. It is on the coastal plain between the Flinders Ranges to the east. Port Pirie exists in a region with a semi-arid climate, outside Goyder's Line, surrounded by mallee scrub. Average daily maximum temperatures vary from a mild 16.4 °C in winter to 32.0 °C in summer. Its average annual rainfall is 345.2 millimetres. According to the Köppen climate classification, Port Pirie has a warm semi-arid climate, noted as BSh.
Port Pirie is 5 km off the Augusta Highway. It is serviced by Port Pirie Airport, six kilometres south of the city; the first railway in Port Pirie opened in 1875 when the South Australian Railways 1,067 mm gauge Port Pirie-Cockburn line opened to Gladstone being extended to Broken Hill. The original Ellen Street station was located on the street with the track running down the middle; the station today is occupied by the Port Pirie National Trust Museum. In 1937, it became a break-of-gauge station when the broad gauge Adelaide-Redhill line was extended to Port Pirie. At the same time the Commonwealth Railways standard gauge Trans-Australian Railway was extended south from Port Augusta to terminate at the new Port Pirie Junction station
Crystal Brook-Broken Hill railway line
The Crystal Brook-Broken Hill railway line is a 371 kilometre line running from Crystal Brook to Broken Hill on the Australian Rail Track Corporation network. In the 1875, the South Australian Railways built a narrow gauge line from Port Pirie to Gladstone; this was extended to Cockburn in 1888. In April 1963, the Federal Government decided to replace the narrow gauge line with a new standard gauge line to create an East-West rail corridor from Sydney to Perth; the new line opened in January 1970. Parts of the new line are on a different alignment than the old narrow gauge route. For example, the new line bypasses the town of Oodla Wirra, followed a new alignment rather than the route of the Silverton Tramway. In 1982, the Adelaide to Port Augusta line was converted to standard gauge; as part of this the junction with the Port Pirie to Broken Hill line was moved 24 kilometres east to Crystal Brook. The 371 kilometre line is single track throughout with 13 crossing loops; the main traffic on the line is interstate freight trains operating between Sydney, Parkes and Perth with the majority operated by Pacific National and SCT Logistics.
Genesee & Wyoming Australia operate intrastate services. The only passenger service is Great Southern Rail's Indian Pacific. In the 1980s, the line was served by The Alice and Australian National's Adelaide to Broken Hill service
South Australian Railways
South Australian Railways was the statutory corporation through which the Government of South Australia built and operated railways in South Australia from 1854 until March 1978, when its non-urban railways were incorporated into Australian National, its Adelaide urban lines were transferred to the State Transport Authority. South Australia is one of the few places in Australia, if not the world, that has three major rail gauges, in addition to other uncommon gauges; the first railway in South Australia was laid in 1854 between Goolwa and Port Elliot to allow for goods to be transferred between paddle steamers on the Murray River and seagoing vessels. The next railway was laid from the harbour at Port Adelaide to the colony, was laid with Irish gauge 5 ft 3 in track; this line was opened in 1856. On, branch lines in the state's north in the mining towns of Kapunda and Burra were linked through to the Adelaide metropolitan system. From here, a south main line extended to meet the horse tramway from Victor Harbor to Strathalbyn, towards the South Australia/Victoria Border.
With the metropolitan systems being broad gauge, the mid north and south east of the state were laid with 3 ft 6 in narrow gauge track. These systems were based on British practice, as was the broad gauge system prior to 1926. Locomotives and rolling stock were bought from the United Kingdom and United States, from builders such as Beyer and Company, Dübs and Company, their successors, the North British Locomotive Company, Baldwin Locomotive Works. Nine broad gauge tank locomotives plus the frame of a tenth were bought second-hand from the Canterbury Provincial Railways in New Zealand when it converted to narrow gauge. In 1922, after the SAR's worst financial deficit, the government appointed American railroad manager William Webb, from the Missouri-Kansas-Texas Railroad as Chief Commissioner; when Webb arrived in Adelaide with his young family, he found a railway system unchanged since the late 19th century. The locomotives and rolling stock were small and carriages were of wooden construction, the track and bridges were unsuitable for heavy loads, the workshops had antiquated machinery and the signalling system was inflexible.
