Maryborough is a city and a suburb in the Fraser Coast Region, Australia. It is located on the Mary River in Queensland, Australia 255 kilometres north of the state capital, Brisbane; the city is served by the Bruce Highway. It is tied to its neighbour city Hervey Bay, 30 kilometres northeast. Together they form part of the area known as the Fraser Coast. At June 2015 Maryborough had an estimated urban population of 27,846; the city was the location for the 2013 Australian Scout Jamboree. John Mathew's 1910 map shows the country of the Gubbi Wakka peoples; some Gubbi Gubbi died in the mass poisoning of upwards of 60 Aborigines on the Kilcoy run in 1842. A further 50-60 are said to have been killed by food laced with arsenic at Whiteside Station in April 1847; as colonial entrepreneurs pushed into their territory to establish pastoral stations, they together with the Badtjala set up a fierce resistance: from 1847 to 1853, 28 squatters and their shepherds were killed. In June 1849 two youths, the Pegg brothers, were speared on the property while herding sheep.
Gregory Blaxland, the 7th son of the eponymous explorer Gregory Blaxland took vengeance, heading a vigilante posse of some 50 squatters and station hands and, at Bingera, ambushed a group of 100 sleeping myalls of the'Gin gin tribe' who are identified now as the Gubbi Gubbi. They had feasted on stolen sheep. Marksmen picked off many those fleeing by diving into the Burnett River; the slaughter was extensive, the bones of many of the dead were uncovered on the site many decades later. Blaxland was in turn killed in a payback action sometime in July–August 1850, his death was revenged in a further large-scaled massacre of tribes in the area. The escaped convict James Davis lived among the Gubbi Gubbi. John Mathew, a clergyman turned anthropologist spent 5 years with them at Manumbar and mastered their language, he described their society in Two Representative Tribes of Queensland. Gubbi Gubbi language was first described by the Reverend William Ridley on the basis of notes taken from an interview with James Davis in 1855, who lived among the Ginginbara clan and called it Dippil, a generic denominator of several tribes speaking similar dialects to the Gubbi Gubbi people.
Norman Tindale situated the Gubbi Gubbi as an inland tribe of the Wide Bay–Burnett area, whose lands extended over 3,700 sq. miles and lay west of Maryborough. The northern borders ran as far as Hervey Bay. On the south, they approached the headwaters of Cooroy. Westwards, they reached as far as the Coast Ranges and Kilkivan. Gubbi Gubbi country is located between Pumicestone Road, near Caboolture in the south, through to Childers in the north; the Queensland lungfish was native to Gubbi Gubbi waters and the species fell under a taboo among them, forbidding its consumption. It was known in their language as'dala'. Maryborough was founded in 1847, was proclaimed a municipality in 1861, became a city in 1905. During the second half of the 1800s, the city was a major port of entry to immigrants arriving in Queensland from all parts of the world; the name was derived from the Mary River, named in 1847 after Lady Mary Lennox the wife of Sir Charles Augustus Fitzroy Governor of the colony of New South Wales.
Lady Mary was killed in a coach accident soon after, devastating Sir Charles. The first section of what is now the North Coast Line opened on 6 August 1881, connecting the mining town of Gympie to the river port at Maryborough and followed the Mary River valley; the Queensland Government was under constant pressure to reduce expenditure, so despite the potential for the line to be part of a future main line, the line was constructed to pioneer standards with minimal earthworks, a sinuous alignment and 17.4 kg/m lightweight rails. Coal had been discovered at Burrum, 25 km north of Maryborough, a line was constructed to serve the mine, opening in 1883; the line was extended to Bundaberg in 1888. When the Burrum line was built, it junctioned from the Maryborough line at Baddow, 3 km from the station, creating a triangular junction, with platforms being provided on all three sides. Maryborough station was situated adjacent to the commercial centre of the city, converting it into a through station would have been prohibitively expensive.
