Louisiana Offshore Oil Port
The Louisiana Offshore Oil Port is a deepwater port in the Gulf of Mexico 29 kilometers off the coast of Louisiana near the town of Port Fourchon. LOOP provides tanker offloading and temporary storage services for crude oil transported on some of the largest tankers in the world. Most tankers offloading at LOOP are too large for U. S. inland ports. LOOP handles 13 percent of the nation's foreign oil, about 1.2 million barrels a day, connects by pipeline to 50 percent of the U. S. refining capability. Tankers offload at LOOP by pumping crude oil through hoses connected to a Single Buoy Mooring base. Three SPMs are located 8,000 feet from the Marine Terminal; the SPMs are designed to handle ships up to 700,000 deadweight tons. The crude oil moves to the Marine Terminal via a 56-inch diameter submarine pipeline; the Marine Terminal consists of a pumping platform. The control platform is equipped with a helicopter pad, living quarters, control room, vessel traffic control station and life support equipment.
The pumping platform contains four 7,000-hp pumps, power generators and laboratory facilities. Crude oil is only handled on the pumping platform where it is measured and boosted to shore via a 48-inch diameter pipeline; the distance to shore puts LOOP outside U. S. territorial waters, special agreements in international sea law are made to allow ships from other countries to come under U. S. jurisdiction to visit LOOP. LOOP's onshore facilities, Fourchon Booster Station and Clovelly Dome Storage Terminal, are located just on-shore in Fourchon and 25 miles inland near Galliano, Louisiana; the Fourchon Booster Station has four 6,000-hp pumps which increase the pressure and crude oil flow en route to the Clovelly Dome Storage Terminal. The Clovelly Dome Storage Terminal is used to store crude oil in underground salt domes before it is shipped to the various refineries; the terminal consists of eight caverns with a total capacity of 50 million barrels, a pump station with four 6,000-hp pumps, meters to measure the crude oil receipts and deliveries, a 25-million-barrels Brine Storage Reservoir.
The brine reservoir is supersaturated with salts so as to prevent further degradation of the massive salt dome in which the eight caverns store the crude. This is because the supersaturated brine is much more dense than the crude oil, as it is pumped into the caverns to push the crude to the surface and into the surface distribution systems; this results in no loss of quality to the crude oil offload. "LOOP Program". Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development. Archived from the original on 2013-10-08. Read, William B. Loop: The First and Only Offshore Deepwater Oil Port Built in the United States Sasser, Charles E. et al. "Environmental management analysis of the Louisiana Offshore Oil Port." Wetlands 2.1: 249-261. Theriot, Jason. "Building America’s First Offshore Oil Port: LOOP." Journal of American History 99#1 pp: 187-196. Theriot, Jason P. American Energy, Imperiled Coast: Oil and Gas Development in Louisiana's Wetlands Thoms, R. L. and R. M. Gehle. "A brief history of salt cavern use."
Proc. 8th World Salt Symposium Elsevier. 2000. LOOP LLC. - Home Page LOOP Photos Photos of the Louisiana Offshore Oil Port and an unloading ship, April 2002
Port of New Orleans
The Port of New Orleans is a deep-draft multipurpose port at the center of the world's busiest port system -- Louisiana's Lower Mississippi River. Specializing in breakbulk and container cargo, as well as passenger cruises; the Port of New Orleans handles about 90 million short tons of cargo a year. The port handles about 50,000 barges and 1 million cruise passengers per year, with several cruise ships from Carnival and Norwegian Cruise Lines; the Port of South Louisiana, based in the New Orleans suburb of LaPlace handles 193 million short tons. The Port of New Orleans and the Port of South Louisiana combined form one of the largest port systems in the world by bulk tonnage and among the top ten in the world by annual volume handled. In 1946 a foreign trade zone was established in the port; the Port of New Orleans is located at the center of the Lower Mississippi River port complex in Louisiana. Connected to America's heartland by the Mississippi River and its tributaries, the Port of New Orleans handles a wide range of cargoes, including rubber, steel, containers and manufactured goods.
