Secular education is a system of public education in countries with a secular government or separation between religion and state. An example of a secular educational system would be the French public educational system, where conspicuous religious symbols have been banned in schools. While some religious groups are hostile to secularism and see such measures as promoting atheism, other citizens claim that the display of any religious symbol constitutes an infringement of the separation of church and state and a discrimination against atheist and non-religious people. In Turkey the promotion of Imam Hatip Islamic schools by the government following the March 2012 education reform bill alarmed some Turkish citizens; the Education Reform Bill was written without public debate or discussion in the Ministry of National Education's own consultative body. Besides undermining Turkish secularism, the new measures would undermine educational standards and deepen social inequalities, according to education specialists.
Turkey’s leading universities, including Sabanci University, Bosphorus University, Middle East Technical University and Koç University, all issued press statements describing the reforms of 2012 as hastily conceived and out of step with current thinking. In Italy the Lautsi v. Italy case was brought before the European Court of Human Rights regarding the display of crucifixes in classrooms of state schools. In Romania the CNCD Decision 323/2006 was brought to the CNCD by Emil Moise, a teacher and parent from Buzău County, regarding the public display of Orthodox icons in classrooms and was supported by some high-profile activists. In 2009 a new body was formed, the Australian Secular Lobby, to promote secular education in Australia. In Southern Thailand, the secular educational system is being undermined by insurgent groups by means of the destruction of schools and the assassination of teachers. French law on secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schools Humanum Genus The case for a secular education system Principle of Secular Education Campaign for Secular Education
Rouge is a neighbourhood in the northeastern area of Toronto, within the former city of Scarborough. It is Toronto's largest neighbourhood by surface area, however unlike other neighbourhoods, most of its area remains undeveloped, as the neighbourhood is adjacent to Rouge National Urban Park, it is bounded on the north by Steeles Avenue East, on the east by the Pickering Town Line and the Rouge River, on the south by Lake Ontario, on the west by Port Union Road, Kingston Road, Highway 401, Morningside Avenue, Finch Avenue East, Markham Road. It is one of the largest neighbourhoods recognized by the City of Toronto, is dominated by the Rouge River, its tributaries, associated wilderness areas. North of Sheppard Avenue the neighbourhood has a strong suburban quality, with seventy-four percent of households single-family residences. Beyond its official categorization, Rouge can be subdivided into smaller neighbourhoods more known as Dean Park, Rouge Hill, Hillside, among others; the area situated along the Rouge River was considered a part of the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, a portaging route to the Holland River, linking Lake Ontario to Lake Simcoe.
This route was used by the indigenous peoples, by European traders and settlers. The Seneca people established the village of Ganatsekwyagon in the area that presently makes up the neighbourhood. However, the settlement was abandoned by the end of the 17th century, as a result of the Beaver Wars. Presently referred to as Bead Hill, the area is an archaeological site comprising the only known remaining and intact 17th-century Seneca site in Canada, it was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1991. Two public school boards operate elementary schools in Morningside, the separate Toronto Catholic District School Board, the secular Toronto District School Board. TCDSB operates two public elementary schools, St. Dominic Savio Catholic School, St. Jean De Brebeuf Catholic School. TDSB operates four public elementary schools in Rouge, Alvin Curling Public School, Chief Dan George Public School, John G. Diefenbaker Public School, Rouge Valley Public School Neither school board operates a secondary school in the neighbourhood, with TCDSB/TDSB secondary school students residing in Rouge attending institutions in adjacent neighbourhoods.
