Port of Berbera
The Port of Berbera known as Berbera Port, is the official seaport of Berbera, the commercial capital of Somaliland. It is classified as a major class port. Berbera Port served as a naval and missile base for the Somali central government. Following a 1972 agreement between the Siad Barre administration and the USSR, the port's facilities were patronized by the Soviets, it was expanded for US military use, after the Somali authorities strengthened ties with the American government. As of 2013, the Port of Berbera has a a depth of 11.5 -- 12 metres. It is strategically located along the oil route. In July 2013, the Raysut Cement company of Oman announced that it is scheduled to build a new state-of-the-art cement terminal at the Port of Berbera; the construction project is part of a joint venture with Somali business partners. It will comprise three silos with a 4000 t capacity each, which will be earmarked for storage and distribution of cement. In May 2016, DP World signed a US$442 million agreement with the government of Somaliland to annex and operate a regional trade and logistics hub at the Port of Berbera Somaliland.
The project, which will be phased in, will involve the setting up of a free zone. On 1 March 2018, Ethiopia became a major shareholder following an agreement with DP World and the Somaliland Port Authority. DP World holds a 51% stake in the project, Somaliland 30% and Ethiopia the remaining 19%; as part of the agreement, the government of Ethiopia will invest in infrastructure to develop the Berbera Corridor as a trade gateway for the inland country, one of the fastest growing countries in the world. There are plans to construct an additional berth at the Port of Berbera, in line with the Berbera master plan, which DP World has started implementing, while adding new equipment to further improve efficiencies and productivity of the port; the agreement comes as part of a larger government-to-government Memorandum of understanding between Government of the United Arab Emirates and the Government of the Republic of Somaliland to further strengthen their strategic ties. However, the agreement has stirred up debate with the main Somaliland opposition party, Waddani party arguing the agreement was between Somalia and the UAE, this claim was denied by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Somalia stating that no evidence was produced indicating the Berbera port deal was signed with previous governments of Somalia.
Somaliland DP World Port Transportation in Somaliland
The Istanbul Metro is a rapid transit railway network that serves the city of Istanbul, Turkey. It is operated by Metro Istanbul, a public enterprise, controlled by the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality; the oldest section of the metro is M1 line, which opened in 1989. The system consists of six lines named the M6 Mini-Metro. More lines are under construction or planned: M8 will be on the Asian side, while M7, M9 will be on the European side. Istanbul Metro is connected with Marmaray and F1 Funicular underground systems and T1 modern tram ground system; the oldest underground urban rail line in Istanbul is the Tünel, which entered service on January 17, 1875. It is the world's second-oldest underground urban rail line after the London Underground, built in 1863, the first underground urban rail line in continental Europe; the first master plan for a full metro network in Istanbul, titled Avant Projet d'un Métropolitain à Constantinople and conceived by the French engineer L. Guerby, dates to January 10, 1912.
The plan comprised a total of 24 stations between the Topkapı and Şişli districts and included a connection through the Golden Horn. Each station would have a 75-metre platform next to the rail line, while the distance between stations varied from 220 to 975 metres; the blueprints of the project, never realized, are today displayed at the Istanbul Technical University Museum. In 1936 the French urban planner Henri Prost proposed a metro network between the districts of Taksim and Beyazıt, to the north and south of the Golden Horn, respectively. In October 1951 the Dutch firm Nedeco proposed a similar route between Taksim and Beyazıt, in September 1952 the Director of the Paris Transportation Department, Marc Langevin, prepared a 14-chapter report together with his associate Louis Meizzonet for the implementation of the project and its integration with the other means of public transportation in the city. However, these plans never came into effect and all proposals were put on hold until 1987, when the planning for the current Istanbul Metro was made.
Construction works for the first'modern' mass transit railway system started in 1989. The M1 was called "Hafif Metro". Although it was built as a grade separated line, the M1 line operates with shorter trainsets and shorter station platforms than is standard on a traditional metro line, hence its "light metro" designation; the M1 line was extended from Aksaray towards the western suburbs, reaching Atatürk Airport in the southwest in 2002. Construction of the M2, began on September 11, 1992, but faced many challenges due to the numerous archaeological sites that were discovered during the drilling process, which slowed down or stopped the construction of many stations at south. Taking into account the seismic activity in Istanbul, the entire network was built with the cut-and-cover method to withstand an earthquake of up to 9.0 on the Richter magnitude scale. The first section between Taksim and 4. Levent entered service, after some delays, on September 16, 2000; this line has 6 stations, which all look similar but are in different colours.