These attributes drove up the ratio of operating costs to revenue. Webb introduced a rehabilitation plan based on American railroad principles of large, standardised locomotives and steel bodied freight wagons, with automatic couplers to enable a significant increase in productivity. Patronised passenger trains would be replaced by self-propelled rail cars, enabling faster, more frequent and more efficient services, he recruited Fred Shea as his Chief Mechanical Engineer and had him prepare specifications for this new equipment. This resulted in orders being placed for 1,200 wagons of four types from American Car and Foundry, 12 petrol mechanical railmotor cars from the Service Motors Corporation, Indiana, 30 locomotives based on American Locomotive Company plans but built by Armstrong Whitworth & Co in the United Kingdom; these were of the Mountain and Mikado wheel arrangements, 10 of each type, which became the 500, 600, 700 class locomotives. To carry the heavier trains, the rehabilitation plan included the strengthening of track and bridges, the conversion of the mid north narrow gauge system to broad gauge.
The antiquated Islington Railway Workshops were demolished and replaced with a modern railway maintenance and manufacturing works, a large new round house was built at Mile End, near Adelaide, several 85 foot turntables were installed throughout the state to enable the much larger locomotives to be turned. Efficient train operations were facilitated by the adoption of American train order working on country lines, Adelaide railway station was replaced with an imposing new building, opened in 1927; this grand building has been taken over by the Adelaide Casino. When the two shiploads of new locomotives arrived in 1926 they caused a sensation with the public and throughout the railway industry in Australia; the 500 class "Mountain" was over twice the size of the biggest pre-Webb engine, was the most powerful locomotive in Australia. Henceforth double heading; the massive locomotives were taken off the pier by horses. Apart from some initial teething problems the new locomotives settled in nicely to their assigned positions.
After the success of the original locomotives, ten more 700 class locomotives, with larger tenders, were locally built using the facilities of the new Islington Workshops. These were the 710 class; the 500 class was rated to haul 400 tons over the Mount Lofty Ranges east of Adelaide, where a 19-mile continuous 1-in-45 gradient faced trains heading for Victoria. Two years after their introduction, the class was modified by the addition of a booster engine which required replacement of the two-wheel trailing truck with a four-wheel truck; this altered the wheel arrangement from 4-8-2 to 4-8-4, but the term "Mountains" stuck with the locomotives. Reclassified 500B class, their maximum load to Mount Lofty was increased to 600 tons, or eleven passenger cars. In the pre-Webb era the Rx class - a 4-6-0 with a Belpaire firebox was rated at 190 tons for this line, with three of them required to lift a heavy Melbourne Express - two at the front and one banking from the rear; the broad gauge system was the main focus of Webb rehabilitation scheme.
The narrow gauge systems north of Terowie and on the Eyr
South Australia is a state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of 983,482 square kilometres, it is the fourth-largest of Australia's states and territories by area, fifth largest by population, it has a total of 1.7 million people, its population is the second most centralised in Australia, after Western Australia, with more than 77 percent of South Australians living in the capital, Adelaide, or its environs. Other population centres in the state are small. South Australia shares borders with all of the other mainland states, with the Northern Territory; the state comprises less than 8 percent of the Australian population and ranks fifth in population among the six states and two territories. The majority of its people reside in greater Metropolitan Adelaide. Most of the remainder are settled in fertile areas along River Murray; the state's colonial origins are unique in Australia as a settled, planned British province, rather than as a convict settlement.
