Res Gestae Divi Augusti is the funerary inscription of the first Roman emperor, giving a first-person record of his life and accomplishments. The Res Gestae is especially significant because it gives an insight into the image Augustus portrayed to the Roman people, various inscriptions of the Res Gestae have been found scattered across the former Roman Empire. The inscription itself is a monument to the establishment of the Julio-Claudian dynasty that was to follow Augustus, the text consists of a short introduction,35 body paragraphs, and a posthumous addendum. These paragraphs are conventionally grouped in four sections, political career, public benefactions, military accomplishments, the first section is concerned with Augustus political career, it records the offices and political honours that he held. Augustus lists numerous offices he refused to take and privileges he refused to be awarded, the second section lists Augustus donations of money and grain to the citizens of Italy and his soldiers, as well as the public works and gladiatorial spectacles that he commissioned.
The text is careful to point out all this was paid for out of Augustus own funds. The third section describes his military deeds and how he established alliances with other nations during his reign, finally the fourth section consists of a statement of the Romans approval for the reign and deeds of Augustus. The appendix is written in the person, and likely not by Augustus himself. Ancient currencies cannot be converted into modern equivalents, but it is clearly more than anyone else in the Empire could afford. Augustus consolidated his hold on power by reversing the prior tax policy beginning with funding the aerarium militare with 170 million sesterces of his own money. According to the text it was written just before Augustus death in AD14, Augustus left the text with his will, which instructed the Senate to set up the inscriptions. The original, which has not survived, was engraved upon a pair of bronze pillars, by its very nature the Res Gestae is propaganda for the principate that Augustus instituted.
It tends to gloss over the events between the assassination of Augustus adoptive father Julius Caesar and the victory at Actium when his foothold on power was finally undisputed, Augustus enemies are never mentioned by name. Caesars murderers Brutus and Cassius are called simply those who killed my father, mark Antony and Sextus Pompey, Augustus opponents in the East, remain equally anonymous, the former is he with whom I fought the war, while the latter is merely a pirate. Likewise, the text fails to mention Augustus imperium maius and his exceptional tribunicial powers, often quoted is Augustus official position on his government, From that time I surpassed all others in influence, yet my official powers were no greater than those of my colleague in office. The Res Gestae was a public relations move for the first emperor of the Roman Empire. On the other hand, it would be absurd to overlook the usefulness to historians of what is essentially an account of his rule. Cooley, Res Gestae divi Augusti, Text and Commentary, ISBN 978-0-521-84152-8 Gagé, Res gestae divi Augusti ex monumentis Ancyrano et Antiocheno latinis, Paris
The Grand National Assembly of Turkey, usually referred to simply as the TBMM or Parliament, is the unicameral Turkish legislature. It is the body given the legislative prerogatives by the Turkish Constitution. It was founded in Ankara on 23 April 1920 in the midst of the Turkish War of Independence. The parliament was fundamental in the efforts of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Turkey has had a history of parliamentary government before the establishment of the current national parliament. There were two parliamentary governments during the Ottoman period in what is now Turkey, the First Constitutional Era lasted for only two years, elections being held only twice. The Second Constitutional Era is considered to have begun on 23 July 1908, freedom to hold meetings and establish political parties was recognized, and the government was held responsible to the assembly, not to the sultan. During the two eras of the Ottoman Empire, the Ottoman parliament was called the General Assembly of the Ottoman Empire and was bicameral.
The upper house was the Senate of the Ottoman Empire, the members of which were selected by the sultan, the lower chamber of the General Assembly was the Chamber of Deputies of the Ottoman Empire, the members of which were elected by the general public. After World War I, the victorious Allied Powers sought the dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire through the Treaty of Sèvres, the political existence of the Turkish nation was to be completely eliminated under these plans, except for a small region. Nationalist Turkish sentiment rose in the Anatolian peninsula, engendering the establishment of the Turkish national movement, the political developments during this period have made a lasting impact which continues to affect the character of the Turkish nation. The Sultanate was abolished by the newly founded parliament in 1922 and he stated that the members of the dispersed Ottoman Chamber of Deputies could participate in the assembly in Ankara, to increase the representative power of the parliament.