In 2000, there were 8 Alstom-built 4-car train sets in service, which ran every 5 minutes on average and transported 130,000 passengers daily. On January 30, 2009, the first train sets built by Eurotem entered service. Eurotem will build a total of 92 new wagons for the M2 line; as of January 30, 2009, a total of 34 trainsets, each with 4 cars, were being used on the M2 line. A northern extension from 4. Levent to Maslak was opened on January 30, 2009. On September 2, 2010 the northern terminus Darüşşafaka followed; the southern extension of the M2 line from Taksim to Yenikapı, across the Golden Horn via Haliç station on the bridge and underground through the historic peninsula, entered service on 15 February 2014. The Taksim-Yenikapı extension is 5.2 km long, with four stations. The total cost of the extension was $593 million. At Yenikapı it will intersect with the Marmaray commuter line; the trip between the Şişhane station in Beyoğlu and the Haciosman station in Maslak is 20 km long and takes 27 minutes.
Levent, 4. Levent - Haciosman The total length of the European side of the M2 line will reach 23 km when all 16 stations from Hacıosman to Yenikapı will be completed. On the Asian side, construction is in progress of the remaining portion of the 26.5 km long M4 line from Kadıköy to Kaynarca, yielding a total of 19 stations. It was built by the Astaldi / Makyol / Gülermak consortium; the first section opened on August 2012, terminating in Kartal. Construction of the 20 km long M5 line from Üsküdar via Ümraniye to Sancaktepe started in March 2012; the Metro operates from 06:00 a.m. to 00.00 a.m. every 6–10 minutes. M2 Yenikapı - Hacıosman operates from 06:00 a.m. to 00.00 a.m. line During peak-hours the intervals reduce to 3 minutes. There is a flat fare – 2.60 TL with Istanbulkart only, paid in tokens. Akbil tickets/cards are valid, the most popular method for long distance traveling
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Transport in Somalia
Transport in Somalia refers to the transportation networks and modes of transport in effect in Somalia. They include highways and seaports, in addition to various forms of public and private vehicular and aerial transportation. Somalia's network of roads is 21,830 km long; as of 2010, 2,757 km of streets are paved, 844 km are gravel, 18,229 km are earth. 2,559 km are primary roads, 4,850 km are secondary roads, 14,421 km are rural/feeder roads. As of May 2015, over 70,000 vehicles are registered with the Puntland Ministry of Works and Transport. A 750 km highway connects major cities in the northern part of the country, such as Bosaso and Garowe, with towns in the south. In 2012, the Puntland Highway Authority completed rehabilitation work on the central artery linking Garowe with Galkayo; the transportation body began an upgrade and repair project in June 2012 on the large Garowe–Bosaso Highway. Additionally, renovations were initiated in October 2012 on the central artery linking Bosaso with Qardho.
Plans are in the works to construct new roads connecting littoral towns in the region to the main thoroughfare. In September 2013, the Somali federal government signed an official cooperation agreement with its Chinese counterpart in Mogadishu as part of a five-year national recovery plan; the pact will see the Chinese authorities reconstruct several major infrastructural landmarks in the Somali capital and elsewhere, as well as the road between Galkayo and Burao in the northern part of the country. In June 2014, the Puntland administration inaugurated a new 5.9 km paved road in the city. The construction project leads to the Bosaso seaport, was completed in conjunction with UNHABITAT; the Puntland government plans to invest at least 23 million Euros in contributions from international partners in similar road infrastructure development initiatives. In October 2014, the Puntland Highway Authority began construction on a new highway connecting the presidential palace in Garowe with various other parts of the administrative capital.