The French-based public secular school board, Conseil scolaire Viamonde, it separate counterpart, Conseil scolaire catholique MonAvenir offer schooling to applicable residents of Morningside, although they do not operate a school in the neighbourhood, with CSCM/CSV students attending schools situated in other neighbourhoods in Toronto. The neighbourhood is home to several municipal parks near the Rouge River ravine system, including Bob Hunter Park, Adams Park and Dean Park. Municipal parks in Rouge are managed by the Toronto Parks and Recreation Division. In addition to municipal parks, the City of Toronto manages the Toronto Zoo, a zoo located within the neighbourhood. Rouge National Urban Park, a national urban park of Canada is situated in the neighbourhood. Situated along the Rouge River, the national park takes up the eastern portion of the neighbourhood, as well as other municipalities within Greater Toronto; the park is managed by Parks Canada. List of neighbourhoods in Toronto City of Toronto - Rouge Neighbourhood Profile
Toronto District School Board
The Toronto District School Board is the English-language public-secular school board for Toronto, Canada. The minority public-secular francophone, public-separate anglophone, public-separate francophone communities of Toronto have their own publicly funded school boards and schools that operate in the same area, but which are independent of the TDSB, its headquarters are in the district of North York. The TDSB is the fourth largest school board in North America; the earliest schools in Toronto were in private homes run by members of the clergy. Public funding for schools began with the establishment of the Home District Grammar School. Notably, it was not governed by an elected school board. Voting for the city's first elected school board took place in 1816 following the passage of the Common School Act; the board, as per the regulations of the act, had three members: Eli Playter, Dr. Thomas D. Morrison, Jesse Ketchum; the board governed the Common School at York, located on the same grounds as the Grammar School.
However, this lasted only four years before the school and its associated school board were shut down in favour of the creation of the Central School, placed under the control of an unelected board and marked an attempt to bring public schools under Anglican religious control. Control of this board in Toronto was subsumed under a provincial Board of Education in 1824, itself merged into the Council of King's College, a body charged with obtaining a university for the province. In 1831, Upper Canada College was created to replace the Home District Grammar School with state funding in the form of an initial crown lands grant of 6,000 acres supplemented by an additional 60,000 acres. In contrast, common schools in this era, the equivalent of today's elementary schools, were woefully underfunded. Funding for the schools was derived from the sale of crown lands, but the lands chosen to support education were undesirable and couldn't command a high enough price to sustain the common schools. In addition to undesirability, the acreage devoted to funding the common schools granted in 1816 was reduced by half.
These deficiencies began to be addressed by the School Act of 1844 and culminated in the creation of local public school boards across the province including the Toronto Public School Board. The Toronto Public School Board was created in 1847 to oversee elementary education in Toronto. However, the date of creation of the board is given as 1850 as this was when trustee elections under a ward system started. Legislation toward the creation of local, public school boards began with the School Act of 1844, which stipulated municipal contributions toward the salaries of teachers; the Toronto Public School Board continued to govern the city's elementary schools until 1904 when, following a city referendum, it was merged with the Collegiate Institute Board, which oversaw the city's secondary schools, the Technical School Board, which oversaw the Toronto Technical School, to form the Toronto Board of Education. Six trustees were appointed to the original 1847 board by the municipal council of Toronto to serve with the mayor.
The board was composed of white men until the election of the first female trustee Augusta Stowe-Gullen in 1892. The board was created after the passage of the Common School Act of 1846 spearheaded by Egerton Ryerson, architect of both publicly funded schooling and the residential school system; the Act called for the creation of a provincial normal school which would become the Toronto Normal School. Prior to the 1846 Common School Act, individual schools were governed by boards created under the Grammar School Act of 1807 and the Common Schools Act of 1816. Like all boards of education at the time, the Toronto Public School Board was responsible for raising money to fund schools in addition to grants provided by the provincial government. However, they were not empowered to make these levies compulsory until the passage of the Common School Act in 1850 brought on in part by the closure of schools in Toronto in 1848 due to lack of funds; this act allowed for the creation of separate schools boards in Ontario including racially segregated schools.
In Toronto, the act allowed for the creation of a Catholic school board which would become today's Toronto Catholic District School Board. While elementary schooling across the province was not made free by law until 1871, the 1850 Common School Act allowed for individual boards to fund their schools through public funds; the Toronto Public School Board voted to do so in 1851, making elementary schooling in the city free. Minutes from the first meetings of the Toronto Public School Board have been preserved by the Toronto District School Board Museum and Archives; when the Toronto Public School Board was first created, elementary or common schools in the city did not have dedicated buildings but instead, "the thousand-odd children who were registered as common school pupils were accommodated in rented premises--a dozen or so small halls and houses, designated by numbers." This changed shortly after the election of the first board when six schools identical in architecture were built, one in each ward of the city.
