Father Louis Hennepin, O. F. M. Baptized Antoine, was a Belgian Roman Catholic priest and missionary of the Franciscan Recollet order and an explorer of the interior of North America. Antoine Hennepin was born in Ath in the Spanish Netherlands (present-day Hainaut, Belgium. In 1659, Béthune, the town where he lived, was captured by the army of Louis XIV of France. Henri Joulet, who accompanied Hennepin and wrote his own journal of their travels, called Hennepin a Fleming. Hennepin preached in Halles in Belgium and in Artois, he was put in charge of a hospital in Maestricht. He was for a time an army chaplain. At the request of Louis XIV the Récollets sent four missionaries to New France in May 1675, including Hennepin, accompanied by René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle. In 1676 Hennepin went to the Indian mission at Fort Frontenac, from there to the Mohawks. In 1678, Hennepin was ordered by his provincial superior to accompany La Salle on an expedition to explore the western part of New France.
Hennepin departed in 1679 with La Salle from Quebec City to construct the 45-ton barque Le Griffon, sail through the Great Lakes, explore the unknown West. Hennepin was with La Salle at the construction of Fort Crevecoeur in January 1680. In February, La Salle sent Hennepin and two others as an advance party to search for the Mississippi River; the party followed the Illinois River to its junction with the Mississippi. Shortly thereafter, Hennepin was captured by a Sioux war party and carried off for a time into what is now the state of Minnesota. In September 1680, thanks to Daniel Greysolon, Sieur Du Lhut and the others were given canoes and allowed to leave returning to Quebec. Hennepin was never allowed by his order to return to North America. Local historians credit the Franciscan Récollet friar as the first European to step ashore at the site of present-day Hannibal, Missouri. Two great waterfalls were brought to the world's attention by Hennepin: Niagara Falls, with the most voluminous flow of any in North America, the Saint Anthony Falls in what is now Minneapolis, the only natural waterfall on the Mississippi River.
In 1683, he published. The Regionalist painter Thomas Hart Benton created a mural, "Father Hennepin at Niagara Falls" for the New York Power Authority at Lewiston, New York. Hennepin authored: Description de la Louisiane, Nouvelle découverte d'un très grand pays situé dans l'Amérique entre le Nouveau-Mexique et la mer glaciale, Nouveau voyage d'un pays plus grand que l'Europe. A New Discovery of a Vast Country in Voyage America. A. C. McMlurg & Co. Chicago, 1903; the truth of much of Hennepin's accounts has been called into question — or flatly denied — notably by American historian Francis Parkman, himself cited for cultural bias, including against both French and Native Americans. Hennepin has been denounced by historical critics as an arrant falsifier. Certain writers have sought to repel this charge by claiming that the erroneous statements are in fact interpolations by other persons; the weight of the evidence is however adverse to such a theory. Places named after Hennepin are found in the United States and Canada: Illinois: The city of Hennepin, Illinois Hennepin Room at Starved Rock Lodge and Conference Centre in Utica, Illinois The Hennepin CanalMichigan: Point Hennepin, the northern tip of Grosse Ile, an island on the Detroit River south of Detroit Hennepin Street in Garden City, Michigan Hennepin Road in Marquette, Michigan Hennepin, significant as the first self-unloading bulk carrier.
Wreckage is located west of Michigan. Minnesota: Hennepin County, whose seat is Minneapolis Hennepin Avenue, in Minneapolis The Father Louis Hennepin Bridge, across the Mississippi River in Minneapolis Father Hennepin State Park, in Isle, Minnesota A Great Lakes wood-hulled steamer built in 1888 which sank in 1927 The city of Champlin, the site historians report where he first crossed the Mississippi in 1680, holds an annual Father Hennepin Festival on the 2nd weekend of June that includes a reenactment of Father Louis Hennepin crossing the Mississippi River. Hennepin Island is in the Mississippi River at St. Anthony Falls. Although it is no longer an island, it extends into the river and houses the Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory at the University of Minnesota, a five-unit hydroelectric plant, owned by Xcel Energy, the Main Street substation – serving downtown Minneapolis. Father Hennepin Park lies on the east bank of the Mississippi River adjacent to Hennepin Island, it is administered by the Minneapolis Park and Recreation Board and features picnic areas, a bandshell, Heritage Trail plaques.
