Portable Network Graphics

Portable Network Graphics is a raster-graphics file-format that supports lossless data compression. PNG was developed as an improved, non-patented replacement for Graphics Interchange Format. PNG supports palette-based images, grayscale images, full-color non-palette-based RGB or RGBA images; the PNG working group designed the format for transferring images on the Internet, not for professional-quality print graphics, therefore it does not support non-RGB color spaces such as CMYK. A PNG file contains a single image in an extensible structure of "chunks", encoding the basic pixels and other information such as textual comments and integrity checks documented in RFC 2083. PNG files are assigned MIME media type image/png. PNG was published as informational RFC 2083 in March 1997 and as an ISO/IEC standard in 2004; the motivation for creating the PNG format was the realization, in early 1995, that the Lempel–Ziv–Welch data compression algorithm used in the Graphics Interchange Format format was patented by Unisys.

There were other problems with the GIF format that made a replacement desirable, notably its limit of 256 colors at a time when computers able to display far more than 256 colors were becoming common. A January 1995 precursory discussion thread, on the usenet newsgroup "" with the subject Thoughts on a GIF-replacement file format, had many propositions, which would be part of the PNG file format. In this thread, Oliver Fromme, author of the popular DOS JPEG viewer QPEG, proposed the PING name becoming PNG, a recursive acronym meaning PING is not GIF, the PNG extension. Although GIF allows for animation, it was decided. In 2001, the developers of PNG published the Multiple-image Network Graphics format, with support for animation. MNG achieved moderate application support, but not enough among mainstream web browsers and no usage among web site designers or publishers. In 2008, certain Mozilla developers published the Animated Portable Network Graphics format with similar goals. APNG is a format, natively supported by Gecko- and Presto-based web browsers and is commonly used for thumbnails on Sony's PlayStation Portable system, as of 2017, usage of APNG remains minimal despite being supported by all major browsers but Microsoft Edge.

1 October 1996: Version 1.0 of the PNG specification was released, appeared as RFC 2083. It became a W3C Recommendation on 1 October 1996. 31 December 1998: Version 1.1, with some small changes and the addition of three new chunks, was released. 11 August 1999: Version 1.2, adding one extra chunk, was released. 10 November 2003: PNG became an International Standard. This version of PNG differs only from version 1.2 and adds no new chunks. 3 March 2004: ISO/IEC 15948:2004. The original PNG specification was authored by an ad-hoc group of computer graphics experts and enthusiasts. Discussions and decisions about the format were conducted by email; the original authors listed on RFC 2083 are: Editor: Thomas Boutell Contributing Editor: Tom Lane Authors: Mark Adler, Thomas Boutell, Christian Brunschen, Adam M. Costello, Lee Daniel Crocker, Andreas Dilger, Oliver Fromme, Jean-loup Gailly, Chris Herborth, Aleks Jakulin, Neal Kettler, Tom Lane, Alexander Lehmann, Chris Lilley, Dave Martindale, Owen Mortensen, Keith S. Pickens, Robert P. Poole, Glenn Randers-Pehrson, Greg Roelofs, Willem van Schaik, Guy Schalnat, Paul Schmidt, Tim Wegner, Jeremy Wohl A PNG file starts with an 8-byte signature: After the header comes a series of chunks, each of which conveys certain information about the image.

Chunks declare themselves as critical or ancillary, a program encountering an ancillary chunk that it does not understand can safely ignore it. This chunk-based storage layer structure, similar in concept to a container format or to Amiga's IFF, is designed to allow the PNG format to be extended while maintaining compatibility with older versions—it provides forward compatibility, this same file structure is used in the associated MNG, JNG, APNG formats. A chunk consists of four parts: length, chunk type/name, chunk data and CRC; the CRC is a network-byte-order CRC-32 computed over the chunk type and chunk data, but not the length. Chunk types are given a four-letter case sensitive ASCII type/name; the case of the different letters in the name is a bit field that provides the decoder with some information on the nature of chunks it does not recognize. The case of the first letter indicates. If the first letter is uppercase, the chunk is critical. Critical chunks contain information, necessary to read the file.

If a decoder encounters a critical chunk it does not recognize, it must abort reading the file or supply the user with an appropriate warning. The case of the second letter indicates whether the chunk is "public" or "private". Uppercase is public and lowercase is private; this ensures that private chunk names can never conflict with each other. The third letter must be uppercase to conform to the PNG specification, it is reserved for

Maya Manithan

Maya Manithan is a 1958 Indian Tamil language film produced and directed by T. P. Sundaram; the film featured Sriram, S. A. Asokan, Chandrakantha in the lead roles. Adapted from Film credits. Dance Helen Sukumari Bala Jeeva Malathi Producer: T. P. Sundaram & Harilal Badeviya Director: T. P. Sundaram Screenplay & Dialogues: A. S. Muthu Cinematography: M. Krishnaswamy Audiography: T. S. Rangasamy, Kanniappan & Mohanasundaram Nageswaran and Narasimman Choreography: R. Krishnaraj, Chopra Art: C. Ramaraju Photography: R. N. Nagaraja Rao Studio & Lab: Golden Cine Studio Processing: Krishnan Stunt: Somu & Party Music was composed by G. Govindarajulu Naidu while the lyrics were penned by A. Maruthakasi. Playback Singers are: Jikki, P. Susheela, S. Janaki, T. V. Rathinam, A. G. Rathnamala, A. L. Raghavan, S. V. Ponnusamy, S. C. Krishnan. Film titles on YouTube

Cardinal River

Cardinal River is a short river in western Alberta, Canada. It flows from the Canadian Rockies, empties into the Brazeau River, itself a major tributary of the North Saskatchewan River. At its origin, just east of Jasper National Park, the Cardinal River forms in a basin between Tripoli, Prospect and Blackface Mountains, as well as Mount Cardinal, in the Nikanassin Range. From there it flows east, into the foothills. A portion of Grave Flats Road follows the river before it reaches the Bighorn Highway, where it empties into the Brazeau River south of Pembina Forks; the Cardinal river, other surrounding landmarks, are named for Jacques Cardinal, a local fur trader. His grave is located on the banks of the river. Toma Creek Russell Creek Nomad Creek Ruby Creek Ruby Lakes, Flapjack Lake, Flapjack Creek Grave Creek Muskiki Creek Muskiki Lake List of Alberta rivers