The Cuyahoga River is a river in the United States, located in Northeast Ohio, that feeds into Lake Erie. The river is famous for having been so polluted that it "caught fire" in 1969; the event helped to spur the environmental movement in the US. The name Cuyahoga is believed to mean "crooked river" from the Mohawk Indian name Cayagaga, although the Senecas called it Cuyohaga, or "place of the jawbone"; the Cuyahoga watershed begins its 100-mile journey in Hambden, flowing southward to the confluence of the East Branch Cuyahoga River and West Branch Cuyahoga River in Burton, where the Cuyahoga River begins. It continues on its 84.9 miles journey flowing southward to Akron and Cuyahoga Falls, where it turns north and flows through the Cuyahoga Valley National Park in northern Summit County and southern Cuyahoga County. It flows through Independence, Valley View, Cuyahoga Heights, Newburgh Heights and Cleveland to its northern terminus, emptying into Lake Erie; the Cuyahoga River and its tributaries drain 813 square miles of land in portions of six counties.
The river is a recent geological formation, formed by the advance and retreat of ice sheets during the last ice age. The final glacial retreat, which occurred 10,000–12,000 years ago, caused changes in the drainage pattern near Akron; this change in pattern caused the south-flowing Cuyahoga to flow to the north. As its newly reversed currents flowed toward Lake Erie, the river carved its way around glacial debris left by the receding ice sheet, resulting in the river's winding U-shape; these meanderings stretched the length of the river into a 100-mile trek from its headwaters to its mouth. The depth of the river ranges from 3 to 6 ft. Moses Cleaveland, a surveyor charged with exploring the Connecticut Western Reserve, first arrived at the mouth of the Cuyahoga in 1796 and subsequently located a settlement there, which became Cleveland, Ohio; the river was one of the features along which the "Greenville Treaty Line" ran beginning in 1795, per the Treaty of Greenville that ended the Northwest Indian War in the Ohio Country becoming the western boundary of the United States and remaining so briefly.
The Cuyahoga River, at times during the 20th century, was one of the most polluted rivers in the United States. The reach from Akron to Cleveland was devoid of fish. A 1968 Kent State University symposium described one section of the river: From 1,000 feet below Lower Harvard Bridge to Newburgh and South Shore Railroad Bridge, the channel becomes wider and deeper and the level is controlled by Lake Erie. Downstream of the railroad bridge to the harbor, the depth is held constant by dredging, the width is maintained by piling along both banks; the surface is covered with the brown oily film observed upstream as far as the Southerly Plant effluent. In addition, large quantities of black heavy oil floating in slicks, sometimes several inches thick, are observed frequently. Debris and trash are caught up in these slicks forming an unsightly floating mess. Anaerobic action is common as the dissolved oxygen is above a fraction of a part per million; the discharge of cooling water increases the temperature by 10 to 15 °F.
The velocity is negligible, sludge accumulates on the bottom. Animal life does not exist. Only the algae Oscillatoria grows along the piers above the water line; the color changes from gray-brown to rusty brown as the river proceeds downstream. Transparency is less than 0.5 feet in this reach. This entire reach is grossly polluted. At least 13 fires have been reported on the Cuyahoga River, the first occurring in 1868; the largest river fire in 1952 caused over $1 million in damage to boats, a bridge, a riverfront office building. On June 22, 1969, a river fire captured the attention of Time magazine, which described the Cuyahoga as the river that "oozes rather than flows" and in which a person "does not drown but decays"; the fire did spark major changes as well as the article from Time, but in the immediate aftermath little attention was given to the incident and it was not considered a major news story in the Cleveland media. Furthermore, the conflagration that sparked Time's outrage was in June 1969, but the pictures they displayed on the cover and as part of the article were from the much more dangerous and costly 1952 fire.
No pictures of the 1969 fire are known to exist, as local media did not arrive on the scene until after the fire was under control. The 1969 fire caused $50,000 in damage to an adjacent railroad bridge; the 1969 Cuyahoga River fire helped spur an avalanche of water pollution control activities, resulting in the Clean Water Act, Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, the creation of the federal Environmental Protection Agency and the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. As a result, large point sources of pollution on the Cuyahoga have received significant attention from the OEPA in recent decades; these events are referred to in Randy Newman's 1972 song "Burn On," R. E. M.'s 1986 song "Cuyahoga," and Adam Again's 1992 song "River on Fire." Great Lakes Brewing Company of Cleveland named its Burning River Pale Ale after the event. In December 1970 a federal grand jury investigation led by U. S. Attorney Robert W. Jones began, of water pollution being caused by about 12 companies in northeastern Ohio.