When through trains commenced running from Brisbane to Bundaberg and beyond, trains ran into Maryborough, a fresh steam locomotive was attached to the other end of the train, it departed. Once diesel locomotives were introduced, there was no need to replace engines, through trains paused at Baddow on the 3rd leg of the triangular junction before proceeding north. A one carriage connecting service was provided from Maryborough to meet the through train at Baddow, return; as trains became longer, the platform on the 3rd leg was not of sufficient length, the trains would stop on the platform on the line to Maryborough, having to reverse out of, or back into the platform before proceeding further, adding about 15 minutes to the journey. The situation was resolved with the opening of the Maryborough West bypass in 1988. Australia's only outbreak of pneumonic plague occurred in Maryborough in 1905. At the time Maryborough was Queensland's largest port—a reception centre for wool, timber and other rural products.
A freighter from Hong Kong, where plague was rampant, was in the Port of Maryborough about the time that a wharf worker named Richard O'Connell took home some sacking from the wharf, for his children to sleep on. Subsequently, five of the seven O'Connell children, two nurses, a neighbour died from
Mary River (Queensland)
The Mary River is a major river system located in the South East and Wide Bay–Burnett regions of Queensland, Australia. The river was named in 1847 by the New South Wales Governor, Sir Charles Fitzroy, after his wife, Lady Mary Lennox; the Mary River was used for rafting timber during the early years of European land settlement, the discovery of gold at Gympie in 1867 brought an inflow of miners and pastoralists. Alluvial flats along the Mary River and some of its tributaries were used for cropping, there was small-time dairying in the 1880s; the river rises at Booroobin in west of Landsborough. From its source, the Mary River flows north through the towns of Kenilworth, Gympie and Maryborough before emptying into the Great Sandy Strait, a passage of water between the mainland and Fraser Island, near the town of River Heads, 17 km south of Hervey Bay; the Mary River flows into the Great Sandy Strait, near wetlands of international significance recognised by the International agreement of the Ramsar Convention and the UNESCO Fraser Island World Heritage Area, which attracts thousands of visitors every year.
Notable river crossings include the Dickabram Bridge, the Granville Bridge at Maryborough, the Lamington Bridge. From source to mouth, the Mary River is joined by nineteen tributaries, including the Tinana Creek, Munna Creek, Obi Obi Creek, Yabba Creek, Wide Bay Creek, Six Mile Creek, Deep Creek, the Susan River; the river descends 209 metres over its 291-kilometre course. The river's catchment area is 9,595 square kilometres and is bounded by the Conondale and Burnett Ranges. While there are only two impoundments on the Mary River itself there are a number of dams within the Mary River catchment on tributaries, Borumba Dam on Yabba Creek west of Imbil, Baroon Pocket Dam on Obi Obi Creek west of Montville, Six Mile Creek Dam on Six Mile Creek east of Cooroy, Cedar Pocket Dam on Deep Creek at Cedar Pocket, two weirs and a barrage on Tinana Creek, it is a historical Australian river that contains gold as was first discovered in Gympie by James Nash. The Mary River experienced major flooding during the 2010–2011 Queensland floods.
In some places the river rose 20 metres. In Maryborough the river peaked at 8.2 metres. The Bruce Highway was closed to the north and south of Gympie and more than 50 homes and businesses were inundated; the high turbidity levels interfered with the natural breeding cycle for some of the river species. The endangered Mary River turtle lives in the river. Other marine life native to the river include the Queensland lungfish and the endangered Mary River cod. Significant vulnerable and endangered species that live in the river include endangered giant barred frog, Cascade tree frog and Coxen's fig parrot and the vulnerable tusked frog, honey blue-eye fish, the Richmond birdwing butterfly and the Illidge's ant blue butterfly. Saltwater crocodiles are seen in the lower reaches of the river, with one notable 3.5-metre crocodile being known to live in the river since April 2012. Although the official range for saltwater crocodiles stops near Gladstone, it is regarded that the Mary River is the most southerly range limit for crocodiles.