Some 6,000 vessels and 500 million tons of cargo travel up and down the Mississippi River each year, including over half of the country's grain exports. With its access to 23,300 kilometers of inland waterway and high rate of traffic, the Port of New Orleans is a major hub for American waterway trade; the Port of New Orleans is the United States' only deep-water port served by six major railroads. These six railroads are linked by a 25-mile-long railroad; the Port of New Orleans has made significant investments in keeping facilities throughout the port up to date. Revitalized container and breakbulk terminals are equipped with multi-purpose cranes and expanded marshalling yards; the Port of New Orleans facilities include over 204 hectares of cargo-handling areas and more than 12 hectares of covered storage. Port facilities accommodate about 2,000 vessel calls per year; the Port of New Orleans' Napoleon Container Terminal is a 25-hectare facility that last underwent major upgrades in 2012. The Henry Clay Avenue and Milan Street terminals in the Port of New Orleans are served by the world's longest wharf: the three kilometer wharf can accommodate up to 15 vessels at the same time.
New Orleans Cold Storage is the oldest cold storage company in the United States. It operates a 14,800 square meter dockside cold storage facility at the Jourdan Road Terminal; the Port of New Orleans has 14 warehouses over 51 hectares for coffee storage and six roasting facilities. Operated by P&O Ports of Louisiana, the Port of New Orleans's Henry Clay Avenue Wharf is located on the east bank of the Mississippi River, it handles containerized and palletized cargoes and is served by rail. Ports America Louisiana operates Nashville Avenue Wharves "A," "B," and "C" in the Port of New Orleans; each has separate open storage areas. Wharf "A" handles containerized and palletized cargoes; the wharf is served by nearby cold storage facilities. The Port of New Orleans' Nashville Avenue Wharf "B" is served by rail; the Port of New Orleans' Nashville Avenue Wharf "C" is served by surface rail tracks and platform-level tracks with truck service. The Port of New Orleans' Louisiana Avenue Complex is operated by Coastal Cargo Company.
Located on the east bank, it handles containerized and palletized cargoes at two berths served by rail. Operated by Coastal Cargo Company, the Port of New Orleans' Harmony Street Wharf on the east bank of the river handles steel and steel products. Served by the New Orleans Public Belt Railroad, it has two truck loading areas; the Port of New Orleans' Governor Nicholls Street Wharf on the east bank handles conventional and containerized general cargoes and is served by railLocated in the Port of New Orleans' Industrial Canal is the France Road Container Terminal. The 14 hectares site is served by rail and contains 160 reefer outlets, 44 truck and rail bays at the shed. Terminal Berth 5 has two berths totaling 518 meters long, with two consolidation sheds, 60 reefer outlets, a nitrogen chill system, a roll-on/roll-off ramp. Terminal 4 handles containerized cargo; the Jourdan Road Terminal in the Port of New Orleans is operated by New Orleans Cold Storage. Facilities include four main freezer dockside doors that allow for two reefer ships to be loaded at the same time.
The facility's super-blast freezing systems can freeze meat products within 24 hours. The Erato Street Cruise Terminal and Parking Garage Complex opened on October 15, 2006, it has Customs and Border Protection clearance facilities, a large embarkation deck with over 50 check-in counters, security facilities, a snack/curio shop. It attaches to the ship by a raised, articulated gangway; the building includes a 1,000-car garage. The 8,300-square-meter cruise terminal has 792 meters of continuous waterfront with a depth of 9.1 meters. The Port’s first cruise terminal, the Julia Street Cruise Terminal Complex, was started in 1991 in a building constructed for the 1984 World’s Fair in New Orleans, it has undergone four different configurations to adapt to the ever-changing size of cruise ships. It includes two distinct terminals; the design/engineering phase to re-develop the terminal into one mega-terminal with a raised, air-conditioned gangway has begun, the new terminal is scheduled to open in the winter of 2010.