More schools with distinct designs were built over the coming decades. Some of these original schools are listed in the order of their construction below: Louisa St. School The Park School George St. School John St. School Victoria St. School Phoebe St. School Jesse Ketchum School Givins St. School Elizabeth
Old Toronto is the retronym of the area contained within the original boundaries of Toronto, Canada, from 1834 to 1998. It was first incorporated as a city in 1834, after being known as the town of York, became part of York County. In 1954, it became the administrative headquarters for the Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto; the city expanded in size by annexation of surrounding municipalities, reaching its final boundaries in 1967. In 1998, it was amalgamated with the other cities of Metropolitan Toronto; this was not a traditional annexation of the surrounding municipalities, but rather a new municipal entity, the successor of the original city. "Old Toronto" referred to Toronto's boundaries before the Great Toronto Fire of 1904, when much of city's development was to the east of Yonge Street. Since the amalgamation, the former city is variously referred to as the "former city of Toronto" or "Old Toronto." It is sometimes referred to as "downtown" or as "the core." Old Toronto has a population density of 8,210 people per square kilometre, which would rank it as the densest in Canada among cities with a population over 250,000 if it were still a separate city.
The former town of York was incorporated on March 6, 1834, reverting to the name Toronto to distinguish it from New York City, as well as about a dozen other localities named "York" in the province, to dissociate itself from the negative connotation of "dirty Little York", a common nickname for the town by its residents. The population was recorded in June 1834 at 9,252. In 1834, Toronto was incorporated with the boundaries of Bathurst Street to the west, 400 yards north of Lot Street to the north, Parliament Street to the east. Outside this formal boundary were the "liberties", land pre-destined to be used for new wards; these boundaries were today's Dufferin Street to the west, Bloor Street to the north, the Don River to the east, with a section along the lakeshore east of the Don and south of today's Queen Street to the approximate location of today's Maclean Street. The liberties formally became part of the city in 1859 and the wards were remapped. William Lyon Mackenzie, a Reformer, was Toronto's first mayor, a position he only held for one year, losing to Tory Robert Baldwin Sullivan in 1835.
Sullivan was replaced by Dr. Thomas David Morrison in 1836. Another Tory, George Gurnett, was elected in 1837; that year, Toronto was the site of the key events of the Upper Canada Rebellion. Mackenzie would lead an assault on Montgomery's Tavern, beginning the Upper Canada Rebellion; the attacks were ineffectual, as British regulars, the Canadian militia in Toronto went out to the rebel camp at Montgomery's Tavern and dispersed the rebels. Mackenzie and other Reformers escaped to the United States, while some rebel leaders, such as Samuel Lount and Peter Matthews, were hanged. Toronto would elect a succession of Tory or Conservative mayors, it was not until the 1850s that a Reform member would be mayor again. Shortly after the rebellion, Toronto was ravaged by its first great fire in 1849; the fire was one of two great fires to occur in the city, with the other occurring in 1904. In their efforts to control the city and its citizens, the Tories were willing to turn to extra-governmental tools of social control, such as the Orange Order in Canada.
As historian Gregory Kealey concluded, "Following the delegitimation of Reform after the Rebellions were suppressed, the Corporation developed into an impenetrable bastion of Orange-Tory strength." By 1844, six of Toronto's ten aldermen were Orangemen, over the rest of the 19th century, twenty of twenty-three mayors would be as well. A parliamentary committee reporting on the 1841 Orange Riot in Toronto concluded that the powers granted the Corporation made it ripe for Orange abuse. Orange influence dominated the emerging police force, giving it a "monopoly of legal violence, the power to choose when to enforce the law." Orange Order violence at elections and other political meetings was a staple of the period. Between 1839 and 1866, the Orange Order was involved in 29 riots in Toronto, of which 16 had direct political inspiration. At its height in 1942, 16 of the 23 members of city council were members of the Orange Order; every mayor of Toronto in the first half of the 20th century was an Orangeman.
