Baths of Diocletian
The Baths of Diocletian were public baths in ancient Rome, in what is now Italy. Named after emperor Diocletian and built from 298 AD to 306 AD, they were the largest of the imperial baths; the project was commissioned by Maximian upon his return to Rome in the autumn of 298 and was continued after his and Diocletian's abdication under Constantius, father of Constantine. The baths occupy the high-ground on the northeast summit of the Viminal, the smallest of the Seven hills of Rome, just inside the Agger of the Servian Wall, they served as a bath for the people residing in the Viminal and Esquiline quarters of the city. The Quadrigae Pisonis, a 2nd-century monument with various reliefs, some private homes, a relief representing the temple of Quirinus once stood at the site but were demolished to build the baths; the water supply was provided by the Aqua Marcia, an aqueduct that had long served the city of Rome since the early 2nd century. To properly supply the baths, the supply of water to the city was increased under the order of Diocletian.
The baths may have been supplied by the Aqua Antoniniana, positioned to supply Caracalla's baths in the early 3rd century. The baths were commissioned by Maximian in honor of co-emperor Diocletian in 298 AD, the same year he returned from Africa. Evidence of this can be found in bricks from the main area of the baths, which distinctly show stamps of the Diocletianic period. These, according to the ancient guidebook Mirabilia Urbis Romae, were known as "Palatium Diocletiani"; this evidence shows the effect of the massive project on the brick industry in that all work by them was redirected and under control of the emperor. Building took place between the year it was first commissioned and was finished sometime between the abdication of Diocletian in 305 and the death of Constantius in July 306. In the early 5th century, the baths were restored; the baths remained in use until the siege of Rome in 537 when the Ostrogothic king Vitiges cut off the aqueducts. In the 1560s, Pope Pius IV ordered the building of a basilica in some of the remains, to commemorate Christian martyrs who according to legend died during the baths' construction, Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri.
To this was attached a Carthusian charterhouse. Michelangelo was commissioned to design the church and he made use of both the frigidarium and tepidarium structures, he planned the main cloister of the charterhouse. A small cloister next to the presbytery of the church was built, occupying part of the area where the baths' natatio had been located. After 1575, starting under Pope Gregory XIII, several remaining halls of the baths were converted into grain and oil stores for the city of Rome. After Rome became part of the Kingdom of Italy, its seat of government was moved to the city. In 1884, the Carthusians abandoned the charterhouse and the area around the baths was subject to substantial changes. Roma Termini station was built, the Ministry of the Economy moved to the area, the Grand Hotel and Palazzo Massimo were constructed. Gaetano Koch designed the palazzi fronting Piazza dell'Esedra, destroying part of the original exedra. Via Cernaia cut off the western gymnasium from the remains of the enclosure wall.
In 1889, the Italian government set up the Museo Nazionale Romano in the baths and in the charterhouse. One of the four inscriptions around the main entrance to the Baths of Diocletian reads, translated from Latin, "Our Lords Diocletian and Maximian, the elder and invincible Augusti, fathers of the Emperors and Caesars, our lords Constantius and Maximian and Severus and Maximum, noblest Caesars, dedicated to their beloved Romans these auspicious Baths of Diocletian, which the divine Maximin on his return from Africa ordered to be built and consecrated in the name of his brother Diocletian, having purchased the premises required for so huge and remarkable work and furnishing them with the most sumptuous refinement." Although only fragments of the inscription are extant today, a complete transcription was made by an 8th- or 9th-century pilgrim and was preserved at Einsiedeln Abbey in Switzerland. The enclosure of the bath complex took up 130,000 square metres or 32 acres of the district, about the same size as the Baths of Caracalla.
The main entrance was to the northeast. To the southwest was a large exedra; the exedra was flanked by two large buildings libraries. These in turn connected to circular halls: one of them is now the church of San Bernardo, the other is visible at the start of Via del Viminale; the central block of the baths was 280 by 10.85 acres. The central block consisted of frigidarium and caldarium along a single axis, with other halls arranged symmetrically around them. Flanking the frigidarium were two open-air gymnasiums. Two octagonal halls flanked the caldarium. Despite their similar size, the capacity of the Baths of Diocletian was said to be much greater than the Baths of Caracalla; this could be because the entrance and rooms were made larger than its predecessor in block size, which allowed more space and functionality. According to Olympiodorus, the baths were able to hold up to 3,000 people at one time. However, this claim is disputed; the word frigidarium originates from the Latin word frigeo, which means "to be cold".