These elections were held as planned, in the style of the elections of the preceding Chamber of Deputies and this Grand National Assembly, established on national sovereignty, held its inaugural session on 23 April 1920. From this date until the end of the Turkish War of Independence in 1923, the Liberal Party was dissolved on 17 November 1930 and no further attempt at a multiparty democracy was made until 1945. The multi-party period in Turkey was resumed by the founding of the National Development Party, by Nuri Demirağ, under the constitution of 1961, the Grand National Assembly was a bicameral parliament with over 600 members, the newly established upper house being the Senate of the Republic. Following the 1980 military coup, the Senate was dissolved and the Turkish parliament again became unicameral under the current constitution approved in a referendum in 1982. To avoid a hung parliament and its political fragmentation, a party must win at least 10% of the national vote to qualify for representation in the parliament.
As a result of this threshold, only two won seats in the legislature after the 2002 elections and three in 2007. The 2002 elections saw every party represented in the previous parliament ejected from the chamber and this rather high threshold has been internationally criticised, but a complaint with the European Court for Human Rights was turned down
An Augusteum was originally a site of imperial cult in ancient Roman religion, named after the imperial title of Augustus. It was known as a Sebasteion in the Greek East of the Roman Empire, examples have been excavated in Sebaste/Samaria, Aphrodisias, Antioch and Ankara. Since the 18th century, the term has used for certain academic and cultural buildings, such as the Augustea in Leipzig, Oldenburg
The Bilkent Symphony Orchestra is a major symphony orchestra of Turkey located in Bilkent, Ankara. It was founded in 1993 by Bilkent University, since 1994 the orchestra is based in Bilkent Concert Hall. The BSO is UNICEF Turkey Goodwill Ambassador since 2009, the Bilkent Symphony Orchestra was founded in 1993 as an original artistic project of Bilkent University. Developed by the Faculty of Music and Performing Arts, the orchestra is composed of over 120 proficient artists and foreign artists, continuing their postgraduate studies at the Institute of Music and Performing Arts participate in concerts to further expand the orchestra. With these characteristics, the BSO is the first private, since its foundation, the orchestra has been awarded by several organizations such as Ankara Public Relations Association and Mevlana Foundation. The BSO was awarded as the best orchestra of Turkey in 2011 by Andante Music Magazine, following the foundation of BSO in 1993 which consists of mainly academicians who teach at Faculty of Music and Performing Arts, BSO has assumed responsibility to perform and record Sayguns works.
The libretto for opera was written by Şefik Kahramankaptan and the opera named Saygun Emre was composed by Yiğit Aydın who is an academician at Bilkent University. The scene Vasiyet of Saygun Emre opera at which Saygun leave his estate to Bilkent University, the national label Bilkent Music Production has released over 50 CD’s of the orchestras concerts. BSO official website Bilkent University video archive Hürriyet Newspaper NTV Kahramankaptan
The Ottomans saw the movement as part of an international conspiracy against them. The Turkish revolutionaries rebelled against this partitioning and against the Treaty of Sèvres, signed in 1920 by the Ottoman government, the movement declared that the only source of governance for the Turkish people would be the democratic Grand National Assembly of Turkey. The movement was created in 1919 through a series of agreements and conferences throughout Anatolia, the Amasya Agreement was important in many respects. It was the first call to the movement against the occupying powers. It consisted of talks about national independence, based on provinces, even in this declaration we saw the roots of what constitutes the Turk as a political term, there was no distinction or reference to race or religion. The message read as follows, The unity of the motherland, the Istanbul government is unable to carry out its responsibilities. It is only through the effort and determination that national independence will be won.
It is necessary to establish a committee, free from all external influences and control. It has been decided to hold immediately a National Congress in Sivas, three representatives from each province should be sent immediately to the Sivas Congress. To be prepared for every eventuality, this subject should be kept a national secret, there will be a congress for the Eastern Provinces on July 10. The delegation from the Erzurum Congress will depart to join to the meeting in Sivas. This agreement was signed by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Rauf Orbay, Ali Fuat Cebesoy, Refet Bele and it was probably meant to remind all other parties of Wilsons 14 Points and the fact that the Nationalists were aware of them. What began as a suggestion to the Nationalists to accept the American Mandate at the time of the Erzurum Congress, the Sivas Congress was the first time the fourteen leaders of the movement united under a single roof. These people formed a plan between 16 and 29 October and they agreed that the parliament should meet in Constantinople, even if it were obvious that this parliament could not function under the occupation.