This continued until the 1954 election when the Jewish Nathan Phillips defeated radical Orange leader Leslie Howard Saunders. The boundaries of Toronto remained unchanged into the 1880s. Toronto expanded into the west by annexing the Town of Brockton in 1884, the Town of Parkdale in 1889, properties west to Swansea by 1893. In the 1880s, Toronto expanded to the north, annexing Yorkville in 1883, The Annex in 1887, Seaton Village in 1888. In the 1900s, Toronto expanded again to the north, annexing Rosedale in 1905, Deer Park in 1908, the City of West Toronto and Wychwood Park in 1909, Dovercourt Park and Earlscourt in 1910, Moore Park and North Toronto in 1912. To the east, Toronto annexed Riverdale in 1884, a strip east of Greenwood in 1890, Town of East Toronto in 1908, an extension east to Victoria Park Avenue in 1909, the Midway in 1909. By 1908, the named wards were abolished, replaced by a simple numbering scheme of War
Kingston Road (Toronto)
Kingston Road is the southernmost major road along the eastern portion of Toronto in the district of Scarborough. Until 1998, it formed a portion of Highway 2; the name of the street is derived from Kingston, Ontario as the road was the primary route used to travel from Toronto to the settlements east of it situated along the shores of Lake Ontario. Due to its diagonal course near the shore of Lake Ontario, the street is the terminus of many arterial roads in eastern Toronto, both east-west and north-south, with a few continuing for a short distance after as minor residential streets; however Lawrence Avenue continues as a major arterial for a considerable distance beyond it. Because the road no longer bears the name "Kingston Road" anywhere east of the Toronto area, the street has been shortened from its original length; this is in contrast to other long-distance historic "streets" such Dundas Street, which runs from Toronto to London and still carries that name in the latter city and in many points in between.
American engineer Asa Danforth Jr. was contracted to build a road as a route to connect Toronto with the mouth of the Trent River in 1799 at a cost of $90.00 per mile. The road, known as The Scarborough Front Road, was completed by December 18, 1800, but was poorly maintained thereafter. In 1815 the Kingston Road was surveyed and it followed the line, in many cases, of the former road laid out by Asa Danforth as far as the Trent River. Beyond that point, the two historic roads diverge; the Kingston Road was completed in 1817, serving as a post road for stagecoaches delivering mail on a rigid schedule. The Toronto section runs from Queen Street East, as a continuation of Eastern Avenue, just west of Woodbine Avenue through Scarborough to Toronto's eastern city limits with Durham Region, where it continues into Pickering and Ajax, ends where its name changes to Dundas Street in Whitby, at Lake Ridge Road, just west of Highway 412. A small portion of road parallel to Kingston Road is called Old Kingston Road running near the Highland Creek, east of Morningside Avenue.
There is a discontinuity and a large reduction in capacity as the road reverts to the original route at an interchange with Military Trail, where traffic is defaulted onto the former Highway 2A. Other former, parallel sections called Old Kingston Road, exist in Ajax and Courtice, although Kingston Road proper does not reach Courtice today. There is an old section of the old Danforth Road in Grafton; the southwestern-most section in the Beaches area take the form of a historic urban street with storefronts, high pedestrian traffic, streetcars. The speed limit in that section is 50 km/h; until Highway 401 was constructed, Kingston Road was the principal route from Toronto to points east. Accordingly, it became the site of numerous inns and motels, many of which still dot the road in Scarborough. Now some of these inns are being demolished to make way for townhouse developments. Kingston Road is a six-lane principal arterial road through most of Scarborough, narrowing to four lanes in Durham, with a 60 km/h speed limit for the most part.