The Attorney General of the United States, John N. Mitchell, gave a Press Conference December 18, 1970 referencing new pollution control litigation, with particular reference to work w
A match is a tool for starting a fire. Modern matches are made of small wooden sticks or stiff paper. One end is coated with a material that can be ignited by frictional heat generated by striking the match against a suitable surface. Wooden matches are packaged in matchboxes, paper matches are cut into rows and stapled into matchbooks; the coated end of a match, known as the match "head", consists of a bead of active ingredients and binder. There are two main types of matches: safety matches, which can be struck only against a specially prepared surface, strike-anywhere matches, for which any suitably frictional surface can be used; the term match referred to lengths of cord impregnated with chemicals, allowed to burn continuously. These were used to fire guns and cannons; such matches were characterised by their burning speed i.e. slow match. Depending on its formulation, a slow match burns at a rate of around 30 cm per hour and a quick match at 4 to 60 centimetres per minute; the modern equivalent of this sort of match is the simple fuse, still used in pyrotechnics to obtain a controlled time delay before ignition.
The original meaning of the word still persists in some pyrotechnics terms, such as black match and Bengal match. But, when friction matches became commonplace, they became the main object meant by the term; the word "match" derives from Old French "mèche" referring to the wick of a candle. A note in the text Cho Keng Lu, written in 1366, describes a sulfur match, small sticks of pinewood impregnated with sulfur, used in China by "impoverished court ladies" in AD 577 during the conquest of Northern Qi. During the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms, a book called the Records of the Unworldly and the Strange written by Chinese author Tao Gu in about 950 stated: If there occurs an emergency at night it may take some time to make a light to light a lamp, but an ingenious man devised the system of impregnating little sticks of pinewood with sulfur and storing them ready for use. At the slightest touch of fire, they burst into flame. One gets a little flame like an ear of corn; this marvelous thing was called a "light-bringing slave", but afterward when it became an article of commerce its name was changed to'fire inch-stick'.
Another text, Wu Lin Chiu Shih, dated from 1270 AD, lists sulfur matches as something, sold in the markets of Hangzhou, around the time of Marco Polo's visit. The matches were known as fa tshui erh. Prior to the use of matches, fires were sometimes lit using a burning glass to focus the sun on tinder, a method that could only work on sunny days. Another more common method was igniting tinder with sparks produced by striking flint and steel, or by increasing air pressure in a fire piston. Early work had been done by alchemist Hennig Brand, who discovered the flammable nature of phosphorus in 1669. Others, including Robert Boyle and his assistant, Ambrose Godfrey, continued these experiments in the 1680s with phosphorus and sulfur, but their efforts did not produce practical and inexpensive methods for generating fires. A number of different ways were employed in order to light smoking tobacco: One was the use of a spill — a thin object something like a straw, rolled paper, or a thin candle, which would be lit from a nearby existing flame and used to light the pipe or cigar — most kept near the fireplace in a spill vase.
Another method saw the use of a striker, a tool that looked like scissors, but with flint on one "blade" and steel on the other. These would be rubbed together producing sparks. If neither of these two was available, one could use ember tongs to pick up a coal from a fire and light the tobacco directly; the first modern, self-igniting match was invented in 1805 by Jean Chancel, assistant to Professor Louis Jacques Thénard of Paris. The head of the match consisted of a mixture of potassium chlorate, sulfur and rubber; the match was ignited by dipping its tip in a small asbestos bottle filled with sulfuric acid. This kind of match was quite expensive and its use was relatively dangerous, so Chancel's matches never became adopted or in commonplace use; this approach to match making was further refined in the proceeding decades, culminating with the'Promethean Match', patented by Samuel Jones of London in 1828. His match consisted of a small glass capsule containing a chemical composition of sulfuric acid colored with indigo and coated on the exterior with potassium chlorate, all of, wrapped up in rolls of paper.