The terminal's two berths are a total of 609 meters long with alongside depth of 9.1 meters. Berth 1 has an 4,000 square-meter terminal, Berth 2 has a 2,500 square-meter terminal. Both terminals
Office of Coast Survey
The Office of Coast Survey is the official chartmaker of the United States. Set up in 1807, it is one of the U. S. government's oldest scientific organizations. In 1878 it was given the name of Geodetic Survey. In 1970 it became part of the National Atmospheric Administration; the agency was established in 1807 when President Thomas Jefferson signed the document entitled "An act to provide for surveying the coasts of the United States." While the bill's objective was specific—to produce nautical charts—it reflected larger issues of concern to the new nation: national boundaries and defense. The early years were difficult. Ferdinand Rudolph Hassler, to become the agency's first superintendent, went to England to collect scientific instruments but was unable to return through the duration of the War of 1812. After his return, he worked on a survey of the New York Harbor in 1817, but Congress stepped in to suspend the work because of tensions between civilian and military control of the agency. After several years under the control of the U.
S. Army, the Survey of the Coast was reestablished in 1832, President Andrew Jackson appointed Hassler as superintendent; the U. S. Coast Survey was a civilian agency but, from the beginning, members of the Navy and Army were detailed to service with the Survey, Navy ships were detailed to its use. In general, army officers worked on topographic surveys on the land and maps based on the surveys, while navy officers worked on hydrographic surveys in coastal waters. Alexander Dallas Bache, great-grandson of Benjamin Franklin, was the second Coast Survey superintendent. Bache was a physicist and surveyor who established the first magnetic observatory and served as the first president of the National Academy of Sciences. Under Bache, Coast Survey applied its resources to the Union cause during the Civil War. In addition to setting up additional lithographic presses to produce the thousands of charts required by the Navy and other vessels, Bache made a critical decision to send Coast Survey parties to work with blockading squadrons and armies in the field, producing hundreds of maps and charts.
Bache detailed these activities in his annual reports to Congress. Coast Survey cartographer Edwin Hergesheimer created the map showing the density of the slave population in the Southern states. Bache was one of four members of the government's Blockade Strategy Board, planning strategy to strangle the South and militarily. On April 16, 1861, President Lincoln issued a proclamation declaring the blockade of ports from South Carolina to Texas. Bache's Notes on the Coast provided valuable information for Union naval forces. Maps were of paramount importance in wartime: It is certain that accurate maps must form the basis of well-conducted military operations, that the best time to procure them is not when an attack is impending, or when the army waits, but when there is no hindrance to, or pressure upon, the surveyors; that no coast can be attacked, defended, or blockaded without accurate maps and charts, has been proved by the events of the last two years, if, such a proposition required practical proof.
Coast Survey naturalists. It commissioned the naturalist Louis Agassiz to conduct the first scientific study of the Florida reef system. James McNeill Whistler, who went on to paint the iconic "Whistler's Mother", was a Coast Survey engraver; the naturalist John Muir was a guide and artist on "Survey of the 39th Parallel" across the Great Basin of Nevada and Utah. The agency's men and women led scientific and engineering activities through the decades. In 1926, they started production of aeronautical charts. During the height of the Great Depression and Geodetic Survey organized surveying parties and field offices that employed over 10,000 people, including many out-of-work engineers. In World War II, C&GS sent over 1,000 civilian members and more than half of its commissioned officers to serve as hydrographers, artillery surveyors, army engineers, intelligence officers, geophysicists in all theaters of the war. Civilians on the home front produced over 100 million charts for the Allied Forces.
Eleven members of the C&GS gave their lives during the war. President Richard Nixon formed the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in 1970, bringing C&GS into the new scientific agency. Today, the Office of Coast Survey provides the nation with navigation products and information for improving commerce and security, for protecting coastal environments. Among other products and services the Office produces the U. S. nautical charts and the United States Coast Pilot. Official site of the Office of Coast Survey Leaders of Coast Survey 1816 to present
LaPlace is a census-designated place in St. John the Baptist Parish, United States, situated along the east bank of the Mississippi River, in the New Orleans metropolitan area; the population was 32,134 at the 2010 census. LaPlace is the southern terminus of Interstate 55, where it joins with Interstate 10, of US 51, where it terminates at the junction with US 61. LaPlace is located 25 miles west of New Orleans; the Chitimacha lived in the region prior to the arrival of European colonists. The tribe’s lands once encompassed the entire Atchafalaya Basin, westward to Lafayette, southward to the Gulf of Mexico and eastward to the New Orleans area; the Chitimacha Tribe resides on a reservation in St. Mary Parish, Louisiana. Present-day LaPlace was settled by German immigrants in the early 18th century during Louisiana's French colonial period, as part of a larger settlement on the bank of the Mississippi called Karlstein. Karlstein was one of the four settlements collectively known as the "German Coast", having been populated by German-speaking immigrants since 1721.