In Toronto, the street is served by the Toronto Transit Commission, which operates two streetcar lines west of Victoria Park Avenue and three bus routes further east in Scarborough. In Durham, Kingston Road is served by Durham Region Transit's Pulse bus rapid transit and GO Transit, which both operate routes, originating in Toronto, with duplicate routing along it; the regular routes serving the street are: Toronto: Durham Region and GO Transit: Highway 401 Highway 2 Highway 2A
West Rouge is a small community neighbourhood in Toronto, Canada. It is located within the former city of Scarborough; the community is bounded by Lake Ontario to the south, the Rouge River to the east, Port Union Road to the west and Kingston Road to the north. The area was recorded as being settled as early as 1798, when a crown patent for lots 29, 30, 32 & 33, "Con. 1 with the Broken Front, Township of Pickering, County of York and Home District, Province of Upper Canada", were granted to William Holmes, Esquire. In 1843 Henry Cowan, an immigrant from Ayr, bought lots 32 & 33 from Holmes and settled the land with his family. In 1848 Cowan sold a small portion of his land on the shores of Lake Ontario to the Grand Trunk Railway Company. In 1852 it became part of Ontario County. In the years following, much of the land was sold. In 1948, the land, now a housing development between Rouge Hills Dr. and Ridgewood was sold to Rouge Hills Golf and Country Club Limited. The country club and golf course were closed in 1973.
In May 1967, Rouge Hill GO Station was opened at the southwestern boundary of West Rouge, proving residents of the neighbourhood access to the GO Transit's commuter rail network. Until 1974 West Rouge was not part of Toronto or Scarborough, but was considered part of the township of Pickering; when Ontario County was reorganized as Durham Region that year, it was transferred to the then-borough of Scarborough under Metropolitan Toronto. The neighbourhood is home to several elementary schools operated by two public school boards, the Toronto District School Board, the Toronto Catholic District School Board. Prior to the area's annexation by Toronto, the schools in the area were either administered by the Ontario County Board of Education, the Ontario County Catholic Board. Following the neighbourhood's annexation in 1976, secular public schools were managed by the Scarborough Board of Education, the Metro Toronto Separate School Board; the following elementary schools operate in West Rouge: Joseph Howe Senior Public School - opened 1977 St. Brendan Catholic School West Rouge Junior Public School - opened 1954 William G. Davis Junior Public School - opened 1967 The neighbourhood of West Rouge is home to several municipal parks managed by the Toronto Parks and Recreation Division, such as West Rouge Park.
In addition to municipal parks, the neighbourhood is home to a portion of the Rouge National Urban Park, the only national urban park in Canada. Rouge National Urban Park is situated along the western boundary of the city, with the mouth of the Rouge River located within the neighbourhood; the West Rouge community is the home of a large soccer club, known as West Rouge Storm. It has house rep soccer teams for boys and girls. West Rouge community website
Scarborough—Rouge Park is a federal electoral district in Ontario, represented in the House of Commons of Canada since 2015. Scarborough—Rouge Park was created by the 2012 federal electoral boundaries redistribution and was defined in the 2013 representation order, it came into effect upon the call of the 42nd Canadian federal election that took place on October 19, 2015. It was created out of parts of the electoral districts of Pickering—Scarborough East, Scarborough—Rouge River and Scarborough—Guildwood; the riding consists of the eastern part of the Scarborough district of Toronto. It contains the neighbourhoods of Morningside Heights, Port Union, West Rouge, Highland Creek, West Hill and Malvern. According to the Canada 2011 CensusEthnic groups: 31.0% South Asian, 28.3% White, 14.4% Black, 9.2% Filipino, 4.5% Chinese, 1.6% Southeast Asian, 1.5% Indigenous, 1.4% Latino, 1.1% West Asian, 7.0% OtherLanguages: 61.6% English, 8.3% Tamil, 3.4% Chinese, 2.1% Tagalog, 1.6% Urdu, 23.0% OtherReligions: 55.4% Christian, 18.6% Hindu, 9.4% Muslim, 1.3% Sikh, 1.4% Other, 13.9% NoneMedian income: $27,217 Average income: $36,822 This riding has elected the following Members of Parliament