The river was traditionally named Moocooboola by the indigenous Australian Kabi people. The river was named Wide Bay River on 10 May 1842 by early European explorers, Andrew Petrie and Henry Stuart Russell; the official name was changed on 8 September 1847 by Charles Augustus FitzRoy Governor of New South Wales, to Mary River — after his wife Lady Mary Lennox. In light of the region's longest drought in one hundred years, the Queensland Government announced on 27 April 2006 its intention to dam part of the Mary River at Traveston Crossing, south of Gympie; the project was cancelled in November 2009, after being refused approval by Federal Environment Minister Peter Garrett. The action had been planned to create a reservoir "almost as big as the Wivenhoe Dam" by 2011; the Traveston Dam was projected to inundate an area of fertile farmland, endangered regional ecosystems and small towns more than 1.3 times the area of Sydney Harbour. There was considerable local opposition to the proposal, with all Mary Valley and Sunshine Coast Shire Councils opposed to the dam proposal on a variety of grounds including: the dislocation of the local community from the inundated area.
More than 20,000 residents formally petitioned the Queensland State Parliament to halt the dam. There were further concerns that the geomechanics of the proposed site were not suitable for damming due to significant leakage and evaporation problems. There was strong opposition to the dam from the wider and international community, based on environmental concerns related to the endangered Mary River cod, Mary River turtle, giant barred frog, Cascade tree frog, Coxen's fig parrot, the vulnerable Queensland lungfish, tusked frog, honey blue-eye fish, the Richmond birdwing butterfly and the Illidge's ant blue butterfly. There were fears for the dugong, a globally vulnerable species, it was alleged that reduced fresh water flowing to the Great Sandy Strait would have affected the growth of seagrass, the dugong's primary food source. The Mary River Turtle and the Queensland Lungfish att
Walkers Limited was an Australian engineering company, based in Maryborough, Queensland. It built ships and railway locomotives; the Walkers factory still produces rolling stock as part of Downer Rail. In 1863 John Walker and three friends set up the Union Foundry of John Co in Ballarat. In 1867 a branch was opened in Maryborough; the Ballarat assets were disposed of in 1879 and in 1884, the business became a limited company under the title John Walker & Co Limited, being renamed Walkers Limited in 1888. The company produced most of the parts for machinery at sugar mills. In 1980 Walkers Limited was sold to Evans Deakin Industries, it was included in the purchase of Evans Deakin by Downer Group in March 2001 and today the Maryborough factory continues to operate as part of Downer Rail. In 2003 Bundaberg Foundry Engineers completed the acquisition of the Walkers Sugar Business and moved to change the operating name to Bundaberg Walkers Engineering in January 2008. In 1884, the firm began work on five hopper barges for the Queensland Department of Harbours & Rivers.
During construction the decision was taken to convert them to serve as auxiliary gunboats, which made them the largest warships built in Australia before federation. During World War II, Walkers constructed two River-class frigates, a Bay-class frigate and seven Bathurst-class corvettes, in addition to other smaller vessels. Post war naval contracts included seven Attack-class patrol boats in the late 1960s and eight Balikpapan-class landing craft heavy in the early 1970s. After the completion of the latter, Walker's Maryborough shipyard closed in 1974. 1 Bay-class frigate: HMAS Shoalhaven 2 River-class frigates: HMAS Burdekin and Diamantina 7 Bathurst-class corvettes: HMAS Bowen, Gladstone, Rockhampton and Toowoomba 7 Attack-class patrol boats: HMAS Advance, Arrow, Barbette and Lae 8 Balikpapan-class landing craft heavy: HMAS Balikpapan, Labuan, Wewak, Salamaua and Betano 9 Koala-class boom defence vessel: HMAS Kimbla 2 Explorer class general-purpose vessels: HMAS Bass, HMAS Banks The company's first locomotive was built at Maryborough in 1873 for William Pettigrew's Cooloola Tramway.