The prominence of the room and its conjoining rooms showed the increase in popularity cold baths had during the early 4th century compared to the hot baths. This
The Porta Carmentalis was a double gate in the Servian Walls of ancient Rome. It was named for a nearby shrine to the goddess or nymph Carmenta, whose importance in early Roman religion is indicated by the assignment of one of the fifteen flamines to her cult, by the archaic festival in her honor, the Carmentalia; the shrine was to the right. The gate's two arches seem to have been set at angles, were known by separate names, it was unlucky to leave the city through the arch called Porta Scelerata, supposed to have been named for the military disaster at Cremera in 479 or 478 BC, since the 306 Fabii who died had departed through it. The Servian Walls, did not exist at that time; the accursed nature of the gate derives from the transport of corpses out of the city proper to funeral pyres on the Campus Martius. The family tomb of the Claudii was located outside the Porta Carmentalis; the other gate was the Porta Triumphalis. A governor returning from his province could not enter through this gate unless he had been awarded a triumph.
It therefore must have been routine to use the Porta Scelerata for entering, the Triumphalis for exiting. Funeral processions reversed the normal direction of traffic flow for the Scelerata, as the triumphal procession did for the Triumphalis. Augustus was accorded the special honor of having his funeral procession exit by the Triumphalis; the temples of Mater Matuta and Fortuna were nearby. The Carmentalis was rebuilt by Domitian, topped with a sculpture group of a triumphal chariot drawn by elephants; the gate is depicted in relief sculpture dating to the reign of Marcus Aurelius. The Vicus Iugarius forked just before reaching the Porta Carmentalis, with one branch passing through the Forum Holitorium by making a right curve around the foot of the Capitoline Hill, the other passing through the Forum Boarium to the mouth of the Cloaca Maxima on the Tiber; the precise location of the Porta Carmentalis itself remains unclear, despite excavations in the area from the late 1930s onward. Livy names the Porta Carmentalis as the point of entry for a ritual procession undertaken in 207 BC as part of an expiatory sacrifice for Juno.
Two white cows were led from the Temple of Apollo through the Carmentalis and along the Vicus Iugarius to the Forum
The Servian Wall was an ancient Roman defensive barrier constructed around the city of Rome in the early 4th century BC. The wall was up to 10 m in height in places, 3.6 m wide at its base, 11 km long, is believed to have had 16 main gates. In the 3rd century AD it was superseded by the construction of the larger Aurelian Walls; the wall is named after Servius Tullius. Although its outline may go back to the 6th century BC, the extant wall was built in the 4th c. during the Roman Republic, in response to the sack of Rome after the Battle of the Allia by the Gauls of Brennus. The wall was built from large blocks of tuff quarried from the Grotta Oscura quarry near Rome's early rival Veii after its defeat by Rome in the 390s. In addition to the blocks, some sections of the structure incorporated a deep fossa, or ditch, in front of it, as a means to heighten the wall during attack from invaders. Along part of its topographically weaker northern perimeter was an agger, a defensive ramp of earth heaped up to the wall along the inside.
This thickened the wall, gave defenders a base to stand while repelling any attack. The wall was outfitted with defensive war engines, including catapults; the Servian Wall was formidable enough to repel Hannibal during the Second Punic War. Hannibal famously invaded Italy across the Alps with his elephants, had crushed several Roman armies in the early stages of the war. However, the wall was only put to such a test as Hannibal once: in 211 BC Hannibal brought his Carthaginian army to Rome as part of a feint to draw the Roman army from Capua; when it was clear that this had failed, he turned away, without approaching closer than 3 mi to Rome, as a Roman army sallied out of the Servian walls and pitched a camp next to Hannibal's. During the Roman civil wars, the Servian walls were overrun; the wall was still maintained through the end of the Republic and the Empire. By this time, Rome had begun to grow outside the original Servian Wall; the organization of Rome into regions under Augustus placed regions II, III, IV, VI, VIII, X, XI within the Servian Wall, with the other sections outside of it.
