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Portable Executable

The Portable Executable format is a file format for executables, object code, DLLs, FON Font files, others used in 32-bit and 64-bit versions of Windows operating systems. The PE format is a data structure that encapsulates the information necessary for the Windows OS loader to manage the wrapped executable code; this includes dynamic library references for linking, API export and import tables, resource management data and thread-local storage data. On NT operating systems, the PE format is used for EXE, DLL, SYS, other file types; the Extensible Firmware Interface specification states that PE is the standard executable format in EFI environments. On Windows NT operating systems, PE supports the IA-32, IA-64, x86, x86-64, ARM and ARM64 instruction set architectures. Prior to Windows 2000, Windows NT supported the MIPS, PowerPC ISAs; because PE is used on Windows CE, it continues to support several variants of the MIPS, ARM, SuperH ISAs. Analogous formats to PE are ELF and Mach-O. Microsoft migrated to the PE format from the 16-bit NE/LE formats with the introduction of the Windows NT 3.1 operating system.

All versions of Windows, including Windows 95/98/ME and the Win32s addition to Windows 3.1x, support the file structure. The format has retained limited legacy support to bridge the gap between NT systems. For example, PE/COFF headers still include a DOS executable program, by default a DOS stub that displays a message like "This program cannot be run in DOS mode", though it can be a full-fledged DOS version of the program; this constitutes a form of fat binary. PE continues to serve the changing Windows platform; some extensions include the. NET PE format, a 64-bit version called PE32+, a specification for Windows CE. A PE file consists of a number of headers and sections that tell the dynamic linker how to map the file into memory. An executable image consists of several different regions, each of which require different memory protection. For instance the.text section is mapped as execute/readonly, section is mapped as no-execute/readwrite. However, to avoid wasting space, the different sections are not page aligned on disk.

Part of the job of the dynamic linker is to map each section to memory individually and assign the correct permissions to the resulting regions, according to the instructions found in the headers. One section of note is the import address table, used as a lookup table when the application is calling a function in a different module, it can be in the form of both import by import by name. Because a compiled program cannot know the memory location of the libraries it depends upon, an indirect jump is required whenever an API call is made; as the dynamic linker loads modules and joins them together, it writes actual addresses into the IAT slots, so that they point to the memory locations of the corresponding library functions. Though this adds an extra jump over the cost of an intra-module call resulting in a performance penalty, it provides a key benefit: The number of memory pages that need to be copy-on-write changed by the loader is minimized, saving memory and disk I/O time. If the compiler knows ahead of time that a call will be inter-module it can produce more optimized code that results in an indirect call opcode.

PE files do not contain position-independent code. Instead they are compiled to a preferred base address, all addresses emitted by the compiler/linker are fixed ahead of time. If a PE file cannot be loaded at its preferred address, the operating system will rebase it; this involves modifying the code to use the new values. The loader does this by comparing the preferred and actual load addresses, calculating a delta value; this is added to the preferred address to come up with the new address of the memory location. Base relocations are added, as needed, to an existing memory location; the resulting code is now private to the process and no longer shareable, so many of the memory saving benefits of DLLs are lost in this scenario. It slows down loading of the module significantly. For this reason rebasing is to be avoided wherever possible, the DLLs shipped by Microsoft have base addresses pre-computed so as not to overlap. In the no rebase case PE therefore has the advantage of efficient code, but in the presence of rebasing the memory usage hit can be expensive.

This contrasts with ELF which uses position-independent code and a global offset table, which trades off execution time in favor of lower memory usage. In a. NET executable, the PE code section contains a stub that invokes the CLR virtual machine startup entry, _CorExeMain or _CorDllMain in mscoree.dll, much like it was in Visual Basic executables. The virtual machine makes use of. NET metadata present, the root of which, IMAGE_COR20_HEADER is pointed to by IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_COMHEADER entry in the PE header's data directory. IMAGE_COR20_HEADER resembles PE's optional header playing its role for the CLR loader; the CLR-related data, including the root structure itself, is contained in the common code section.text. It is composed of a few directories: metadata, embedded resources, strong names and a few for native-code interoperability. Metadata

Implicit memory

Implicit memory is one of the two main types of long-term human memory. It is acquired and used unconsciously, can affect thoughts and behaviours. One of its most common forms is procedural memory, which helps people performing certain tasks without conscious awareness of these previous experiences. Implicit memory's counterpart is known as explicit memory or declarative memory, which refers to the conscious, intentional recollection of factual information, previous experiences and concepts. Evidence for implicit memory arises in priming, a process whereby subjects are measured by how they have improved their performance on tasks for which they have been subconsciously prepared. Implicit memory leads to the illusion-of-truth effect, which suggests that subjects are more to rate as true those statements that they have heard, regardless of their truthfulness. In daily life, people rely on implicit memory every day in the form of procedural memory, the type of memory that allows people to remember how to tie their shoes or ride a bicycle without consciously thinking about these activities.