The first major contract for locomotives came in 1896, when an order for thirty B15 class steam locomotives was placed by Queensland Railways. In the 1960s Walkers offered a diesel-hydraulic unit to Queensland's sugar operators. Although not successful, it did sell six to BHP, Whyalla from 1962, it had more success with its DH class shunter with over 130 built for Queensland Rail, the New South Wales Government Railways, Emu Bay Railway and Western Australian Government Railways. 46 Queensland B class 122 Queensland PB15 class 45 Queensland C16 class 138 Queensland C17 class 6 Queensland C19 class 83 Queensland B18¼ class 25 Queensland BB18¼ class 20 Victorian Dd class 20 Commonwealth Railways KA class 8 Commonwealth Railways C class 40 South Australian T class 3 Tasmanian Government Railways Q class 12 Queensland 1170 class 6 BHP Whyalla DH class 3 Emu Bay Railway 10 class 73 Queensland Railways DH class 50 New South Wales 73 class 7 Emu Bay Railway 11 class 5 Western Australian Government Railways M class 50 Queensland Rail 3500/3600 class 30 Queensland Rail 3900 class 264 Queensland Rail EMU carriages 36 Queensland Rail SMU200 carriages 90 Queensland Rail SMU220 carriages 20 Queensland Rail ICE carriages 30 Queensland Rail IMU100 carriages 12 Queensland Rail IMU120 carriages 96 Transperth A series carriages 90 Kuala Lumpur Metro Line 3 & 4 light rail vehicles 12 Queensland Rail Tilt Train carriages In 2017, Walkers Limited was inducted into the Queensland Business Leaders Hall of Fame.
Walkers Limited is regarded as being one of Queensland's greatest companies spanning 150 years in the engineering manufacturing sector
The Courier-Mail is a daily tabloid newspaper published in Brisbane, Australia. Owned by News Corp Australia, it is published daily from Monday to Saturday in tabloid format, its editorial offices are located at Bowen Hills, in Brisbane's inner northern suburbs, it is printed at Murarrie, in Brisbane's eastern suburbs. It is available for purchase throughout Queensland, most regions of Northern New South Wales and parts of the Northern Territory; the history of The Courier-Mail is through four mastheads. The Moreton Bay Courier became The Courier the Brisbane Courier and since 1933 The Courier-Mail; the Moreton Bay Courier was established as a weekly paper in June 1846. Issue frequency increased to bi-weekly in January 1858, tri-weekly in December 1859 daily under the editorship of Theophilus Parsons Pugh from 14 May 1861; the recognised founder and first editor was Arthur Sidney Lyon, assisted by its printer, James Swan, the mayor of Brisbane and member of Queensland Legislative Council. Lyon referred to as the "father of the Press" in the colony of Queensland, had served as a writer and journalist in Melbourne, moved on to found and edit journals such as Moreton Bay Free Press, North Australian and Darling Downs Gazette.
Lyon was encouraged to emigrate by Rev. Dr. John Dunmore Lang and arrived in Brisbane from Sydney in early 1846 to establish a newspaper, he persuaded a printer of Lang's Sydney newspaper The Colonialist to join him. Lyon and Swan established themselves on the corner of Queen Street and Albert Street, Brisbane, in a garret of a building known as the North Star Hotel; the first issue of the Moreton Bay Courier, consisting of 4 pages, appeared weekly on Saturday 20 June 1846, with Lyon as editor and Swan as publisher. After some 18 months and Swan disagreed on many aspects of editorial policy, including transportation of convicts and squatting. Lyon took over sole control in late 1847, but had money problems, gave sole control to Swan. Swan sold out to Thomas Blacket Stephens in about November 1859; the Moreton Bay Courier became The Courier, the Brisbane Courier in 1864. In June–July 1868, Stephens floated a new company, transferred the plant and copyright of the Brisbane Courier to "The Brisbane Newspaper Company".