The immediate ignition of this particular form of a match was achieved by crushing the capsule with a pair of pliers and releasing the ingredients in order for it to become alight. In London, similar matches meant for lighting cigars were introduced in 1849 by Heurtner who had a shop called the Lighthouse in the Strand. One version that he sold was called "Euperion", popular for kitchen use and nicknamed as "Hugh Perry", while another meant for outdoor use was called a "Vesuvian" or "flamer"; the head was large and contained niter and wood dust, had a phosphorus tip. The handle was large and made of hardwood so as to burn last for a while; some had glass stems. Both Vesuvians and Prometheans had a bulb of sulfuric acid at the tip which had to be broken to start the reaction. Samuel Jones introduced fuzees for lighting cigars and pipes in 1832. A similar invention was patented in 1839 by John Hucks Stevens in America. In 1832
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Of the fifty states, it is the 34th largest by area, the seventh most populous, the tenth most densely populated; the state's capital and largest city is Columbus. The state takes its name from the Ohio River, whose name in turn originated from the Seneca word ohiːyo', meaning "good river", "great river" or "large creek". Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, Ohio was the 17th state admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803, the first under the Northwest Ordinance. Ohio is known as the "Buckeye State" after its Ohio buckeye trees, Ohioans are known as "Buckeyes". Ohio rose from the wilderness of Ohio Country west of Appalachia in colonial times through the Northwest Indian Wars as part of the Northwest Territory in the early frontier, to become the first non-colonial free state admitted to the union, to an industrial powerhouse in the 20th century before transmogrifying to a more information and service based economy in the 21st.
The government of Ohio is composed of the executive branch, led by the Governor. Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives. Ohio is known for its status as both a bellwether in national elections. Six Presidents of the United States have been elected. Ohio is an industrial state, ranking 8th out of 50 states in GDP, is the second largest producer of automobiles behind Michigan. Ohio's geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic expansion; because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo and business traffic passes through its borders along its well-developed highways. Ohio has the nation's 10th largest highway network and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North America's population and 70% of North America's manufacturing capacity. To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles of coastline. Ohio's southern border is defined by the Ohio River, much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohio's neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Lake Erie to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, West Virginia on the southeast.
Ohio's borders were defined by metes and bounds in the Enabling Act of 1802 as follows: Bounded on the east by the Pennsylvania line, on the south by the Ohio River, to the mouth of the Great Miami River, on the west by the line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami aforesaid, on the north by an east and west line drawn through the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, running east after intersecting the due north line aforesaid, from the mouth of the Great Miami until it shall intersect Lake Erie or the territorial line, thence with the same through Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania line aforesaid. Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. In 1980, the U. S. Supreme Court held that, based on the wording of the cessation of territory by Virginia, the boundary between Ohio and Kentucky is the northern low-water mark of the river as it existed in 1792. Ohio has only that portion of the river between the river's 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark.
The border with Michigan has changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River. Much of Ohio features glaciated till plains, with an exceptionally flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp; this glaciated region in the northwest and central state is bordered to the east and southeast first by a belt known as the glaciated Allegheny Plateau, by another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills and forests; the rugged southeastern quadrant of Ohio, stretching in an outward bow-like arc along the Ohio River from the West Virginia Panhandle to the outskirts of Cincinnati, forms a distinct socio-economic unit. Geologically similar to parts of West Virginia and southwestern Pennsylvania, this area's coal mining legacy, dependence on small pockets of old manufacturing establishments, distinctive regional dialect set this section off from the rest of the state.
In 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, an attempt to "address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region." This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia. While 1/3 of Ohio's land mass is part of the federally defined Appalachian region, only 12.8% of Ohioans live there Significant rivers within the state include the Cuyahoga River, Great Miami River, Maumee River, Muskingum River, Scioto River. The rivers in the northern part of the state drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean via Lake Erie and the St. Lawrence River, the rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio River and the Mississippi; the worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, including the downtown business district of Dayton; as a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States.