Financing for the project was provided by the Puntland government. According to the Head of the PHA Mohamud Abdinur Adan, the new thoroughfare aims to facilitate local transportation and movement. Puntland Minister of Public Works Mohamed Hersi indicated that the Puntland authorities plan to build and repair other roads linking to the regional urban centers. In December 2014, Galkayo District Mayor Yacqub Mohamed Abdalla and other Puntland officials laid the foundation for a new tarmac road in western Galkayo; the project was funded by the Puntland administration, with other roads in the broader district slated to be paved with bitumen in 2015. Among the latter streets, a tar construction project began on the Durdur road in the Garsor suburb in February 2015; the main road in the Central Business District as well as the airport road are concurrently scheduled to be paved. In November 2014, the Ministry of Interior and Federalism reached an agreement with the government of Qatar to assist in the renovation of existing roads in Somalia and the construction of new streets.
In January 2015, the Interim Juba Administration launched a beautification and cleaning campaign in Kismayo's transportation system. Part of a broader urbanization drive, the initiative includes the clearing of clogged streets and lanes, razing of illegal buildings therein, further development of the municipal road network. In March 2015, Puntland President Abdiweli Mohamed Ali in conjunction with EU Ambassador to Somalia Michele Cervone d'Urso and German Ambassador to Somalia Andreas Peschke launched the Sustainable Road Maintenance Project. Part of the New Deal Compact for Somalia, the initiative's implementation is facilitated by 17.75 million Euros and 3 million Euros provided by the EU and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit, respectively. Among other objectives, the project aims to renovate the highway between Galkayo and Garowe, including funding refurbishments on the damaged segments of the road and construction of check dams and flood control structures; the initiative involves a routine annual maintenance program, which focuses on side brushing, clearing bridges after floods and culvert clearance, pothole filling.
Additionally, the project will offer policy support to the Puntland Ministry of Public Works and the Puntland Highway Authority, local contractors will receive on-the-job training to upgrade their skills. The Somali Civil Aviation Authority is Somalia's national civil aviation authority body. Based at Aden Abdulle International Airport in Mogadishu, it is under the aegis of the federal Ministry of Air and Land Transport. In 2012, the ministry along with the Somali Civil Aviation Steering Committee set a three-year window for reconstruction of the national civil aviation capacity. After a long period of management by the Civil Aviation Caretaker Authority for Somalia, SCAMA in conjunction with the International Civil Aviation Organization finalized a process in December 2014 to transfer control of Somalia's airspace to the new Air Space Management Centre in the capital; as of 2012, Somalia has 61 airports according to the CIA factfile. 7 of these have paved runways. Among the latter, four have runways of over 3,047 m.
There are 55 airports with unpaved landing areas. One has a runway of over 3,047 m. Major airports in the country include the Aden Adde International Airport in Mogadishu, the Hargeisa International Airport in Hargeisa, the Kismayo Airport in Kismayo, the Bender Qassim International Airport in Bosaso, the
The Italian Line or Italia Line, whose official name was Italia di Navigazione S.p. A. was a passenger shipping line that operated regular transatlantic services between Italy and the United States, Italy and South America. During the late 1960s the company turned to running cruises, from 1981 it became a global freight operator; the company was founded in 1932 through a merger of the Genoa-based Navigazione Generale Italiana, the Turin-based Lloyd Sabaudo, the Trieste-based Cosulich STN lines, encouraged by the Italian government. The new company acquired the Cosulich-owned ships MS Saturnia and MS Vulcania, the Lloyd Sabaudo-owned SS Conte Rosso, SS Conte Biancamano and SS Conte Grande and the NGI-owned SS Giulio Cesare, SS Duilio, SS Roma and MS Augustus; the same year two commissioned ocean liners were delivered to the company: SS Rex, that captured the Blue Riband in 1933, SS Conte di Savoia. During World War II, the company lost many ships, including the Conte di Savoia. Others were converted into troopships.
Commercial service was resumed in 1947 under the company's new name Società di navigazione Italia. In addition to the four vessels returned to the company by the United States, two new vessels, SS Andrea Doria and SS Cristoforo Colombo were commissioned in 1953 and 1954. In 1956, Andrea Doria, the company's three-year-old flagship collided with the Swedish ship Stockholm near Nantucket and sank, with passenger deaths estimated at 46 or 55; the company replaced the Andrea Doria with the SS Leonardo da Vinci, which went into service in 1960. This ship was based on the same design as Andrea Doria, but was larger, featured technical innovations. In the late 1950s, aircraft passenger travel had yet to have a noticeable effect on ocean-going passenger numbers between the United States and the Mediterranean; the Italian Line, ordered two new ships, the SS Michelangelo and SS Raffaello. Construction of the ships took longer than expected, they were not delivered until 1965. Being late into service, they were not able to profitably compete on the North Atlantic route.