He was the managing director. The Journal was, from November 1873 to December 1880, managed by one of the new part owners, the Tasmanian-born former public servant Gresley Lukin. Although called'managing editor', actual writing and editing was by William Augustine O'Carroll. Most prominent of the various editors and sub-editors of the Queenslander'literary staff' were William Henry Traill NSW politician and editor of the famed Sydney journal'The Bulletin', Carl Adolph Feilberg, Danish born but from the age of six educated in England and in France. Carl Feilberg followed William Henry Trail in the role of political commentator and the de facto editor of the Queenslander to January 1881, he succeeded William O'Carroll as Courier editor-in-chief from September 1883 to his death in October 1887. Lukin's roles as part owner-editor changed on 21 December 1880. Charles Hardie Buzacott, former'Postmaster General' in the first McIlwraith government, had been a staff journalist. John James Knight was editor-in-chief of the Brisbane Courier 1906–16 managing director chairman of all the company's publications.
The first edition of The Courier-Mail was published on 28 August 1933, after Keith Murdoch's Herald and Weekly Times acquired and merged the Brisbane Courier and the Daily Mail. In 1987, Rupert Murdoch's News Limited acquired newspaper control, outstanding shares of Queensland Newspapers Pty Ltd; the Courier-Mail was inducted into the Queensland Business Leaders Hall of Fame in 2015. The Courier-Mail is a right leaning newspaper with four editorial endorsements for the coalition to one for Labor in the period 1996–2007; the Courier-Mail supports free market economic policies and the process of globalisation. It supported the 2003 invasion of Iraq; the Courier-Mail has the fourth-highest circulation of any daily newspaper in Australia. Its average Monday-Friday net paid print sales were 172,801 between January and March 2013, having fallen 8.0 per cent compared to the previous year. Its average Saturday net paid print sales were 228,650 between January and March 2013, down 10.5 per cent compared to the previous year.
The paper's Monday-Friday readership was 488,000 in March 2013, having fallen 11.6 per cent compared to the previous year. Its Saturday readership was 616,000 in March 2013, down 13.8 per cent compared to the previous year. Around three-quarters of the paper's readership is located in the Brisbane metropolitan area. Although claimed to be Brisbane's only daily newspaper since the demise of Queensland Newspapers' own afternoon newspaper The Telegraph in 1988, it arguably has had two competitors since 2007. News Corp itself published mX, a free afternoon newspaper, since 2007, but mX had a low news content, was discontinued in mid 2015. Fairfax Media has published the online Brisbane Times since 2007. According to third-party web analytics providers Alexa and SimilarWeb, Courier-Mail's website is the 141st and 273rd most visited in Australia as of August 2015. SimilarWeb rates the site as the 25th most visited news website in Australia, attracting 2.6 million visitors per month. Prominent journalists and columnists include Mike O'Connor.
Its current Editor is Lachlan Heywood. Its editorial cartoonist is Sean Leahy, its National Political Corresp
Bank of New South Wales
The Bank of New South Wales known as The Wales, was the first bank in Australia, being established in Sydney in 1817 and situated on Broadway. During the 19th and early 20th century, the Bank opened branches first throughout Australia and Oceania, it merged with many other financial institutions merging with the Commercial Bank of Australia in 1982 to form the Westpac Banking Corporation. Established in 1817 in Macquarie Place, Sydney premises leased from Mary Reibey, the Bank of New South Wales was the first bank in Australia, it was established under the economic regime of Governor Lachlan Macquarie. At the time, the colony of Sydney had not been supplied with currency, instead barter and promissory notes was the payment method of choice. Governor Macquarie himself used cattle and rum as payment for the construction of Sydney Hospital and the road from Sydney to Liverpool; the suggestion of establishing a bank was raised in March 1810. In February 1817 seven directors of the bank were elected: D'Arcy Wentworth, John Harris, Robert Jenkins, Thomas Wylde, Alexander Riley, William Redfern and John Thomas Campbell.
Campbell was elected the bank's first president and Edward Smith Hall as its first cashier and secretary. During the 19th and early 20th century, the Bank opened branches throughout Oceania; this included at Moreton Bay in 1850 in Victoria, New Zealand, South Australia, Western Australia, Fiji and Tasmania. Besides expanding its branch network, the bank expanded by acquiring other banks: 1927: BNSW acquired the Western Australian Bank, established in 1841 or 1842. 1931: BNSW acquired the Australian Bank of Commerce, which had branches in both New South Wales and Queensland. 1942: BNSW suspended operations in Papua after the Japanese Army captured many of the towns in which it had branches and agencies, bombed Port Moresby. It resumed operations in 1946. 1957: BNSW buys 40% of finance company Australian Guarantee Corporation and over the years progressively increased its interest to a majority stake of 76% and acquired all remaining shares in 1988. 1968: BNSW joins Databank Systems Limited consortium in New Zealand to provide joint data processing services.