The wall became unnecessary as Rome became well protected by the ever-expanding military strength of the Republic and of the Empire. As the city continued to grow and prosper, it was unwalled for the first three centuries of the Empire; when German tribes made further incursions along the Roman frontier in the 3rd century AD, Emperor Aurelian had the larger Aurelian Walls built to protect Rome. Sections of the Servian Wall are still visible in various locations around Rome; the largest section is preserved just outside the main railway station in Rome. Another notable section on the Aventine incorporates an arch for a defensive catapult from the late Republic; the following lists the gates, clockwise from the westernmost. Porta Flumentana – this gate was where the via Aurelia entered Rome after crossing the Tiber River. Porta Carmentalis – the western end of the Capitoline. Porta Fontinalis – led from the northern end of the Capitoline into the Campus Martius along the via Lata. Porta Sanqualis – on the Quirinal.
Porta Salutaris – on the Quirinal. Porta Quirinalis – on the Quirinal. Porta Collina – the northernmost gate, on the Quirinal, leading to the via Salaria. Hannibal camped his army within sight of this gate when he considered besieging Rome in 211 BC; this section was fortified additionally with the agger. Porta Viminalis – on the Viminal; this is near the large section still visible outside Termini Station. Porta Esquilina – this gate on the Esquiline is still visible, incorporates the arch of the emperor Gallienus, it led via Tiburtina. Porta Querquetulana – this led to the via Tusculana. Porta Caelimontana – this gate is preserved in the Arch of Dolabella and Silanus, the reconstruction of an existing gate in 10 AD by the consuls Dolabella and Silanus. Porta Capena – this was the gate through which the via Appia left Rome to southern Italy after separating from the via Latina. Porta Naevia – this gate on the Aventine led to the via Ardeatina. Porta Raudusculana – headed south along the Tiber River along the via Ostiensis.
Near here, on the modern viale Aventino, may be found a section of the wall incorporating an arch for a catapult. Porta Lavernalis – joined up with the via Ostiensis. Porta Trigemina – this triple gate near the Forum Boarium led to the via Ostiensis. Museum of the Walls, Rome Watson, Alaric. Aurelian and the Third Century. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-07248-4. Coarelli, Filippo. Guida Archeologica di Roma. Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, Milano. Servian Wall entry on the Lacus Curtius website Lacus Curtius page including gates in the Servian Wall Map showing the "Servian" wall based on new research results
The Via Salaria was an ancient Roman road in Italy. It ran from Rome to Castrum Truentinum on the Adriatic coast, a distance of 242 km; the road passed through Reate and Asculum. The Via Salaria owes its name to the Latin word for "salt", since it was the route by which the Sabines living nearer the Tyrrhenian sea came to fetch salt from the marshes at the mouth of the Tiber, the Campus Salinarum, while those nearer the Adriatic Sea used it to fetch it from production sites there, it was one of many ancient salt roads in Europe, some historians consider the Salaria and the trade in salt to have been the origin of the settlement of Rome. Some remains still exist of the mountain sections of the road. Strada statale 4 Via Salaria is the modern state highway that maintains the old road's name and runs on the same path from Rome to the Adriatic sea. For an overview of the location of Roman bridges, see List of Roman bridges. There are the remains of several Roman bridges along the road, including the Ponte del Gran Caso, Ponte della Scutella, Ponte d’Arli, Ponte di Quintodecimo, Ponte Romano, Ponte Salario and Ponte Sambuco.
Roman bridge Roman engineering Catacomb of Priscilla Via Salaria
Plutarch named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, was a Greek biographer and essayist, known for his Parallel Lives and Moralia. He is classified as a Middle Platonist. Plutarch's surviving works were intended for both Greek and Roman readers. Plutarch was born to a prominent family in the small town of Chaeronea, about 80 kilometres east of Delphi, in the Greek region of Boeotia, his family was wealthy. The name of Plutarch's father has not been preserved, but based on the common Greek custom of repeating a name in alternate generations, it was Nikarchus; the name of Plutarch's grandfather was Lamprias, as he attested in Moralia and in his Life of Antony. His brothers and Lamprias, are mentioned in his essays and dialogues, which speak of Timon in particular in the most affectionate terms. Rualdus, in his 1624 work Life of Plutarchus, recovered the name of Plutarch's wife, from internal evidence afforded by his writings. A letter is still extant, addressed by Plutarch to his wife, bidding her not to grieve too much at the death of their two-year-old daughter, named Timoxena after her mother.