French and Acadians intermarried with the Germans, the area came to be known as Bonnet Carré. The name Bonnet Carré was inspired by the right-angle turn of the Mississippi river near the settlement and its resemblance to a square bonnet. Manual Andry built Woodland plantation in 1793, cultivated sugarcane; the crop was lucrative. In early January 1811, slaves at Woodland Plantation and several nearby plantations attempted the German Coast Uprising. A group of 200-500 slaves armed with guns and cane knives set out from LaPlace to conquer New Orleans and gain freedom for themselves and others. Local white "militia" men crushed the rebellion within three days, nearly 100 slaves were either killed in battle, slaughtered by pursuing militia, or executed after summary trials by planter tribunals. Although more slaves may have participated in the Black Seminole rebellion in 1836 and the whole of the Second Seminole War, this is now considered the largest slave rebellion. In 1879, pharmacist and patent medicine purveyor Basile Laplace arrived from New Orleans, established a large plantation in Bonnet Carré.
In 1883 he allowed the New Baton Rouge Railroad to cut through his land. The settlement's railroad depot was named after Laplace the post office, the town itself. In the 1920s, Woodland Plantation was bought by the Montegut family, but the most famous person born there may have been Kid Ory, born in an outbuilding and led a successful New Orleans jazz band. In the period between 1850 and 1883, the levee on the east bank of the Mississippi flooded several times. In 1850, a flood created the Bonnet Carré Crevasse, a levee breach, more than a mile wide. Several major floods were exacerbated by this crevasse near LaPlace and one resulted in severe flooding of New Orleans in 1871; the breach was closed in 1883. In 2012, about 5,000 houses were damaged by flooding in LaPlace during Hurricane Isaac. In February 2016 and again in March 2016, several tornadoes made landfall in LaPlace, damaging hundreds of buildings and disrupting power. Despite the spelling used for LaPlace's namesake, the St. John the Baptist Parish Police Jury decreed in 1971 that the official spelling of the town includes a capital letter "P".
Andouille, a smoked pork sausage that originated in France, is popular in LaPlace and elsewhere in Louisiana, but in the 1970s then-Governor Edwin Edwards proclaimed LaPlace the "Official Andouille Capital of the World". Since 1972, LaPlace has held an Andouille Festival every October. On his program Feasting on Asphalt, TV chef Alton Brown visited LaPlace to sample its andouille; the Port of South Louisiana is headquartered in LaPlace. Other major employers in the region include Shell Chemical Company, DuPont, ADM Growmark, ArcelorMittal. LaPlace is located at 30°4′30″N 90°29′6″W and has an elevation of 10 feet Template:GR3. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 22.7 square miles, of which 21.5 square miles is land and 1.2 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 29,872 people, 11,159 households, 10,592 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 1,287.8 people per square mile. There were 9,888 housing units at an average density of 460.0 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the CDP was 47.0% White, 47.9% African American, 0.4% Native American, 1.0% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.11% from other races, 1.17% from two or more races. The cultural groups for Hispanic or Latino, of any race, were 6.1% of the population. There were 9,171 households out of which 44.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.4% were married couples living together, 14.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.0% were non-families. 16.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.97 and the average family size was 3.34. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 31.2% under the age of 18, 9.4% from 18 to 24, 31.6% from 25 to 44, 21.3% from 45 to 64, 6.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.8 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $45,103, the median income for a family was $50,024.