It was a chance to build the base and legitimacy. Mustafa Kemal established two concepts into this program and integrity, Mustafa Kemal was setting the stage for conditions which would legitimize this organization and illegitimate the Ottoman parliament. These conditions were mentioned in the Wilsonian rules, Mustafa Kemal opened the National Congress at Sivas, with delegates from the entire nation taking part. The Erzurum resolutions were transformed into an appeal, and the name of the organization changed to the Society to Defend the Rights and Interests of the Provinces of Anatolia
The Angora rabbit is a variety of domestic rabbit bred for its long, soft wool. The Angora is one of the oldest types of rabbit, originating in Ankara, present day Turkey, along with the Angora cat. The rabbits were popular pets with French royalty in the mid-18th century and they first appeared in the United States in the early 20th century. They are bred largely for their long Angora wool, which may be removed by shearing, there are many individual breeds of Angora rabbits, four of which are recognized by American Rabbit Breeders Association, they are English, French and Satin. Other breeds include German, Swiss, Korean, Angoras are bred mainly for their wool, which is silky and soft. At only 11 microns in diameter it is finer and softer than cashmere, most Angora rabbits are calm and docile, but should be handled carefully. Grooming is necessary to prevent the fiber from matting and felting on the rabbit, a condition, wool block, is common in Angora rabbits, and should be treated quickly.
These rabbits are shorn every three to four months throughout the year, as with all rabbits and unlimited hay should be provided. The fiber the rabbit gains from the hay helps prevent wool block and it is recommended particularly for Angora and other long-haired rabbit species that any pellet diets have at least 13% fiber. Fiber content can be found in the analysis on the food bag. Additionally fecal impaction can be caused by dehydration, which can be prevented by providing unlimited water as well as a salt lick to encourage drinking water. Since rabbits ingest their wool when they themselves, clipping their wool at least once every 90 days is considered a must to prevent wool block from occurring. A dietary supplement of papaya in their diet helps wool to break down in their digestive tract, another helpful tip for loose wool control includes giving the rabbit a pine cone to play with. They nibble them, throw them around, and they turn into a good wool catcher in their cage, when the pine cone is all nibbled or full of wool, replace it.
Rabbits do not possess the same allergy-causing qualities as many other animals, the average rabbit can live for about 7–12 years when kept indoors and well-cared for. However, many outdoor rabbits have a shorter lifespan, the Satin Angora has a much lower guard hair count and their wool becomes easily tangled. Regardless of breed, all Angoras must be monitored to prevent wool block, proper diet is crucial in lowering their susceptibility to the block. There are four different breeds recognized by the American Rabbit Breeders Association, French, the German Angora is common, but is not recognized by the ARBA, it has its own association, the IAGARB
It is often considered a period of transition, sometimes even of decadence or degeneration, compared to the enlightenment of the Greek Classical era. The Hellenistic period saw the rise of New Comedy, Alexandrian poetry, the Septuagint, Greek science was advanced by the works of the mathematician Euclid and the polymath Archimedes. The religious sphere expanded to include new gods such as the Greco-Egyptian Serapis, eastern deities such as Attis and Cybele, the Hellenistic period was characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization which established Greek cities and kingdoms in Asia and Africa. This resulted in the export of Greek culture and language to new realms. Equally, these new kingdoms were influenced by the cultures, adopting local practices where beneficial, necessary. Hellenistic culture thus represents a fusion of the Ancient Greek world with that of the Near East, Middle East and this mixture gave rise to a common Attic-based Greek dialect, known as Koine Greek, which became the lingua franca through the Hellenistic world.
Scholars and historians are divided as to what event signals the end of the Hellenistic era, Hellenistic is distinguished from Hellenic in that the first encompasses the entire sphere of direct ancient Greek influence, while the latter refers to Greece itself. The word originated from the German term hellenistisch, from Ancient Greek Ἑλληνιστής, from Ἑλλάς, Hellenistic is a modern word and a 19th-century concept, the idea of a Hellenistic period did not exist in Ancient Greece. Although words related in form or meaning, e. g, the major issue with the term Hellenistic lies in its convenience, as the spread of Greek culture was not the generalized phenomenon that the term implies. Some areas of the world were more affected by Greek influences than others. The Greek population and the population did not always mix, the Greeks moved and brought their own culture. While a few fragments exist, there is no surviving historical work which dates to the hundred years following Alexanders death. The works of the major Hellenistic historians Hieronymus of Cardia, Duris of Samos, the earliest and most credible surviving source for the Hellenistic period is Polybius of Megalopolis, a statesman of the Achaean League until 168 BC when he was forced to go to Rome as a hostage.