Grand Lake St. Marys in the west-central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for ca
Lumber or timber is a type of wood, processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production. Lumber is used for structural purposes but has many other uses as well. There are two main types of lumber, it may be surfaced on one or more of its faces. Besides pulpwood, rough lumber is the raw material for furniture-making and other items requiring additional cutting and shaping, it is available in many species hardwoods. Finished lumber is supplied in standard sizes for the construction industry – softwood, from coniferous species, including pine and spruce, hemlock, but some hardwood, for high-grade flooring, it is more made from softwood than hardwoods, 80% of lumber comes from softwood. In the United States milled boards of wood are referred to as lumber. However, in Britain and other Commonwealth nations, the term timber is instead used to describe sawn wood products, like floor boards. In the United States and Canada timber describes standing or felled trees. In Canada, lumber describes cut and surfaced wood.
In the United Kingdom, the word lumber is used in relation to wood and has several other meanings, including unused or unwanted items. Referring to wood, Timber is universally used instead. Remanufactured lumber is the result of secondary or tertiary processing/cutting of milled lumber, it is lumber cut for industrial or wood-packaging use. Lumber is cut by ripsaw or resaw to create dimensions that are not processed by a primary sawmill. Resawing is the splitting of 1-inch through 12-inch hardwood or softwood lumber into two or more thinner pieces of full-length boards. For example, splitting a ten-foot 2×4 into two ten-foot 1×4s is considered resawing. Structural lumber may be produced from recycled plastic and new plastic stock, its introduction has been opposed by the forestry industry. Blending fiberglass in plastic lumber enhances its strength and fire resistance. Plastic fiberglass structural lumber can have a "class 1 flame spread rating of 25 or less, when tested in accordance with ASTM standard E 84," which means it burns slower than all treated wood lumber.
Logs are converted into timber by being hewn, or split. Sawing with a rip saw is the most common method, because sawing allows logs of lower quality, with irregular grain and large knots, to be used and is more economical. There are various types of sawing: Plain sawn – A log sawn through without adjusting the position of the log and the grain runs across the width of the boards. Quarter sawn and rift sawn – These terms have been confused in history but mean lumber sawn so the annual rings are reasonably perpendicular to the sides of the lumber. Boxed heart – The pith remains within the piece with some allowance for exposure. Heart center – the center core of a log. Free of heart center – A side-cut timber without any pith. Free of knots – No knots are present. Dimensional lumber is lumber, cut to standardized width and depth, specified in inches. Carpenters extensively use dimensional lumber in framing wooden buildings. Common sizes include 2×4, 2×6, 4×4; the length of a board is specified separately from the width and depth.
It is thus possible to find 2×4s that are four and twelve feet in length. In Canada and the United States, the standard lengths of lumber are 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22 and 24 feet. For wall framing, "stud" or "precut" sizes are available, are used. For an eight-, nine-, or ten-foot ceiling height, studs are available in 92 5⁄8 inches, 104 5⁄8 inches, 116 5⁄8 inches; the term "stud" is used inconsistently to specify length. Under the prescription of the Method of Construction issued by the Southern Song government in the early 12th century, timbers were standardized to eight cross-sectional dimensions. Regardless of the actual dimensions of the timber, the ratio between width and height was maintained at 1:1.5. Units are in Song Dynasty inches. Timber smaller than the 8th class were called "unclassed"; the width of a timber is referred to as one "timber", the dimensions of other structural components were quoted in multiples of "timber". The dimensions of timbers in similar application show a gradual diminution from the Sui Dyansty to the modern era.
The length of a unit of dimensional lumber is limited by the height and girth of the tree it is milled from. In general the maximum length is 24 ft. Engineered wood products, manufactured by binding the strands, fibers, or veneers of wood, together with adhesives, to form composite materials, offer more flexibility and greater structural strength than typical wood building materials. Pre-cut studs save a framer much time, because they are pre-cut by the manufacturer for use in 8-, 9-
Summit County, Ohio
Summit County is an urban county in the U. S. state of Ohio. As of the 2010 census, the population was 541,781 making it the fourth-most populous county in Ohio, its county seat is Akron. The county was formed on March 3, 1840, from portions of Medina and Stark Counties, it was named "Summit County" because the highest elevation on the Ohio and Erie Canal is located in the county. Summit County is part of the Akron, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Cleveland-Akron-Canton, OH Combined Statistical Area.. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 419.38 square miles, of which 412.08 square miles is land and 7.3 square miles is water. The largest portion of Cuyahoga Valley National Park is located in the northern part of the county; the southern border of the former Connecticut Western Reserve passes through the southern part of the county, leading to jogs in the east and west borders of the county. Cuyahoga County - northwest Geauga County - northeast Portage County - east Stark County - south Wayne County - southwest Medina County - west Cuyahoga Valley National Park Summit County, along with Cuyahoga County, is one of two of Ohio's 88 counties that have a charter government, as authorized by Article X of the Ohio Constitution.