Hennepin Room at the Minneapolis Hilton Hotel The Father Hennepin Memorial stands on the grounds of Saint Mary's Basilica in Minneapolis. New York: Hennepin Road in Grand Island, New York Hennepin Avenue on Cayuga Island in Niagara Falls, New York Hennepin Room at the Niagara Falls Conference Center in Niagara Falls Hennepin Park, a park located on the corner of 82nd Street and Bollier Avenue in Niagara Falls Hennepin Hall, a residence hall at Siena College, New York Hennepin Park, a park located in the East Lovejoy neighborhood of Buffalo, New York Hennepin Parkway known as Hennepin Street, a street on the north side of Hennepin Park in the East Lovejoy neighborhood of Buffalo Hennepin Farmhouse Saison Ale (be
Port of Indiana
The Port of Indiana-Burns Harbor is an industrial area, founded in 1965 and located on the Lake Michigan shore of Indiana at the intersection of U. S. Highway 12 and Indiana 249; the primary work done in the area is the manufacturing of steel, the port area is dominated by steel mills. The port is divided between the municipalities of Burns Portage. Construction of the Port of Indiana-Burns Harbor was controversial, with conservationists fighting to preserve a segment of the Indiana Dunes that occupied the site of the future port; the port and its steel mills were constructed on top of what was once the Central Dunes region of the Indiana Dunes and site of some of the hanggliding experiments carried out by a crew led by pioneer aviator Octave Chanute. Authorization of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, which borders the Port of Indiana-Burns Harbor on three sides, was part of a political compromise that involved the construction of the port; the Port of Indiana-Burns Harbor, as of 2015, is dominated by three extensive industrial plants: Gary Works-Midwest Plant, a unit of the U.
S. Steel Corporation; the Burns Harbor works of ArcelorMittal constructed by the former Bethlehem Steel Corporation. The Northern Indiana Public Service Bailly coal-fired power plant owned by NiSource; when Bethlehem Steel and advocates for preservation of the Central Dunes crossed swords in Congress in the early 1960s, the steel company won. Two key arguments used by Bethlehem in their successful campaign were increased national security from the production of American steel, the creation of well-paid jobs in a field, dominated by the United Steelworkers union. Two arguments advanced by the people opposed to the project were that the mill could have been located directly east of Gary, in a less sensitive and strategic ecological zone, that large infrastructure projects, which would amount to a tax subsidy, were needed to construct a mill in this area. Making steel in the Burns Harbor area required support from the federal government because of the shallow waters of Lake Michigan offshore from the sand dunes.
In order to make it possible for lake freighters to bring iron ore and limestone to the steel mills, extensive dredging and engineering work was necessary. This work linked the Little Calumet River to Lake Michigan via Burns Ditch. Congress, as part of the River and Harbor Act of 1965, instructed the Army Corps of Engineers to carry out the necessary work to create and maintain the artificial harbor that would become the Port of Indiana. In line with overall Great Lakes standards, the docking areas are dredged to a depth of at least 27 feet; the port is protected by 8,230 feet of rubblemound breakwaters. In addition to the federal help, the state of Indiana showed its support for the Port of Indiana project by constructing two roads, Indiana 149 and Indiana 249, to serve the new industrial area; the Port of Indiana-Burns Harbor contains the Burns Waterway Small Boat Harbor, a 5,540-foot -long canal, dredged to a depth of 6 feet, extending inland from Lake Michigan to south of U. S. Highway 12.
It is located west of Burns Waterway Harbor, at 41.633°N 87.177°W / 41.633. This boat harbor provides access to the inland Portage Marina and Marina Shores, a private, 300-boat marina/condominium complex under development as of 2011; the marina is successful. Other than the small boat harbor, much of the Port of Indiana-Burns Harbor is a "restricted area" as of 2012, the public is not admitted within most of the port area. Link to National Park Service map of the Port of Indiana U. S. Army Corps of Engineers Port of Indiana
Hocking County, Ohio
Hocking County is a county located in the U. S. state of Ohio. As of the 2010 census, the population was 29,380, its county seat is Logan. The county was organized on March 1, 1818, from land given by Athens and Ross counties, its name is from the Hocking River, the origins of which are disputed but is said to be a Delaware Indian word meaning "bottle river". Hocking County is included in OH Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 424 square miles, of which 421 square miles is land and 2.3 square miles is water. The major waterway of Hocking County is the Hocking River, which flows from WNW to ESE, arising in Fairfield County and flowing from Hocking County into Athens County; this river drains about half the county. To the southwest, much of the rest of the county is drained by Salt Creek, which flows from there into Vinton County. A small part of the southeastern county is drained by Raccoon Creek, which flows into Vinton County; the easternmost area of the county is within the Monday Creek watershed.
A small area in the north of the county is drained by Rush Creek. Perry County Athens County Vinton County Ross County Pickaway County Fairfield County Wayne National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 28,241 people, 10,843 households, 7,828 families residing in the county; the population density was 67 people per square mile. There were 12,141 housing units at an average density of 29 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.54% White, 0.92% Black or African American, 0.29% Native American, 0.08% Asian, 0.08% from other races, 1.09% from two or more races. 0.44% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 10,843 households out of which 33.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.30% were married couples living together, 9.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.80% were non-families. 23.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 2.98.