Research into implicit memory indicates that it operates through a different mental process from explicit memory. Advanced studies of implicit memory began only in the 1980s. In early research, subjects were presented with words under different conditions and were given two types of tests: recognition memory tests and perceptual identification tests; these studies provided evidence that effects of memory on perceptual identification was independent of recognition memory. Jacoby & Brooks argued that perceptual identity effects reflect rapid, context-specific learning. Unconscious influences of memory were found to alter the subjective experiences of participants. In one such study, participants judged that the white background noise was lower when they read words they had been presented, thus misattributing their ease of perceiving the word to less noisy environment; this provided evidence for specific and long-living influences of past memory when participants were unaware of its influence. Similar effects have been found with studies where participants made judgments about difficulty of anagrams and recognized famous names.

The effect of implicit memory was tested employing priming procedures. Several studies confirm implicit memory as a separate entity. In one such experiment, participants were asked to listen to several songs and decide if they were familiar with the song or not. Half of the participants were presented with familiar American folk songs and the other half were presented with songs made using the tunes of the same songs from group 1 but mixed with new lyrics. Results show that participants in group 1 had a much higher chance of recalling the songs as being familiar though in both groups, the tunes of the songs were the same; this study shows that people are implicitly making connections amongst their memories. Much memory study focuses on associative memory, or memories formed between two entities, linking them together in the brain; this study shows that people implicitly make a strong associative connection between a song's tune and its lyrics that they can't separate later. Some clues as to the anatomical basis of implicit memory have emanated from recent studies comparing different forms of dementia.

Patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type have been reported to be impaired on both lexical and semantic priming tasks, while patients with Huntington's disease were able to demonstrate normal priming ability. In contrast, HD patients evidenced little learning on a pursuit-rotor task, mastered by both amnesic and DAT patients; this possible double dissociation involving HD and DAT patients suggests that different implicit memory tasks are mediated by distinct neural systems and that these tasks can be used to differentiate some of the so-called "cortical" from "subcortical" dementias. A more recent contribution to the study of implicit memory comes from the experiments with a spatial organization computer game on amnesic patients. Damage to the bilateral temporal lobe and hippocampus had caused the loss of explicit memory. However, despite being unable to recall the game, these patients were able to dream of it at sleep onset; this observation is interesting as it shows that learning can be memorized without the contribution of explicit memory, which requires the activation of the hippocampus and of the temporal and basal cortex.

In the cases observed by Stickgold et al. the explicit memory was impaired, but a non-explicit and non-conscious kind of memory was left and could emerge in dreams. This observation shows that an experience can be stored in the implicit memory and can be represented symbolically in dreams. According to Daniel L. Schacter, "The question of whether implicit and explicit memory depend on a single underlying system or on multiple underlying systems is not yet resolved." The findings display such a variety of phenomena that there has not yet been a theory to account for all of the observations. Instead, two theories have been presented to explain different subsets of the data. Modern discoveries in neuropsychology concerning the organization of memory allow us to hypothesize that some synaptical cortical and subcortical circuits form the seat of unconscious mental functions; the possibility of identifying, in the explicit and implicit memory the repressed and unrepressed unconscious opens new and stimulating perspectives for an integration of neuroscience with psychoanalysis, for a possible anatomic localization of the functions of these two different forms of unconscious.


Sand star

The sand star, Luidia foliolata, is a species of starfish in the family Luidiidae found in the northeastern Pacific Ocean on sandy and muddy seabeds at depths to about 600 m. The sand star has five long, flattened arms with tapering tips, it can grow to a diameter of 40 cm, is a grey, greenish-grey, or pale brown colour, sometimes speckled with white. The arms have rows of large marginal plates, each with several spines, but these are not visible from the aboral side; the tube feet have no suckers, but instead end with blunt points. The sand star could be confused with Astropecten verrilli, but in that species, the large marginal plates are visible from above; this starfish seems to be damaged, breaks in pieces if raised from the seabed by trawling. When brought up intact, it has missing or regenerating arms the result of attacks by predatory crabs or fish; the sand star is found at depths to 600 m on soft substrates in the northeastern Pacific Ocean, with a range extending from Alaska to the Galapagos Islands and Nicaragua.