Males had a median income of $39,304 versus $23,277 for females. The per capita income for th
New Orleans is a consolidated city-parish located along the Mississippi River in the southeastern region of the U. S. state of Louisiana. With an estimated population of 393,292 in 2017, it is the most populous city in Louisiana. A major port, New Orleans is considered an economic and commercial hub for the broader Gulf Coast region of the United States. New Orleans is world-renowned for its distinct music, Creole cuisine, unique dialect, its annual celebrations and festivals, most notably Mardi Gras; the historic heart of the city is the French Quarter, known for its French and Spanish Creole architecture and vibrant nightlife along Bourbon Street. The city has been described as the "most unique" in the United States, owing in large part to its cross-cultural and multilingual heritage. Founded in 1718 by French colonists, New Orleans was once the territorial capital of French Louisiana before being traded to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. New Orleans in 1840 was the third-most populous city in the United States, it was the largest city in the American South from the Antebellum era until after World War II.
The city's location and flat elevation have made it vulnerable to flooding. State and federal authorities have installed a complex system of levees and drainage pumps in an effort to protect the city. New Orleans was affected by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, which resulted in flooding more than 80% of the city, thousands of deaths, so much displacement because of damaged communities and lost housing as to cause a population decline of over 50%. Since Katrina, major redevelopment efforts have led to a rebound in the city's population. Concerns about gentrification, new residents buying property in closely knit communities, displacement of longtime residents have been expressed; the city and Orleans Parish are coterminous. As of 2017, Orleans Parish is the third most-populous parish in Louisiana, behind East Baton Rouge Parish and neighboring Jefferson Parish; the city and parish are bounded by St. Tammany Parish and Lake Pontchartrain to the north, St. Bernard Parish and Lake Borgne to the east, Plaquemines Parish to the south, Jefferson Parish to the south and west.
The city anchors the larger New Orleans metropolitan area, which had an estimated population of 1,275,762 in 2017. It is the most populous metropolitan area in Louisiana and the 46th-most populated MSA in the United States; the city is named after the Duke of Orleans, who reigned as Regent for Louis XV from 1715 to 1723. It has many illustrative nicknames: Crescent City alludes to the course of the Lower Mississippi River around and through the city; the Big Easy was a reference by musicians in the early 20th century to the relative ease of finding work there. It may have originated in the Prohibition era, when the city was considered one big speakeasy due to the government's inability to control alcohol sales, in open violation of the 18th Amendment; the City that Care Forgot has been used since at least 1938, refers to the outwardly easy-going, carefree nature of the residents. La Nouvelle-Orléans was founded in the Spring of 1718 by the French Mississippi Company, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, on land inhabited by the Chitimacha.
It was named for Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Regent of the Kingdom of France at the time. His title came from the French city of Orléans; the French colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire in the Treaty of Paris, following France's defeat by Great Britain in the Seven Years' War. During the American Revolutionary War, New Orleans was an important port for smuggling aid to the rebels, transporting military equipment and supplies up the Mississippi River. Beginning in the 1760s, Filipinos began to settle around New Orleans. Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Count of Gálvez launched a southern campaign against the British from the city in 1779. Nueva Orleans remained under Spanish control until 1803, when it reverted to French rule. Nearly all of the surviving 18th-century architecture of the Vieux Carré dates from the Spanish period, notably excepting the Old Ursuline Convent. Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Thereafter, the city grew with influxes of Americans, French and Africans.
Immigrants were Irish, Germans and Italians. Major commodity crops of sugar and cotton were cultivated with slave labor on nearby large plantations. Thousands of refugees from the 1804 Haitian Revolution, both whites and free people of color, arrived in New Orleans. While Governor Claiborne and other officials wanted to keep out additional free black people, the French Creoles wanted to increase the French-speaking population; as more refugees were allowed into the Territory of Orleans, Haitian émigrés who had first gone to Cuba arrived. Many of the white Francophones had been deported by officials in Cuba in retaliation for Bonapartist schemes. Nearly 90 percent of these immigrants settled in New Orleans; the 1809 migration brought 2,731 whites, 3,102 free people of color, 3,226 slaves of African descent, doubling the city's population. The city became a greater proportion than Charleston, South Carolina's 53 percent. During the final campaign of the War of 1812, the British sent a force of 11,000 in a
Louisiana is a state in the Deep South region of the South Central United States. It is the 25th most populous of the 50 United States. Louisiana is bordered by the state of Texas to the west, Arkansas to the north, Mississippi to the east, the Gulf of Mexico to the south. A large part of its eastern boundary is demarcated by the Mississippi River. Louisiana is the only U. S. state with political subdivisions termed parishes. The state's capital is Baton Rouge, its largest city is New Orleans. Much of the state's lands were formed from sediment washed down the Mississippi River, leaving enormous deltas and vast areas of coastal marsh and swamp; these contain a rich southern biota. There are many species of tree frogs, fish such as sturgeon and paddlefish. In more elevated areas, fire is a natural process in the landscape, has produced extensive areas of longleaf pine forest and wet savannas; these support an exceptionally large number of plant species, including many species of terrestrial orchids and carnivorous plants.