Around this time the bank started going'on line' with the use of their computer nicknamed'Fabicus' the letters standing for First Australian Banking Institution Computer Used in Sydney. Fabicus had been in use since 1958 in the processing of some records. With advanced programming, The use of this computer changed the whole concept of banking as it had been done in years with its combination of hand-written and machined records. Branches became attached to the data processing centre and other banks joined the ranks of computer generated reports and expansion. 1970: BNSW established a branch on Tarawa in Kiribati, which took over the government savings bank. The company first became listed on 18 July 1970. 1971: Branch established in the New Hebrides. 1973: BNSW became the corporate sponsor of the Rescue Helicopter service started by Surf Life Saving Australia. The service is known today as the Westpac Life Saver Rescue Helicopter Service 1974: it participated in a joint venture to establish the Bank of Tonga.
1975: BNSW incorporated its local business in Papua New Guinea as Bank of New South Wales. 1977: BNSW formed Pacific Commercial Bank in Samoa as a joint venture with Bank of Hawaii, buying into Pacific Savings and Loan Company, in which Bank of Hawaii had had an ownership interest since 1971. 1982: BNSW merged with the Commercial Bank of Australia to form Westpac Banking Corporation ending the use of the Bank of New South Wales name. The Parliament of New South Wales passed the Bank of New South Wales Act 1982 on 4 May 1982, completing the name change; the new Westpac brand-name incorporated the "W", the logo of the Bank of New South Wales. The name Westpac is a portmanteau of Western Pacific. Sir Alfred Davidson, General Manager, 1929–1945 Bob White, Chief General Manager, 1977–1982 In 1931 the bank was granted a coat of arms from the College of Arms, symbolised the bank's 1927 acquisition of the Western Australian Bank; the arms featured an Emu and a Black swan rampant supporting a shield surmounted by a kangaroo and the emblem of the rising sun.
On the shield are shown a ship, two sheaves of wheat, a sheep, a cow, a crossed pick and spade, representing the principal industries of Australia at the time: pastoral, agricultural and shipping. The motto included was "Sic fortis Etruria crevit", variously translated as "Thus strong Etruria prospered", a line taken from Virgil's Second Georgic and an early motto of the Colony of New South Wales; these arms replaced the original arms known as the "Advance Australia Arms", similar to the first Coat of arms of Australia used until 1910, using the same kangaroo and emu supporters and the motto "Advance Australia". The shield in these arms was retained in the 1931 arms; the Bank of New South Wales built many bank buildings in Australia, some of which survive and some are heritage-listed. However few are still used as banks. Surviving buildings with heritage listing include: 341 George Street, former Sydney Head Office. 107-109 Bathurst Street, Sydney. 306 Pacific Highway, Crows Nest. 264 Church Street, Sydney Bank of New South Wal
Hervey Bay (Urangan) railway line
Hervey Bay railway line, sometimes known as Urangan railway line, is a closed railway line in Queensland, Australia. It was opened in 1896 to Pialba and it was extended to Urangan in 1913, it was extended to the end of the Urangan Pier in 1917, along with the opening of the pier. It was closed in 1993; the line has a storied history. Coal was discovered on the Burrum River in 1863; the Maryborough railway line had commenced operations as an isolated system with the opening of a line from the Port of Maryborough to the goldfields at Gympie. The coal at Burrum River generated little interest, but by the 1880s, developers were pushing for a railway to the river, the first section of the line, which would be extended to Bundaberg, opened from Baddow to Howard on 30 June 1883; this gave the coal mines near Howard access to the Maryborough wharves, but the small, shallow vessels which could traverse the Mary River were not conductive to development, shipping of the coal from Burrum River, across Hervey Bay to the Mary River where it was transshipped to larger vessels was met with limited success.