Although planned for cruising as an alternative, the ships had several design flaws that made their use as cruise ships problematic. Despite huge financial loss, the Italian Line operated the transatlantic route until 1976, after which the Leonardo da Vinci was withdrawn from service; the Leonardo da Vinci became a cruise ship in 1977–1978, after which it was withdrawn due to high fuel costs. In 1979 and 1980 the company operated two ex-Lloyd Triestino liners, SS Galileo Galilei and SS Guglielmo Marconi, as a cruise ships, but this again proved unprofitable; because of the unprofitability of the cruise business, the Italian Line turned to freight shipping. It operated its principal container services between the Mediterranean, the west coast of North America, Central and South America, carrying about 180,000 twenty-foot equivalent units of freight in 2001. Owned by the Italian government, the company was privatized in 1998 when sold to d'Amico Società di Navigazione. In August 2002, it was acquired by CP Ships, in 2005 the Italian Line name ceased to exist following CP's one-brand strategy.
CP Ships itself was bought-out in late 2005 by TUI AG, merged with Hapag-Lloyd in mid-2006. SCAC Code: ITAU BIC Code: ITAU GRT = Gross Register Tonnage GT = Gross Tonnage Bureau International des Containers CP Ships: Press release – CP Ships Completes Acquisition of Italia Di Navigazione, 6 August 2002 CP Ships: Press release – CP Ships Adopts a Single Brand, 28. April 2005 Italia Line: Official website – page offline – please refer to History of CP Ships William H. Miller. Picture History of the Italian Line, 1932–1977. Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0-486-40489-9; the Ships List Maritime Timetable images The Last Ocean Liners – Italian Line – trade routes and ships of the Italian Line in the 1950s, 60s and 70s
Mogadishu, locally known as Xamar or Hamar, is the capital and most populous city of Somalia. Located in the coastal Banadir region on the Somali Sea, the city has served as an important port for millennia; as of 2017, it had a population of 2,425,000 residents. Mogadishu is the nearest foreign mainland city to Seychelles, at a distance of 835 mi over the Somali Sea. Tradition and old records assert that southern Somalia, including the Mogadishu area, was inhabited by hunter-gatherers; these were joined by Cushitic-speaking agro-pastoralists, who would go on to establish local aristocracies. During its medieval Golden Age, Mogadishu was ruled by the Muzaffar dynasty, the Ajuran Sultanate, it subsequently fell under the control of an assortment of local Sultanates and polities, most notably the Sultanate of the Geledi. The city became the capital of Italian Somaliland in the colonial period. After the Somali Republic became independent in 1960, Mogadishu became known and promoted as the White Pearl of the Indian Ocean.
After the ousting of the Siad Barre regime in 1991 and the ensuing Somali Civil War, various militias fought for control of the city to be replaced by the Islamic Courts Union in the mid-2000s. The ICU thereafter splintered into more radical groups, notably al-Shabaab, which fought the Transitional Federal Government and its African Union Mission to Somalia allies. With a change in administration in late 2010, government troops and their military partners had succeeded in forcing out Al-Shabaab by August 2011. Mogadishu has subsequently experienced a period of intense reconstruction; as Somalia's capital city, many important national institutions are based in Mogadishu. It is the seat of the Federal Government of Somalia established in August 2012, with the Somalia Federal Parliament serving as the government's legislative branch. Abdirahman Omar Osman has been the Mayor of Mogadishu since January 2018. Villa Somalia is the official residential palace and principal workplace of the President of Somalia, Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed.
In May 2012, the First Somali Bank was established in the capital, which organized Mogadishu's first Technology, Design conference. The establishment of a local construction yard has galvanized the city's real-estate sector. Arba'a Rukun Mosque is one of the oldest Islamic places of worship in the capital, built circa AH 667; the Mosque of Islamic Solidarity in Mogadishu is the largest masjid in the Horn region. Mogadishu Cathedral was built in 1928 by the colonial authorities in Italian Somalia in a Norman Gothic style, served as the traditional seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Mogadiscio; the National Museum of Somalia holds many culturally important artefacts. The National Library of Somalia is undergoing a US$1.5 million Somali federal government funded renovation, including a new library complex. Mogadishu is home to a number of media institutions; as part of the municipality's urban renewal program, 100 schools across the capital are scheduled to be refurbished and reopened. The Somali National University was established in the 1950s, professors from the university founded the non-governmental Mogadishu University.