Louisiana has more Native American tribes than any other southern state, including four that are federally recognized, ten that are state recognized, four that have not received recognition. Some Louisiana urban environments have a multicultural, multilingual heritage, being so influenced by a mixture of 18th-century French, Spanish, Native American, African cultures that they are considered to be exceptional in the US. Before the American purchase of the territory in 1803, present-day Louisiana State had been both a French colony and for a brief period a Spanish one. In addition, colonists imported numerous African people as slaves in the 18th century. Many came from peoples of the same region of West Africa. In the post-Civil War environment, Anglo-Americans increased the pressure for Anglicization, in 1921, English was for a time made the sole language of instruction in Louisiana schools before a policy of multilingualism was revived in 1974. There has never been an official language in Louisiana, the state constitution enumerates "the right of the people to preserve and promote their respective historic and cultural origins."
Louisiana was named after Louis XIV, King of France from 1643 to 1715. When René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle claimed the territory drained by the Mississippi River for France, he named it La Louisiane; the suffix -ana is a Latin suffix that can refer to "information relating to a particular individual, subject, or place." Thus Louis + ana carries the idea of "related to Louis." Once part of the French Colonial Empire, the Louisiana Territory stretched from present-day Mobile Bay to just north of the present-day Canada–United States border, including a small part of what is now the Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. The Gulf of Mexico did not exist 250 million years ago when there was but one supercontinent, Pangea; as Pangea split apart, the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico opened. Louisiana developed, over millions of years, from water into land, from north to south; the oldest rocks are exposed in areas such as the Kisatchie National Forest. The oldest rocks date back to the early Cenozoic Era, some 60 million years ago.
The history of the formation of these rocks can be found in D. Spearing's Roadside Geology of Louisiana; the youngest parts of the state were formed during the last 12,000 years as successive deltas of the Mississippi River: the Maringouin, Teche, St. Bernard, the modern Mississippi, now the Atchafalaya; the sediments were carried from north to south by the Mississippi River. In between the Tertiary rocks of the north, the new sediments along the coast, is a vast belt known as the Pleistocene Terraces, their age and distribution can be related to the rise and fall of sea levels during past ice ages. In general, the northern terraces have had sufficient time for rivers to cut deep channels, while the newer terraces tend to be much flatter. Salt domes are found in Louisiana, their origin can be traced back to the early Gulf of Mexico, when the shallow ocean had high rates of evaporation. There are several hundred salt domes in the state. Salt domes are important not only as a source of salt. Louisiana is bordered to the west by Texas.
The state may properly be divided into two parts, the uplands of the north, the alluvial along the coast. The alluvial region includes low swamp lands, coastal marshlands and beaches, barrier islands that cover about 20,000 square miles; this area lies principally along the Gulf of Mexico and the Mississippi River, which traverses the state from north to south for a distance of about 600 mi ) and empties into the Gulf of Mexico. The breadth of the alluvial region along the Mississippi is from 10 to 60 miles, along the other rivers, the alluvial region averages about 10 miles across; the Mississippi River flows along a ridge formed by its own natural deposits, from which the lands decline toward a river beyond at an average fall of six feet per mile. The alluvial lands along other streams present similar features; the higher and contiguous hill lands of the north and northwestern part of the state have an area of more than 25,000 square miles. They consist of prairie and woodl