Colonial government commenced on 28 December 1836, when the members of the council were sworn in near the Old Gum Tree. As with the rest of the continent, the region had been long occupied by Aboriginal peoples, who were organised into numerous tribes and languages; the South Australian Company established a temporary settlement at Kingscote, Kangaroo Island, on 26 July 1836, five months before Adelaide was founded. The guiding principle behind settlement was that of systematic colonisation, a theory espoused by Edward Gibbon Wakefield, employed by the New Zealand Company; the goal was to establish the province as a centre of civilisation for free immigrants, promising civil liberties and religious tolerance. Although its history is marked by economic hardship, South Australia has remained politically innovative and culturally vibrant. Today, it is known for numerous cultural festivals; the state's economy is dominated by the agricultural and mining industries. Evidence of human activity in South Australia dates back as far as 20,000 years, with flint mining activity and rock art in the Koonalda Cave on the Nullarbor Plain.
In addition wooden spears and tools were made in an area now covered in peat bog in the South East. Kangaroo Island was inhabited; the first recorded European sighting of the South Australian coast was in 1627 when the Dutch ship the Gulden Zeepaert, captained by François Thijssen and mapped a section of the coastline as far east as the Nuyts Archipelago. Thijssen named the whole of the country eastward of the Leeuwin "Nuyts Land", after a distinguished passenger on board; the coastline of South Australia was first mapped by Matthew Flinders and Nicolas Baudin in 1802, excepting the inlet named the Port Adelaide River, first discovered in 1831 by Captain Collet Barker and accurately charted in 1836–37 by Colonel William Light, leader of the South Australian Colonization Commissioners"First Expedition' and first Surveyor-General of South Australia. The land which now forms the state of South Australia was claimed for Britain in 1788 as part of the colony of New South Wales. Although the new colony included two-thirds of the continent, early settlements were all on the eastern coast and only a few intrepid explorers ventured this far west.
It took more than forty years before any serious proposal to establish settlements in the south-western portion of New South Wales were put forward. On 15 August 1834, the British Parliament passed the South Australia Act 1834, which empowered His Majesty to erect and establish a province or provinces in southern Australia; the act stated that the land between 132° and 141° east longitude and from 26° south latitude to the southern ocean would be allotted to the colony, it would be convict-free. In contrast to the rest of Australia, terra nullius did not apply to the new province; the Letters Patent, which used the enabling provisions of the South Australia Act 1834 to fix the boundaries of the Province of South Australia, provided that "nothing in those our Letters Patent shall affect or be construed to affect the rights of any Aboriginal Natives of the said Province to the actual occupation and enjoyment in their own Persons or in the Persons of their Descendants of any Lands therein now occupied or enjoyed by such Natives."
Although the patent guaranteed land rights under force of law for the indigenous inhabitants it was ignored by the South Australian Company authorities and squatters. Survey was required before settlement of the province, the Colonization Commissioners for South Australia appointed William Light as the leader of its'First Expedition', tasked with examining 1500 miles of the South Australian coastline and selecting the best site for the capital, with planning and surveying the site of the city into one-acre Town Sections and its surrounds into 134-acre Country Sections. Eager to commence the establishment of their whale and seal fisheries, the South Australian Company sought, obtained, the Commissioners' permission to send Company ships to South Australia, in advance of the surveys and ahead of the Commissioners' colonists; the Company's settlement of seven vessels and 636 people was temporarily made at Kingscote on Kangaroo Island, until
A dual gauge railway is a track that allows the passage of trains of two different track gauges. It is sometimes called a "mixed gauge" track. A dual gauge track consists of three rails. There will be two vital rails, one for each gauge close together and a third rail, a "common" rail further away. Sometimes, four rails are required using two outer and two inner rails to create the dual gauge. Dual gauge is not to be confused with a "third rail" or "check or guard rails". Rail gauge, the distance between the inner surfaces of the heads of travel rails, is an important specification of a railway. Rail tracks and wheel bogies must be built to the same gauge within an engineering tolerance of 13 mm. If the correct gauge is not achieved, the train will fall off the track and not be able to pass switches and crossovers. Dual gauge trains can use low level platforms. In the case of three rails and high platforms, one gauge may be too close or too far away, depending on the position of the common rail.