In 1882-1883, a trial survey was carried out by the government with regards to a possible railway to Hervey Bay. The trial had been made from a point 11 km north of Croydon to a distance of 27 km. By commencing the line so far north, it would avoid major bridging of the Susan River, the land the line would traverse would be flat; the proposal by Vernon Corporation led to the government's proposal being shelved for the time being. In 1883, capitalists from the state of Victoria visited the Wide Bay area to purchase land for coal mining at Burrum, planned to construct a railway or tramway to Hervey Bay, where they would construct coal wharves. On the bay, it would be possible to provide a deep water berth for larger ships, necessary for coal to be exported intrastate and overseas. Burrum coal was cited as an alternative to Newcastle coal for industry in Victoria where coal was unavailable and required importing; the capitalists formed into the Vernon Coal & Railway Company, incorporated in Melbourne on 25 September 1884.
As an incentive to Queensland investors to make available their local knowledge and interest, the company planned to allot £50,000 to Queenslanders. Local support was not as great as expected and the whole of the capital required was subscribed by Melbourne businessmen. In September 1884, the Vernon Corporation presented the Maryborough and Urangan Railway Bill to the Queensland Parliament. Included in the bill was the proposal to build a railway or tramway from Maryborough to Urangan, which the company guaranteed to build within 8 months if the bill were to be passed, it was noted that the line would benefit the district and the coal trade, as well as providing easy access to the beach resort of Pialba. Other proposals included the privilege selection of 1,000 acres of Burrum coal land at market value and the purchasing of 200 acres of frontage land on Hervey Bay for the construction of wharves; the proposed railway was planned to commence at Kent Street in Maryborough, would run along the main line to Baddow, causing as little inconvenience to the railway traffic to Gympie as possible.
It would utilise the first 7 and a half miles of the Burrum railway to a point the same location as Colton run north-east to Pialba and south to Urangan on a new formation. The coal traffic would be catered for by a loop line which would diverge from the Burrum railway line 12 miles north of Baddow and join the new line somewhere near Pialba. Stations were to be located at Kent Street and Urangan; the rails were to be 60 lb per yard, although this weight would become state standard, it was heavier than the rail, used when the railway was built. The government had the option to buy the railway and wharf facilities at a cost, plus 5% of the value of rolling stock and other equipment, after ten years. Extensive alterations were made to the bill after a select committee was set up to investigate it, although there were no alterations to the course of the line, the committee added that the line was to be built within three years and the period after which the government had the option of purchasing it was reduced to five years, not well received by the Victorian promoters.
Due to this, they promptly withdrew their support for the scheme. The Maryborough and Urangan Railway Bill received government approval on 5 December 1884, but by 1885 no work on construction of the railway or its associated works had been undertaken. In March 1885, some of the Vernon Co. directors visited the Burrum coalfield and were surprised to find that little development of the coal deposits had taken place, but promises were made that the railway would soon be commenced. Though the company had proven to the government that it had sufficient funds to complete the railway, doubts were now being expressed as to the company's intentions, the government withheld deeds of 1,000 acres of land that the company had selected on the coalfield for mining purposes until the completion of the railway; the first share issue of the company in February 1886, did not meet with the expected response and difficulties were being experienced in obtaining land leases for right of way. Vernon Corporation was on the verge of collapse in 1887, but interest shown by London capitalists, the Australian-based Transcontinental railway syndicate, in buying the company, gave renewed hope.