The sand star is well-camouflaged on the sandy and muddy seabeds where it is found, is half-covered with sediment. It can create a shallow depression and work its way under the bivalve molluscs, polychaete worms, brittle stars, sea cucumbers on which it feeds. Unlike some other starfish, it cannot evert its stomach, so is limited to smaller-sized prey, it is agile, can right itself if turned upside down. The long, pointed tube feet are specially adapted for movement over soft sediments, but lose traction if the sand star tries to scale steeply sloping rocks, it is a fast traveller, can move across the seabed at the rate of 280 centimetres per minute, many times faster than slow species such as the leather star, which can only traverse 15 cm in a minute

Ali Javadi

Ali Javadi is an Iranian political Communist activist living in exile. He is one of the main theoreticians of Worker-Communism unity party of Iran. Earlier when he was still in Central-Committeein of Worker-Communist party of Iran in December 2006 he was among those who founded a faction inside the Party called "The Worker-communism Unity" and later quit the main party and built another party called Worker-Communism Unity Party of Iran; because of his activities in there and in different Radio and television satellite Channels he is a well-known figure among the Iranian communists in opposition to Islamic Republic. Ali Javadi is secretary of the central committee of the Worker-communism Unity Party, he is the current head of Marx Society, current director of “Centre for Prosecuting Islamic Republic officials for their crimes against People” With raising Iranian Revolution he and group of his friends stopped their education and came back to Iran in summer 1977, only a few months before revolution.

He and his friends formed “Spark Communist Committee” and joined social and worker protests First against Shah and against Khomeini newly found Regime. His pseudonym in this period was “Reza”, it was in this days that he get to know Javad Ghaedi and with his help he wrote his first work named “Councils: Germinal bases of Revolutionary Government”. After the Studying “Iranian Revolution and the Role of the Proletariat ” He and “Spark Communist Committee” were attracted to “Sahand Circle” and after Sahand circle Formed “Communist Militias Union”, they joined it, it was at this time. He first met him in a behind-the-curtain-meeting with presence of Hekmat, Gholam Keshavarz, Javad Ghaedi and a delegate from group named “Armdadasdane Zahmatkeshane Khorasan”. After joining CMU Ali was active in worker movements in east and south-east of Tehran and at the same time he had an official job working as technician in “Organization of expanding and reconstructing of Iranian Industry”. On June 20, 1981 and famous event of that day he was in Tehran streets and survived the persecution.

After the violent represses of Islamic Republic he lost his connection with CMU and stopped his political activities for a while. In 1984 he used forged documents to flee to Europe and the United States and he continued his studies there, it was at the same time that Communist Party of Iran was formed and Ali joined this party and after a while he was responsible for some CPI activities in the United States. When a “Worker Communism Faction” was forming in CPI he joined this Faction and at this time with advice of Mansoor Hekmat, he became Advisor to Politburo of CPI. After Worker-Communist Party of Iran was formed he was among the first to join it and he was a member of WPI Central Committee from the beginning. Ali Javadi was one of the first contributors to “Radio International” and He was responsible for the Television Activities of Worker-Communist party of Iran Which was the first Persian satellite channel with a Communist alternative at the time, he was a member of editorial board or director of “Anternasional”, a paper in Persian.

In 1999, with recommend of Mansoor Hekmat, he started to publish quarterly magazine named “Porsesh”. Porsesh was quite different and original magazine. In September 2003 he started to run a television program named “For a better world”; this program broadcast in “Channel One” several hours a week. Javadi was promoting WPI in this program, and with the establishment of “New Channel” he became the first director of New Channel he left this position. He was involved in discussions inside of Worker-Communist party of Iran and built a faction named Worker-Communism Faction of the main Party and still part of the party till the faction decided to leave the main party and build its own party, called Worker-Communism Unity Party of Iran, he is one of the leaders which include. Akhare Hafte was a personal and political paper in Persian, published by Javadi for months.he wrote about his personal life in this magazine as well as focusing on the news. Official web site Official web site of Worker-Communism unity party of Iran

Steve Odom

Stephen Odom is a former American football wide receiver and kick returner in the National Football League. He played college football for Utah, where he twice finished second in the country in receiving touchdowns with 11 his sophomore and 8 his junior year, led the country in kickoff returns in 1972, he was a first-team All-American and Academic All-American in 1973. At the time of graduation, he held records for touchdowns, receiving yards in a game, receiving touchdowns in a season and career, longest kickoff return, most career punt return yards, longest punt return, most career kickoff returns and yards, most yards per catch in a season. Odom was drafted by the Green Bay Packers in the 5th round of the 1974 draft, where he played five seasons, one with the New York Giants, he went to the Pro Bowl after the 1974 season. He had both a kick return of 95 yards for a touchdown during his time with the Packers; as of 2018's NFL off-season, Steve Odom held at least 4 Packers franchise records, including: Most Kick Returns: 179 Most Kick Ret Yds: 4,124 Most Total Return Yds: 4,693 Longest punt return for a touchdown: 95 yards.