Another option at platforms is to construct one for each gauge. If the difference between two rail gauges is small enough, i.e. within each others tolerances it is possible for them to operate the same rolling stock. At the Finland–Russian border the Finnish railway gauge is 1524 mm and the Russian gauge is 1520 mm; when the Soviet Union changed the gauge of its railways in Russia in the 1970s to 1520 mm, this did not result in a break of gauge and no track conversion work was done. The change in gauge was a redefinition of the way. Both railways can run the same rolling stock. However, being within a tolerance in gauge does not always mean that two different system can operate the same rolling stock. For example, the MTR in Hong Kong 1,432 mm Electric multiple units may run on Kowloon-Canton Railway 1,435 mm rails but will need a locomotive or a KCR EMU pulling due to the difference in electrification voltages. "Break of gauge" occurs. Passengers and freight must transfer between trains, or rolling stock must be lifted and the bogies refitted for the new gauge.
Avoiding break of gauge reduces costs and allows infrastructure such as platforms and tunnels to be shared. Railway operators may change from one gauge to another via a period of dual gauge operations. For example, the Great Western Railway made a conversion from a 7-foot broad gauge to the standard gauge via a period of dual gauge operations across its network. New GWR rolling stock and locomotives of that time were built to accommodate the change. Where rails are too light for the loads of broader-gauge railcars, dual gauge rails may not be feasible. In this case, heavier rails are installed. One common running rail and two other outer rails provide a dual gauge. In dual gauge lines, railroad switches are more complex. Trains must be safely signalled on both of the gauges. Track circuits and mechanical interlocking must operate on both gauges. Another feature is that the wear and tear of the common rail is greater than the two other outer rails. Dual gauge track with three rails must provide a difference between the gauges at least as wide as the foot of the rail.
This is to ensure there is room for rail fastening hardware such as clips. Functional pairing of gauges include: standard gauge and 1,676 mm. Standard gauge and 1,600 mm can be dual gauged, albeit with lighter, narrow footed rails. An example of this type of pairing is seen in Australia. Gauges which are too close to function in a three rail arrangement include 1,000 mm metre gauge and 3 ft 6 in; the last combination is common in Afghanistan, Central Asia, northern and eastern Europe, North America and China. In Europe, it was of strategic importance in World War II. In these cases, a gauntlet track which uses four rails is constructed. An example of this is seen at the Rail Baltica project which aims to connect central and northern Europe by rail. Four rails may be used where a co-location of track centres of the two gauges is needed; this might occur in past platforms. An example is seen at the Roma Street railway station in Brisbane, Australia. There, both three rail and four rail dual gauge systems are used between 1,435 mm and 1,067 mm gauges.
Break of gauge occurs at some triple gauge stations. In the examples below, the triple gauge was used in rail yards. Thus, if required, light rail could be used to space the rails together. Light rail was not used at the Niagara Falls Suspension Bridge and it would not be used for main line operation at high speeds. Within a works facility or maintenance yard, tracks consisting of four or more separate gauges may be used. At Alan Keef in Lea, Herefordshire a short section of line uses four rails to allow locomotives of 2 ft, 2 ft 6 in, 3 ft and 3 ft 6 in gauges to enter the works; the National Railway Museum, Port Adelaide in Adelaide, Australia has the three main-line gauges and a 18 in gauge Heritage railway line. In the 1960s and 1970s, the Electro-motive diesel plant in McCook, Ill
The Trans-Australian Railway crosses the Nullarbor Plain of Australia from Port Augusta in South Australia to Kalgoorlie in Western Australia. It includes a 478-kilometre stretch of dead-straight track, the world's longest, between the 797 km post west of Ooldea and the 1,275 km post west of Loongana; the line forms an important freight route between the eastern states. Two passenger services use the line, the Indian Pacific for its entire length and The Ghan between Port Augusta and Tarcoola. Earlier passenger services on the route were known as the Great Western Express. In 1901, the six Australian colonies federated to form the Commonwealth of Australia. At that time, the capital of Western Australia, was isolated from the remaining Australian States by thousands of miles of desert terrain and the only practicable method of transport was by sea, a time-consuming and uncomfortable voyage across the Great Australian Bight, a stretch of water known for rough seas. One of the inducements held out to Western Australians to join the new federation was the promise of a federally funded railway line linking Western Australia with the rest of the continent.