Under its charter, rather than three elected commissioners, Summit County has an elected County Executive and an eleven-member County Council. Eight members of the council are elected from individual districts the other three are elected at large. Summit County has an appointed Medical Examiner rather than an elected Coroner, an elected Fiscal Officer, who exercises the powers and performs the duties of a county auditor and recorder; the remaining officials are similar to the officials in other counties. They include the following: Clerk of Courts - Sandra Kurt Prosecuting Attorney - Sherri Bevan Walsh Engineer - Alan Brubaker Sheriff - Steve Barry Fiscal Officer - Kristen Scalise Summit County has 14 Common Pleas judges, they are: Kelly McLaughlin, Kathryn Michael, Christine Croce, Amy Corrigall Jones, Alison McCarty, Tammy O'Brien, Joy Oldfield, Mary Margaret Rowlands, Alison Breaux, Jill Flagg Lanzinger Linda Tucci Teodosio Katarina Cook John P. Quinn Elinore Marsh Stormer Summit County has an 11-member council.
Three members are elected at-large in mid-term cycles, while eight members are elected from districts coinciding with the Presidential election. The current members of Summit County Council are: Clair Dickinson Elizabeth Walters John Donofrio Ron Koehler John Schmidt Gloria Rodgers Jeff Wilhite David Hamilton Jerry Feeman Beth McKenney Paula Prentice John R. Morgan, 1981–1989 Tim Davis, 1989–2001 James B. McCarthy, 2001–2007 Russell M. Pry, 2007-2016 Ilene Shapiro, 2016–present As of the 2010 Census, there were 541,781 people, 222,781 households, 141,110 families residing in the county; the population density was 1,312.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 245,109 housing units at an average density of 593.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 80.6% white, 14.4% black or African American, 2.2% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.5% from other races, 2.1% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.6% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 24.9% were German, 15.3% were Irish, 10.6% were English, 10.1% were Italian, 5.1% were Polish, 4.5% were American.
Of the 222,781 households, 29.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.3% were married couples living together, 13.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.7% were non-families, 30.0% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.98. The median age was 40.0 years. The median income for a household in the county was $47,926 and the median income for a family was $62,271. Males had a median income of $47,892 versus $35,140 for females; the per capita income for the county was $26,676. About 10.0% of families and 13.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.8% of those under age 18 and 8.0% of those age 65 or over. Like most of Northeast Ohio, Summit is Democratic, it has only voted Republican three times since 1932, all in national Republican landslides– Dwight D. Eisenhower's 1956 victory, the 49-state sweeps by Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan in 1972 and 1984, respectively.
School Districts in Summit County do not follow City and Township Corporation limits or township borders. Many School Districts in Summit County overlap community borders. Below is a list of all public school districts in Ohio. Akron Public School District Revere Local School District Copley–Fairlawn City School District Woodridge Local School District Hudson City School District Stow-Munroe Falls City School District Cuyahoga Falls City School District Tallmadge City School District Mogadore Local School District Springfield Local School District Coventry Local School District Green Local School District Manchester Local School District Barberton City School District Norton City School District Twinsburg City School District Nordonia Hills City School District University of Akron, Akron Kent State University Regional Academic Center, Twinsburg Summit Metro Parks National Register of Historic Places listings in Summit
Akron is the fifth-largest city in the U. S. is the county seat of Summit County. It is located on the western edge of the Glaciated Allegheny Plateau, about 30 miles south of Cleveland; as of the 2017 Census estimate, the city proper had a total population of 197,846, making it the 119th-largest city in the United States. The Greater Akron area, covering Summit and Portage counties, had an estimated population of 703,505; the city was founded in 1825 by Simon Perkins and Paul Williams, along the Little Cuyahoga River at the summit of the developing Ohio and Erie Canal. The name is derived from the Greek word signifying high point, it was renamed South Akron after Eliakim Crosby founded nearby North Akron in 1833, until both merged into an incorporated village in 1836. In the 1910s, Akron doubled in population. A long history of rubber and tire manufacturing, carried on today by Goodyear Tire, gave Akron the nickname "Rubber Capital of the World", it was once known as a center of airship development.