This led to the presentation in September, 1887, of a further bill
Immigration to Australia
Immigration to Australia began when the ancestors of Australian Aborigines arrived on the continent via the islands of Maritime Southeast Asia and New Guinea. Permanent European settlement began in 1788 with the establishment of a British penal colony in New South Wales. From early federation in 1901, Australia maintained the White Australia policy, abolished after World War II. Since 1945, more than 7 million people have settled in Australia. From the late 1970s, there was a significant increase in immigration from Asian and other non-European countries, making Australia a multicultural country. Net overseas migration has increased from 30,042 in 1992–93 to 178,582 persons in 2015–16; the largest components of immigration are family re-union programs. A 2014 sociological study concluded that: "Australia and Canada are the most receptive to immigration among western nations". Australia is a signatory to the Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and has resettled many asylum seekers. In recent years, Australia's policy of mandatory detention of unauthorised arrivals by boat has attracted controversy.
On August 7 2018, Australian Bureau of Statistics population clock reached 25 million, with 62% of the growth in the last ten years being a result of immigration. The milestone was 33 years ahead of schedule. Senator Pauline Hanson has called for a national plebiscite asking voters if they think immigration is too high. Opinion polls show majority support for reduced immigration; the first migration of humans to the continent took place around 65,000 years ago via the islands of Maritime Southeast Asia and Papua New Guinea as part of the early history of human migration out of Africa. European migration to Australia began with the British convict settlement of Sydney Cove on 26 January 1788; the First Fleet comprised 11 ships carrying 775 convicts and 645 officials, members of the crew and their families and children. The settlers consisted of second-rate soldiers and a crew of sailors. There were few with skills needed to start a self-sufficient settlement, such as farmers and builders, the colony experienced hunger and hardships.
Male settlers far outnumbered female settlers. The Second Fleet arrived in 1790 bringing more convicts; the conditions of the transportation was described worse than slave transports. Of the 1,026 convicts who embarked, 267 died during the voyage; the fleet was more of a drain on the struggling settlement than of any benefit. Conditions on the Third Fleet, which followed on the heels of the Second Fleet in 1791, were a bit better; the fleet comprised 11 ships. Of the more than 2000 convicts brought onto the ships, 173 male convicts and 9 female convicts died during the voyage. Other transport fleets bringing further convicts as well as freemen to the colony would follow. By the end of the penal transportation in 1868 165,000 people had entered Australia as convicts; the colonies promoted migration by a variety of schemes. The Bounty Immigration Scheme boosted emigration from the United Kingdom to New South Wales; the South Australia Company was established to encourage settlement in South Australia by labourers and skilled migrants.
The Gold rush era, beginning in 1851, led to an enormous expansion in population, including large numbers of British and Irish settlers, followed by smaller numbers of Germans and other Europeans, Chinese. This latter group were subject to increasing restrictions and discrimination, making it impossible for many to remain in the country. With the Federation of the Australian colonies into a single nation, one of the first acts of the new Commonwealth Government was the Immigration Restriction Act 1901, otherwise known as the White Australia policy, a strengthening and unification of disparate colonial policies designed to restrict non-White settlement; because of opposition from the British government, an explicit racial policy was avoided in the legislation, with the control mechanism being a dictation test in a European language selected by the immigration officer. This was selected to be one; the most celebrated case was Egon Erwin Kisch, a left-wing Czechoslovakian journalist, who could speak five languages, failed in a test in Scottish Gaelic, deported as illiterate.
The government found that if it wanted immigrants it had to subsidise migration. The great distance from Europe made Australia a more expensive and less attractive destination than Canada and the United States; the number of immigrants needed during different stages of the economic cycle could be controlled by varying the subsidy. Before federation in 1901, assisted migrants received passage assistance from colonial government funds; the British government paid for the passage of convicts, the military and civil servants. Few immigrants received colonial government assistance before 1831. With the onset of the Great Depression, the Governor-General proclaimed the cessation of immigration until further notice, the next group to arrive were 5000 Jewish refuge families from Germany in 1938. Approved groups such as these were assured of entry by being issued with a Certificate of Exemption from the Dictation Test. After World War II Australia launched a massive immigration program, believing that having narrowly avoided a Japanese invasion, Australia must "populate or perish".
Hundreds of thousands of displaced Europeans migrated to Australia and over 1,000,000 British subjects immigrated under the Assisted Passage Migration Scheme, colloquially becoming known as Ten Pound Poms. The scheme targeted citizens of all C