In 1907 legislation was passed. The survey was completed in 1909 and proposed a route from Port Augusta via Tarcoola to the gold mining centre of Kalgoorlie in Western Australia, a distance of 1063 miles; the line was to be to the standard gauge of 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in though the state railway systems at both ends were narrow gauge at the time. Its cost was estimated at £4,045,000. Legislation authorising the construction was passed in December 1911 by the Andrew Fisher Government and work commenced in September 1912 in Port Augusta. Work proceeded eastwards from Kalgoorlie and westwards from Port Augusta through the years of the First World War. By 1915, the two ends of the line were just over 600 miles apart with materials being delivered daily. Construction progressed as the line was extended through dry and desolate regions until the two halves of the line met at Ooldea on 17 October 1917. Commonwealth Railways was established in 1917 to administer the line; the entire intercity route was not converted to standard gauge until 1970.
In 2008, its engineering heritage was recognized by the installation of markers provided by the Engineers Australia's Engineering Heritage Recognition Program to the platform at the Port Augusta Station in South Australia and the ticket office at Kalgoorlie Station in Western Australia. On 17 October 2017, centenary celebrations were held at Ooldea. On inauguration, the passenger service was known as the Great Western Express. Towards the end of its life as a mixed gauge service, between Kalgoorlie and Port Augusta it was known as the Trans-Australian or - "The Trans". From February 1970 the new direct Sydney-Perth service was named the Indian Pacific. From the start of construction until 1996 the Tea & Sugar Train carried vital supplies to the isolated work sites and towns along the route; the final distance was 1051.73 miles less than the original survey. At no point along the route does the line cross a permanent fresh watercourse. Bores and reservoirs were established at intervals, but the water was brackish and unsuitable for steam locomotive use, let alone human consumption, so water supplies had to be carried on the train.
In the days of steam locomotion, about half the total load was water for the engine. According to Adelaide-born astronaut Andy Thomas, the line is identifiable from space, because of its unnatural straightness. "It's a fine line, it's like someone has drawn a fine pencil line across the desert," he has said. Most of the stopping locations in the 129° E to 134° E part of the railway in South Australia were named after the first seven Australian Prime Ministers. Other federal ministers from the 1900–1917 era occur outside of this sequence amongst stopping places on the rail route; because of the inevitable problems of finding suitable water for steam locomotives in a desert, the original engineer, Henry Deane envisaged diesel locomotives for the line. He got as far as making enquiries with potential manufacturers. A scandal involving the supply of sleepers led to Deane's resignation before the diesel locomotive proposal had advanced beyond the point of no return. Trains were hauled by G class locomotives and from 1938 by C class locomotives.
It was not until 1951 that regular diesel hauled passenger services worked on the Trans Australia Railway, hauled by the new GM class locomotives. The Trans-Australian Railway had crossing loops 400 m long every 100 km or so; as traffic increased the number of crossing loops increased. To handle longer trains, crossing loops were lengthened so that in 2008 they are all at least 1,800 m long and spaced about 30 km to 60 km apart. Most crossing loops are unattended and train crew operate the points as required. Crossing loops have self restoring points, so that points are reset to the straight route when a train departs from a crossing loop; the loops are fitted with radio controls. Locomotives are fitted with an in-cab activated points system, enabling the remote operation of the self-restoring point machines at crossing loops by the crew from the locomotive cab, allowing train crews to set the required route without having to stop the train; the safeworking is Train Orders, via a verbal communications-based tr