Today, its economy includes manufacturing, education and biomedical research. Notable historic events in Akron include the passage of the Akron School Law of 1847, which created the K–12 system. A racially diverse city, it has seen noted racial relations speeches by Sojourner Truth in 1851 — the Ain't I A Woman? Speech. Du Bois in 1920. In 1914, Marcus Garvey founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association in Akron. Episodes of major civil unrest in Akron have included the riot of 1900, rubber strike of 1936, the Wooster Avenue riots of 1968. In 1811, Paul Williams settled near the corner of what is now Broadway, he suggested to General Simon Perkins, surveyor of the Connecticut Land Company's Connecticut Western Reserve, that they found a town at the summit of the developing Ohio and Erie Canal. The name is adapted from meaning summit or high point, it was laid out in December 1825, where the south part of the downtown Akron neighborhood sits today. Irish laborers working on the Ohio Canal built about 100 cabins nearby.
After Eliakim Crosby founded "North Akron" in the northern portion of what is now downtown Akron in 1833, "South" was added to Akron's name until about three years when the two were merged and became an incorporated village in 1836. In 1840, Summit County formed from portions of Portage and Stark Counties. Akron replaced Cuyahoga Falls as its county seat a year and opened a canal connecting to Beaver, helping give birth to the stoneware, sewer pipe, fishing tackle, farming equipment industries. In 1844, abolitionist John Brown moved into the John Brown House across the street from business partner Colonel Simon Perkins, who lived in the Perkins Stone Mansion; the Akron School Law of 1847 founded the city's public schools and created the K–12 grade school system, used in every U. S. state. The city's first school is now a museum on Broadway Street near the corner of Exchange; when the Ohio Women's Rights Convention came to Akron in 1851, Sojourner Truth extemporaneously delivered her speech named "Ain't I A Woman?", at the Universalist Old Stone Church.
In 1870, a local businessman associated with the church, John R. Buchtel, founded Buchtel College, which became the University of Akron in 1913. Ferdinand Schumacher bought a mill in 1856, the following decade mass-produced oat bars for the Union Army during the American Civil War. Akron incorporated as a city in 1865. Philanthropist Lewis Miller, Walter Blythe, architect Jacob Snyder designed the used Akron Plan, debuting it on Akron's First Methodist Episcopal Church in 1872. Numerous Congregational and Presbyterian churches built between the 1870s and World War I use it. In 1883, a local journalist began the modern toy industry by founding the Akron Toy Company. A year the first popular toy was mass-produced clay marbles made by Samuel C. Dyke at his shop where Lock 3 Park is now. Other popular inventions include rubber balloons, dolls, baby buggy bumpers, little brown jugs. In 1895, the first long-distance electric railway, the Akron and Cleveland Railroad, began service. On August 25, 1889, the Boston Daily Globe referred to Akron with the nickname "Summit City".
To help local police, the city deployed the first police car in the U. S. that ran on electricity. The Riot of 1900 saw assaults on city officials, two deaths, the destruction by fire of Columbia Hall and the Downtown Fire Station; the American trucking industry was birthed through Akron's Rubber Capital of the World era when the four major tire companies Goodrich Corporation, Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Firestone Tire and Rubber Company, General Tire were headquartered in the city. The numerous jobs the rubber factories provided for deaf people led to Akron being nicknamed the "Crossroads of the Deaf". On Easter Sunday 1913, 9.55 inches of rain fell, causing floods that killed five people and destroyed the Ohio and Erie Canal system. From 1916 to 1920, 10,000 schoolgirls took part in the successful Akron Experiment, testing iodized salt to prevent goiter in what was known as the "Goiter Belt"; the Akron & National Marble Tournament was created in 1923 by Roy W