He hinted at a belief in reincarnation in that letter of consolation. The exact number of his sons is not certain, although two of them and the second Plutarch, are mentioned. Plutarch's treatise De animae procreatione in Timaeo is dedicated to them, the marriage of his son Autobulus is the occasion of one of the dinner parties recorded in the "Table Talk". Another person, Soklarus, is spoken of in terms which seem to imply that he was Plutarch's son, but this is nowhere stated, his treatise on marriage questions, addressed to Eurydice and Pollianus, seems to speak of the latter as having been an inmate of his house, but without any clear evidence on whether she was his daughter or not. Plutarch studied mathematics and philosophy at the Academy of Athens under Ammonius from 66 to 67. At some point, Plutarch received Roman citizenship; as evidenced by his new name, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, his sponsor for citizenship was Lucius Mestrius Florus, a Roman of consular status whom Plutarch used as a historical source for his Life of Otho.
He lived most of his life at Chaeronea, was initiated into the mysteries of the Greek god Apollo. For many years Plutarch served as one of the two priests at the temple of Apollo at Delphi, the site of the famous Delphic Oracle, twenty miles from his home. By his writings and lectures Plutarch became a celebrity in the Roman Empire, yet he continued to reside where he was born, participated in local affairs serving as mayor. At his country estate, guests from all over the empire congregated for serious conversation, presided over by Plutarch in his marble chair. Many of these dialogues were recorded and published, the 78 essays and other works which have survived are now known collectively as the Moralia. In addition to his duties as a priest of the Delphic temple, Plutarch was a magistrate at Chaeronea and he represented his home town on various missions to foreign countries during his early adult years. Plutarch held the office of archon in his native municipality only an annual one which he served more than once.
He undertook the humblest of duties. The Suda, a medieval Greek encyclopedia, states that Emperor Trajan made Plutarch procurator of Illyria. However, most historians consider this unlikely, since Illyria was not a procuratorial province, Plutarch did not speak Illyrian. According to the 8th/9th-century historian George Syncellus, late in Plutarch's life, Emperor Hadrian appointed him nominal procurator of Achaea – which entitled him to wear the vestments and ornaments of a consul. Plutarch spent the last thirty years of his life serving as a priest in Delphi, he thus connected part of his literary work with the sanctuary of Apollo, the processes of oracle-giving and the personalities who lived or traveled there. One of his most important works is the "Why Pythia does not give oracles in verse". More important is the dialogue "On the E in Delphi", which features Ammonius, a Platonic philosopher and teacher of Plutarch, Lambrias, Plutarch's brother. According to Ammonius, the letter E written on the temple of Apollo in Delphi originated from the following fact: the wise men of antiquity, whose maxims were written on the walls of the vestibule of the temple, were not seven but five: Chilon, Thales and Pittakos.
However, the tyrants Cleobulos and Periandros used their political power in order to be incorporated in the list. Thus, the E, which corresponds to number 5, constituted an acknowledgment that the Delphic maxims originated from the five real wise men; the portrait of a philosopher exhibited at the exit of the Archaeological Museum of Delphi, dating to the 2nd century AD, had been in the past identified with Plutarch. The man, although bearded, is depicted at a young age, his hair and beard are rendered in thin incisions. The gaze is due to the heavy eyelids and the incised pupils; the portrait is no longer thought to represent Plutarch. But a fragmentary hermaic stele next to the portrait did once bear a portrait of Plutarch, since it is inscribed, "The Delphians along with the Chaeroneans dedicated this to Plutarch, following the precepts of the Amphictyony". Plutarc
The Quirinal Hill is one of the Seven Hills of Rome, at the north-east of the city center. It is the location of the official residence of the Italian head of state, who resides in the Quirinal Palace; the Quirinal Palace has an extension of 1.2 million square feet. It was part of a group of hills that included Collis Latiaris, Salutaris; these are now lost due to building in the 16th century and later. According to Roman legend, the Quirinal Hill was the site of a small village of the Sabines, king Titus Tatius would have lived there after the peace between Romans and Sabines; these Sabines had erected altars in the honour of their god Quirinus. Tombs from the 8th century BC to the 7th century BC that confirm a presence of a Sabine settlement area have been discovered; some authors consider it possible that the cult of the Capitoline Triad could have been celebrated here well before it became associated with the Capitoline Hill. The sanctuary of Flora, an Osco-Sabine goddess, was here too. According to Livy, the hill first became part of the city of Rome, along with the Viminal Hill, during the reign of Servius Tullius, Rome' sixth king, in the 6th century BC.