List of NCAA major college yearly punt and kickoff return leaders

California State Water Resources Control Board

The California State Water Resources Control Board is one of six branches of the California Environmental Protection Agency. This regulatory program has had the status of an official government department since the 1950s; the State Water Pollution Control Board, as well as 9 regional boards, were established by the Dickey Water Pollution Act of 1949. The board was renamed to the State Water Quality Control Board by an Act of 1963; the State Water Resources Control Board was established from the State Water Quality Control Board and the State Water Rights Board by an Act of 1967. California's pioneering clean water act is the 1969 Porter-Cologne Water Quality Control Act. Through the Porter-Cologne Act, the State Water Board and the Regional Water Boards have been entrusted with broad duties and powers to preserve and enhance all beneficial uses of the state's immensely complex waterscape; the Porter-Cologne Act is recognized as one of the nation's strongest pieces of anti-pollution legislation, was so influential that Congressional authors used sections of the Act as the basis for the Federal Clean Water Act.

The late SWRCB chairman, Don Maughan, wrote: The State Water Board has never had the luxury of advocating protection of just one water need, such as the environment or agriculture or that of large cities. Our charge is to balance all water needs of the state; some call it a superhuman task, but through the years this Board, aided by its excellent staff, has done what I call a superhuman job of accomplishing that mandate despite the intensive historical and economic pressures that always accompany California water issues. The State Water Board oversees the allocation of the state's water resources to various entities and for diverse uses, from agricultural irrigation to hydro electrical power generation to municipal water supplies, for safeguarding the cleanliness and purity of Californians' water for everything from bubble baths to trout streams to ocean beaches; the State Water Board is separate from and has different responsibilities than the Department of Water Resources, which manages state-owned water infrastructure, such as dams and aqueducts.

DWR, like any other water user, must apply. Under the Federal Clean Water Act and the state's pioneering Porter-Cologne Water Quality Control Act the State Water Board has regulatory authority for protecting the water quality of nearly 1,600,000 acres of lakes, 1,300,000 acres of bays and estuaries, 211,000 miles of rivers and streams, about 1,100 miles of exquisite California coastline; the State Water Board provides financial assistance to local governments and non-profit agencies to help build or rejuvenate wastewater treatment plants, protect and monitor water quality and estuaries. It administers a fund to help underground storage tank owners and operators pay for the costs of cleaning up leaking underground storage tanks; the State Water Board coordinates the state's nine Regional Water Quality Control Boards, which serve as the frontline for state and federal water pollution control efforts. Together, the State Water Board and the nine Regional Water Boards are referred to as the California Water Boards.

The Water Quality Division of the State Water Board develops statewide water protection plans and establishes water quality standards like the California Bays and Estuaries Policy. The Division has two branches: a groundwater branch; the surface water branch focuses on monitoring and regulating storm water discharges and wastewater treatment. It monitors surface water quality, oversees protection of wetlands and the ocean, is active in environmental education and environmental justice issues and oversees clean-up of contaminated sites, promotes low-impact development; the groundwater branch provides statewide guidance and oversight for discharges to land and cleanup of sites with contaminated groundwater. The Water Rights Division of the State Water Board allocates surface water rights based on the state's complex system of water rights laws, assists Board members in exercising the Board's judicial power in water rights disputes; the State Water Board is responsible for issuing permits for water rights, specifying amounts and construction timetables for diversion and storage.

Decisions about water rights are based on such factors as water availability, historical water rights, flows needed to preserve in-stream uses, such as recreation and fish habitat. California recognizes several different types of rights to use surface water; some water rights can only be held by government. These include pueblo rights, which can only be held by municipalities that were Mexican or Spanish pueblos, federal reserved rights, which can only be held by the federal government. For the purpose of administering water rights, California categorizes groundwater as either a subterranean stream flowing through a known and definite channel or percolating groundwater. Groundwater, a subterranean stream is subject to the same water right permitting requirements as surface water. California has no statewide water right permit process for regulating the use of percolating groundwater. A subterranean stream meets the following four characteristics: A subsurface channel must be present. In most areas of the state, landowners whose property overlies percolating groundwater may pump it for benef