Benadir University was established in 2002 with the intention of training doctors. Various national sporting bodies have their headquarters in Mogadishu, including the Somali Football Federation and the Somali Olympic Committee. Mogadishu Stadium was constructed in 1978 during the Siad Barre administration, with the assistance of Chinese engineers, it hosts football matches with teams from the Somalia Cup. Additionally, the Port of Mogadishu serves as a major national seaport and is the largest harbour in Somalia. Mogadishu International Airport, the capital's main airport, is the hub of the national carrier Somali Airlines; the origins of the name Mogadishu has many theories including from the Somali word Muuq Disho meaning sight-killer, or the Persian word Maq'ad-i-Shah, which means "the seat of the Shah". It is known locally as Xamar. Another theory is that it is derived from the Arabic root'mqds', which means "hallowed".. The 16th century explorer Leo Africanus knew the city as Magadazo. Tradition and old records assert that southern Somalia, including the Mogadishu area, was inhabited early by hunter-gatherers of Khoisan descent.
Although most of these early inhabitants are believed to have been either overwhelmed, driven away or, in some cases, assimilated by migrants to the area, physical traces of their occupation survive in certain ethnic minority groups inhabiting modern-day Jubaland and other parts of the south. The latter descendants include relict populations such as the Eile, the Wa-Ribi, the Wa-Boni. By the time of the arrival of peoples from the Cushitic Rahanweyn clan confederacy, who would go on to establish a local aristocracy, other Cushitic groups affiliated with the Oromo and Ajuuraan had formed settlements of their own in the sub-region. During the antiquity times. Mogadishu was part of the Somali city-states that in engaged in a lucrative trade network connecting Somali merchants with Phoenicia, Ptolemic Egypt, Parthian Persia, Saba and the Roman Empire. Somali sailors used the ancient Somali maritime vessel known as the beden to transport their cargo; the ancient city of Sarapion is believed to have been the predecessor state of Mogadishu.
It is mentioned in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, a Greek travel document dating from the
The Somali Sea is a body of water that borders the eastern coast of Somalia. The Somali Sea is bordered on the west by Somalia's eastern coastline, to the north by the Guardafui Channel which begins along the projection of Ras Hafun and its parallel of latitude, to the east by the eastern border of the tectonic Somali Plate or along 55th 28′E meridian east along Seychelles' Mahe island, bordered to the south by Somalia's equidistant line maritime border; the Somali Sea has been referred to by numerous names throughout history, including "Azania Sea" and "Erythraean Sea". The southern part was referred to as "Zanj Sea"; the 2000s and 2010s were turbulent decades for the fisherman who makes a living along the coast of the Somali Sea. This was because of the illegal fishing activities of foreign fishing trawlers and fishing vessels who stole on average $300 million worth of fish each year according to a UN report; the participation of Somali Admiral Farah Omar Ahmed with his coast guard boats in the coastal region during the years between 2012 and 2014 were a major factor in dislodging Al-Shabaab from the Jubaland region.
Admiral Ufurow, a commander of the Somali Navy was assigned to deal with the dumping of toxic waste as well as illegal fishing by foreign nations, occurring in the Somali Sea. The subsequent commander Olujog, inaugurated in 2018, was tasked with preventing trade by al-Shabaab, disrupting their economic viability by securing the coastline; as of the 2010s, there have been increasing reports of Gulf Arab states such as the UAE and Qatar being engaged in a power struggle for access to ports in the Somali Sea. Due to insurance costs against piracy, navigation through Somali Sea waters by trading and commercial vessels have some of the highest costs in the world. In 2014, Somalia's government sued kenya for violating its maritime borders and engaging what is purports to be illegal drilling activities in the Exclusive economic zone of Somalia; the central region of the Somali Sea has a 250 kilometer stretch of a luminous phenomenon whereby large areas of seawater appears to glow brightly enough at night to be seen by satellites which some scientists have attributed to bioluminescent bacteria or dinoflagellates, causing the sea to uniformly display a light blue glow at night.
Gulf of Aden