In 446 BC, a temple was dedicated on the Quirinal in honour of Semo Sancus Dius Fidius, it is possible that this temple was erected over the ruins of another temple. Augustus, ordered the building of a temple, dedicated to Mars. On a slope of the Quirinal were the extensive gardens of Sallust. On the Quirinal Hill Constantine ordered the erection of his baths, the last thermae complex erected in imperial Rome; these are now lost, having been incorporated into Renaissance Rome, with only some drawings from the 16th century remaining. In the Middle Ages, the Torre delle Milizie and the convent of St. Peter and Domenic were built, above Constantine's building was erected the Palazzo Rospigliosi, they gave to the Quirinal its medieval name Monte Cavallo, which lingered into the 19th century, when the hill was transformed beyond all recognition by urbanization of an expanding capital of a united Italy. In the same palazzo were the two statues of river gods that Michelangelo moved to the steps of Palazzo Senatorio on the Capitoline Hill.
According to the political division of the center of Rome, the Hill belongs to the rione Trevi. The Quirinal Hill is today identified with the Palazzo del Quirinale, the official residence of the President of the Italian Republic and one of the symbols of the State. Before the abolition of the Italian monarchy in 1946, it was the residence of the king of Italy, before 1871 it was, as a residence of the Pope; the healthy cool air of the Quirinal Hill attracted aristocrats and papal families that built villas where the gardens of Sallust had been in antiquity. A visit to the villa of Cardinal Luigi d'Este in 1573 convinced Pope Gregory XIII to start the building of a summer residence the following year, in an area considered healthier than the Vatican Hill or Lateran: His architects were Flaminio Ponzio and Ottaviano Nonni, called Mascherino. Gardens were conceived by Maderno. In the 18th century, Ferdinando Fuga built the long wing called the Manica Lunga, which stretched 360 meters along via del Quirinale.
In front lies the sloping Piazza del Quirinale where the pair of gigantic Roman marble "Horse Tamers" representing Castor and Pollux, found in the Baths of Constantine, were re-erected in 1588. In Piranesi's view, the vast open space is unpaved; the Palazzo del Quirinale was the residence of the popes until 1870, though Napoleon deported both Pius VI and Pius VII to France, declared the Quirinale an imperial palace. When Rome was united to the Kingdom of Italy, the Quirinale became the residence of the kings until 1946. Today, the Palazzo hosts the offices and the apartments of the Head of State and, in its long side along via XX Settembre, the apartments that were furnished for each visit of foreign monarchs or dignitaries. Several collections are in this Palazzo, including tapestries, statues, old carriages, watches and porcelain. In Piranesi's view, the palazzo on the right is the Palazzo della Sacra Consulta a villa built upon the ruins of the Baths of Constantine, adapted by Sixtus V as a civil and criminal court.
The present façade was built in 1732–1734 by the architect Ferdinando Fuga on the orders of Pope Clement XII Corsini, whose coat-of-arms, trumpeted by two Fames, still surmounts the roofline balustrade, as in Piranesi's view. It housed Mussolini's ministry of colonial affairs; the hill is the site of buildings. Many of those built during the baroque period reflect the personal and spiritual aspirations of powerful local families: The church of Sant'Andrea al Quirinale was designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, for Cardinal Camillo Pamphilii; the four fountains with reclining river gods commissioned by Pope Sixtus V