His Histories eventually grew to a length of forty books, covering the years 220 to 167 BC, another important source, Plutarchs Parallel Lives though more preoccupied with issues of personal character and morality, outlines the history of important Hellenistic figures. Appian of Alexandria wrote a history of the Roman empire that includes information of some Hellenistic kingdoms, other sources include Justins epitome of Pompeius Trogus Historiae Philipicae and a summary of Arrians Events after Alexander, by Photios I of Constantinople. Lesser supplementary sources include Curtius Rufus, Pliny, in the field of philosophy, Diogenes Laertius Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers is the main source. Ancient Greece had traditionally been a collection of fiercely independent city-states. After the Peloponnesian War, Greece had fallen under a Spartan hegemony, in which Sparta was pre-eminent but not all-powerful
Mohair /ˈmoʊhɛər/ is usually a silk-like fabric or yarn made from the hair of the Angora goat. Mohair is warm in winter as it has excellent insulating properties and it is durable, naturally elastic, flame resistant and crease resistant. It is considered to be a luxury fiber, like cashmere and silk, Mohair is composed mostly of keratin, a protein found in the hair, wool and skin of all mammals. While it has scales like wool, the scales are not fully developed, mohair does not felt as wool does. Mohair fiber is approximately 25–45 microns in diameter and it increases in diameter with the age of the goat, growing along with the animal. Fine hair from animals is used for finer applications such as clothing. The term mohair is used to describe a type of material used for the folding roof on convertible cars. In this instance, mohair refers to a form of denim-like canvas, Mohair should not be confused with the fur from the angora rabbit, which is called angora wool. Shearing is done twice a year, in the spring and in the fall, one goat will produce 11 to 17 pounds of mohair a year.
Shearing is done on a cleanly swept floor and extra care is taken to keep the hair clean, the hair is processed to remove natural grease and vegetable matter. Angora is a breed, and unlike pygora or cashmere, there is no need to dehair a mohair fleece to separate the coarse hair from the down hair. South Africa is the worlds largest mohair producer, producing around 50% of the world production. Mohair is one of the oldest textile fibers in use, the Angora goat is thought to originate from the mountains of Tibet, reaching Turkey in the 16th century. However, fabric made of mohair was known in England as early as the 8th century, the word mohair was adopted into English sometime before 1570 from the Arabic, مخير mukhayyar, a type of haircloth, literally choice, from khayyara, he chose. In about 1820, raw mohair was first exported from Turkey to England, the Yorkshire mills spun yarn that was exported to Russia, Austria, etc. as well as woven directly in Yorkshire. Until 1849, the Turkish province of Ankara was the producer of Angora goats.
Charles V is believed to be the first to bring Angora goats to Europe, due to the great demand for mohair fiber, throughout the 1800s there was a great deal of crossbreeding between Angora goats and common goats. In 1849, Angora goats made their way to America as a gift from Turkey, during the 1960s, a blend of mohair and wool suiting fabric known as Tonik or Tonic was developed in England
Constantinople was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire, and of the brief Latin, and the Ottoman empires. It was reinaugurated in 324 AD from ancient Byzantium as the new capital of the Roman Empire by Emperor Constantine the Great, after whom it was named, Constantinople was famed for its massive and complex defences. The first wall of the city was erected by Constantine I, Constantinople never truly recovered from the devastation of the Fourth Crusade and the decades of misrule by the Latins. The origins of the name of Byzantion, more known by the Latin Byzantium, are not entirely clear. The founding myth of the city has it told that the settlement was named after the leader of the Megarian colonists, Byzas. The Byzantines of Constantinople themselves would maintain that the city was named in honour of two men and Antes, though this was likely just a play on the word Byzantion. During this time, the city was called Second Rome, Eastern Rome, and Roma Constantinopolitana. As the city became the remaining capital of the Roman Empire after the fall of the West, and its wealth and influence grew.
In the language of other peoples, Constantinople was referred to just as reverently, the medieval Vikings, who had contacts with the empire through their expansion in eastern Europe used the Old Norse name Miklagarðr, and Miklagard and Miklagarth. In Arabic, the city was sometimes called Rūmiyyat al-kubra and in Persian as Takht-e Rum, in East and South Slavic languages, including in medieval Russia, Constantinople was referred to as Tsargrad or Carigrad, City of the Caesar, from the Slavonic words tsar and grad. This was presumably a calque on a Greek phrase such as Βασιλέως Πόλις, the modern Turkish name for the city, İstanbul, derives from the Greek phrase eis tin polin, meaning into the city or to the city. In 1928, the Turkish alphabet was changed from Arabic script to Latin script, in time the city came to be known as Istanbul and its variations in most world languages. In Greece today, the city is still called Konstantinoúpolis/Konstantinoúpoli or simply just the City, apart from this, little is known about this initial settlement, except that it was abandoned by the time the Megarian colonists settled the site anew.
A farsighted treaty with the emergent power of Rome in c.150 BC which stipulated tribute in exchange for independent status allowed it to enter Roman rule unscathed. The site lay astride the land route from Europe to Asia and the seaway from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean, and had in the Golden Horn an excellent and spacious harbour. He would rebuild Byzantium towards the end of his reign, in which it would be briefly renamed Augusta Antonina, fortifying it with a new city wall in his name, Constantine had altogether more colourful plans. Rome was too far from the frontiers, and hence from the armies and the imperial courts, yet it had been the capital of the state for over a thousand years, and it might have seemed unthinkable to suggest that the capital be moved to a different location. Constantinople was built over 6 years, and consecrated on 11 May 330, Constantine divided the expanded city, like Rome, into 14 regions, and ornamented it with public works worthy of an imperial metropolis
Sites may range from those with few or no remains visible above ground, to buildings and other structures still in use. Beyond this, the definition and geographical extent of a site can vary widely, depending on the period studied and it is almost invariably difficult to delimit a site. It is sometimes taken to indicate a settlement of some sort although the archaeologist must define the limits of human activity around the settlement, any episode of deposition such as a hoard or burial can form a site as well. Development-led archaeology undertaken as cultural resources management has the disadvantage of having its sites defined by the limits of the intended development, even in this case however, in describing and interpreting the site, the archaeologist will have to look outside the boundaries of the building site. According to Jess Beck in “How Do Archaeologists find sites. ”The areas with a number of artifacts are good targets for future excavation. The most common person to have found artifacts are farmers who are plowing their fields or just cleaning them up often find archaeological artifacts, many people who are out hiking and even pilots find artifacts they usually end up reporting them to archaeologist to do further investigation.
When they find sites, they have to first record the area and if they have the money, there are many ways to find sites, one example can be through surveys. Surveys involve walking around analyzing the land looking for artifacts. ”This helps archaeologists in the future. In case there was no time, or money during the finding of the site, archaeologists can come back, archaeologist can sample randomly within a given area of land as another form of conducting surveys. Surveys are very useful, according to Jess Beck, “it can tell you where people were living at different points in the past. ”Geophysics is a branch of survey becoming more and more popular in archaeology, because it uses different types of instruments to investigate features below the ground surface. It is not as reliable, because although they can see what is under the surface of the ground it does not produce the best picture, Archaeologists have to still dig up the area in order to uncover the truth. There are two most common types of survey, which is, magnetometer and ground penetrating radar.
Magnetometry is the technique of measuring and mapping patterns of magnetism in the soil and it uses an instrument called a magnetometer which is required to measure and map traces of soil magnetism. The ground penetrating radar is a method that uses radar pulses to image the subsurface and it uses electro magnetic radiation in the microwave band of the radio spectrum, and detects the reflected signals from subsurface structures. There are many tools that can be used to find artifacts. This tool is helpful to archaeologists who want to explore in a different area. They can use this tool to see what has already been discovered, with this information available, archaeologists can expand their research and add more to what has already been found. Traditionally, sites are distinguished by the presence of artifacts and features
In antiquity, Phrygia was a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now Turkey, centered on the Sakarya River. This Midas was, the last independent king of Phrygia before Cimmerians sacked the Phrygian capital, Phrygia became subject to Lydia, and successively to Persia and his Hellenistic successors, Pergamon and Byzantium. Phrygians gradually became assimilated into other cultures by the medieval era, after the Turkish conquest of Anatolia. Phrygia describes an area on the end of the high Anatolian plateau. The climate is harsh with hot summers and cold winters, olives will not easily grow here and the land is used for livestock grazing. South of Dorylaeum, there is another important Phrygian settlement, Midas City, situated in an area of hills, to the south again, central Phrygia includes the cities of Afyonkarahisar with its marble quarries at nearby Docimium, and the town of Synnada. At the western end of Phrygia stood the towns of Aizanoi, from here to the southwest lies the hilly area of Phrygia that contrasts to the bare plains of the regions heartland.
Southwestern Phrygia is watered by the Maeander and its tributary the Lycus, one of the so-called Homeric Hymns describes the Phrygian language as not mutually intelligible with that of Troy. According to ancient tradition among Greek historians, the Phrygians anciently migrated to Anatolia from the Balkans, Herodotus says that the Phrygians were called Bryges when they lived in Europe. Some classical writers connected the Phrygians with the Mygdones, the name of two groups of people, one of which lived in northern Macedonia and another in Mysia. The classical historian Strabo groups Phrygians, Mysians, Phrygian continued to be spoken until the 6th century AD, though its distinctive alphabet was lost earlier than those of most Anatolian cultures. The so-called Handmade Knobbed Ware found in Western Anatolia during this period has been identified as an import connected to this invasion. These scholars seek instead to trace the Phrygians origins among the nations of western Anatolia who were subject to the Hittites.
Some scholars dismiss the claim of a Phrygian migration as a mere legend, no one has conclusively identified which of the many subjects of the Hittites might have represented early Phrygians. Josephus called Togarmah the Thrugrammeans, who, as the Greeks resolved, were named Phrygians, the Greek source cited by Josephus is unknown, and it is unclear if there was any basis for the identification other than name similarity. Scholars of the Hittites believe Tegarama was in eastern Anatolia - some locate it at Gurun - far to the east of Phrygia, some scholars have identified Phrygia with the Assuwa league, and noted that the Iliad mentions a Phrygian named Asios. Another possible early name of Phrygia could be Hapalla, the name of the easternmost province that emerged from the splintering of the Bronze Age western Anatolian empire Arzawa, scholars are unsure if Hapalla corresponds to Phrygia or to Pisidia, further south. Herodotus claims that Phrygian colonists founded the Armenian nation, little is known about these eastern Mygdones, and no evidence of Phrygian language in that region has been found
The Angora goat is a breed of domestic goat that is named after Ankara, historically known as Angora. Angora goats produce the lustrous fibre known as mohair, the Angora goat has been regarded by some as a direct descendant of the Central Asian markhor. They have been in the region since around the Paleolithic, Angora goats were depicted on the reverse of the Turkish 50 lira banknotes of 1938–1952. The first Angora goats were brought to Europe by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, about 1554, Angora goats were first imported into Australia in 1832 and 1833. They came from M Polonceaus stud in France to the property of the Riley family of Raby, pure bred Angoras were imported from Ottoman Empire in subsequent years up to 1873, to properties in New South Wales and South Australia. Other states followed and there were importations from South Africa in 1873, in the mid 1980s imports from South Africa and Texan genetics were used to further improve the New Zealand Angora. In 1838, Sultan Mahmud II of Ottoman Empire sent twelve neutered rams, the rams were rendered infertile as the Sultan wanted to protect his country’s powerful mohair empire.
However, the ewe on board was pregnant and gave birth to a kid ram en route to Africa, today’s Karoo region produces the most mohair in the world. Angora goats were first introduced in the United States in 1849 by Dr. James P. Davis, seven adult goats were a gift from Sultan Abdülmecid I in appreciation for his services and advice on the raising of cotton. More goats were imported over time, until the Civil War destroyed most of the flocks in the south. Eventually, Angora goats began to thrive in the southwest, particularly in Texas, wherever there are sufficient grasses, Texas to this day remains the largest mohair producer in the U. S. and third largest in the world. The fleece taken from an Angora goat is called mohair, a single goat produces between four and five kilograms of hair per year. Angoras are shorn twice a year, despite their coats, are not directly related to sheep. Turkey, the United States, and South Africa are the top producers of mohair, secondary producers include New Zealand and Australia.
For a long time, Angora goats were bred for their white coats, in 1998, the Colored Angora Goat Breeders Association was set up to promote breeding of colored Angoras. Now, Angora goats produce white, red, Angora goats are more susceptible to external parasites than similar animals, as their coats are denser. They are not prolific breeders, nor are considered very hardy. Further, Angoras have high nutritional requirements due to their rapid hair growth, a poor-quality diet will curtail mohair development