In the county, the population was spread out with 25.50% under the age of 18, 8.10% from 18 to 24, 28.30% from 25 to 44, 25.00% from 45 to 64, 13.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 99.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $34,261, the median income for a family was $40,888. Males had a median income of $31,951 versus $24,123 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,095. About 10.30% of families and 13.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.80% of those under age 18 and 14.50% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 29,380 people, 11,369 households, 7,948 families residing in the county; the population density was 69.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 13,417 housing units at an average density of 31.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.5% white, 0.7% black or African American, 0.3% American Indian, 0.2% Asian, 0.2% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 0.7% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 25.3% were German, 15.0% were American, 14.1% were Irish, 9.0% were English. Of the 11,369 households, 32.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.9% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.1% were non-families, 24.8% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 2.98. The median age was 40.9 years. The median income for a household in the county was $39,586 and the median income for a family was $48,796. Males had a median income of $39,219 versus $30,371 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,048. About 12.3% of families and 15.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.7% of those under age 18 and 10.8% of those age 65 or over. The county commissioners are Sandra Ogle, Gary Waugh, Jeff Dickerson, the Hocking County Sheriff is Lanny North.
Logan Buchtel Laurelville Murray City https://web.archive.org/web/20160715023447/http://www.ohiotownships.org/township-websites Carbon Hill Haydenville Hide-A-Way Hills Rockbridge Ewing Ilesboro Sand Run South Bloomingville Union Furnace South Perry National Register of Historic Places listings in Hocking County, Ohio Hocking County government's website
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
Father Jacques Marquette S. J. sometimes known as Père Marquette or James Marquette, was a French Jesuit missionary who founded Michigan's first European settlement, Sault Ste. Marie, founded St. Ignace, Michigan. In 1673, Father Marquette and Louis Jolliet were the first Europeans to explore and map the northern portion of the Mississippi River Valley. Jacques Marquette was born in Laon, France, on June 1, 1637, he came of an ancient family distinguished for its military services. Marquette joined the Society of Jesus at age 17, he studied and taught in France for several years, the Jesuits assigned him to New France in 1666 as a missionary to the indigenous peoples of the Americas. Arriving at Quebec he was at once signed to Trois-Rivières on the Saint Lawrence, where he assisted Gabriel Druillettes and, as preliminary to further work, devoted himself to the study of the local languages, became fluent in six different dialects. In 1668 Father Marquette was moved by his superiors to missions farther up the St. Lawrence River in the western Great Lakes region.
That year he helped Gabriel Druillettes found the mission at Sault Ste. Marie in present-day Michigan. Other missions were founded at St. Ignace in 1671, at La Pointe, on Lake Superior near the city of Ashland, Wisconsin. At La Pointe he encountered members of the Illinois tribes, who told him about the important trading route of the Mississippi River, they invited him to teach their people, whose settlements were farther south. Because of wars between the Hurons at La Pointe and the neighboring Lakota people, Father Marquette left the mission and went to the Straits of Mackinac. Leave was granted, in 1673 Marquette joined the expedition of Louis Jolliet, a French-Canadian explorer, they departed from St. Ignace on May 17, with two canoes and five voyageurs of French-Indian ancestry, they followed Lake Michigan up the Fox River, nearly to its headwaters. From there, they were told to portage their canoes a distance of less than two miles through marsh and oak plains to the Wisconsin River. Many years at that point the town of Portage, Wisconsin was built, named for the ancient path between the two rivers.
From the portage, they ventured forth, on June 17 they entered the Mississippi near present-day Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin. The Joliet-Marquette expedition traveled to within 435 miles of the Gulf of Mexico but turned back at the mouth of the Arkansas River. By this point they had encountered several natives carrying European trinkets, they feared an encounter with explorers or colonists from Spain, they followed the Mississippi back to the mouth of the Illinois River, which they learned from local natives provided a shorter route back to the Great Lakes. They reached Lake Michigan near the site of modern-day Chicago, by way of the Chicago Portage. In September Marquette stopped at the mission of St. Francis Xavier, located in present-day Green Bay, while Jolliet returned to Quebec to relate the news of their discoveries. Marquette and his party returned to the Illinois Territory in late 1674, becoming the first Europeans to winter in what would become the city of Chicago; as welcomed guests of the Illinois Confederation, the explorers were feasted en route and fed ceremonial foods such as sagamite.
In the spring of 1675, Marquette traveled westward and celebrated a public mass at the Grand Village of the Illinois near Starved Rock. A bout of dysentery which he had contracted during the Mississippi expedition sapped his health. On the return trip to St. Ignace, he died at age 37 near the modern town of Michigan. A Michigan Historical Marker at this location reads: The Ojibway Museum on State Street in downtown St. Ignace is in a building, constructed adjacent to Marquette's gravesite during urban development. Father Marquette is memorialized in the names of many towns, geographical locations, parks, a major university, other institutions: Marquette County, Marquette County, Wisconsin The communities of Marquette, Michigan. Marquette Transportation Company, a towboat company using a silhouette of the Pere in his canoe as their emblem. Marquette Building in Chicago, Illinois Marquette Elementary School, Illinois Marquette Park, Illinois Marquette Road, IllinoisIn addition, statues in Marquette's honor have been erected in several places, including the Prairie du Chien Post Office.
Other types of memorials were erected, including those at his birthplace in France. The Legler Branch of the Chicago Public Library displays "Wilderness, Winter River Scene," a restored mural by Midwestern artist R. Fayerweather Babcock; the mural depicts Father Jacques Native Americans trading by a river. Commissioned for Legler Branch in 1934, the mural was fu
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai