Portal:Athletics

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THE ATHLETICS PORTAL

Athletics stadium

Athletics is a collection of sporting events that involve competitive running, jumping, throwing, and walking. The most common types of athletics competitions are track and field, road running, cross country running, and race walking.

The results of racing events are decided by finishing position (or time, where measured), while the jumps and throws are won by the athlete that achieves the highest or furthest measurement from a series of attempts. The simplicity of the competitions, and the lack of a need for expensive equipment, makes athletics one of the most commonly competed sports in the world. Athletics is mostly an individual sport, with the exception of relay races and competitions which combine athletes' performances for a team score, such as cross country.

Organized athletics are traced back to the Ancient Olympic Games from 776 BC. The rules and format of the modern events in athletics were defined in Western Europe and North America in the 19th and early 20th century, and were then spread to other parts of the world. Most modern top level meetings are conducted by the International Association of Athletics Federations and its member federations.

The athletics meeting forms the backbone of the Summer Olympics. The foremost international athletics meeting is the IAAF World Championships in Athletics, which incorporates track and field, marathon running and race walking. Other top level competitions in athletics include the IAAF World Cross Country Championships and the IAAF World Half Marathon Championships. Athletes with a physical disability compete at the Summer Paralympics and the World Para Athletics Championships.

The word athletics is derived from the Ancient Greek ἀθλητής (athlētēs, "combatant in public games") from ἆθλον (athlon, "prize") or ἆθλος (athlos, "competition"). Initially, the term was used to describe athletic contests in general – i.e. sporting competition based primarily on human physical feats. In the 19th century, the term athletics acquired a more narrow definition in Europe and came to describe sports involving competitive running, walking, jumping and throwing. This definition continues to be the most prominent one in the United Kingdom and most of the areas of the former British Empire. Furthermore, foreign words in many Germanic and Romance languages which are related to the term athletics also have a similar meaning.

In much of North America, athletics is synonymous with sports in general, maintaining a more historic usage of the term. The word "athletics" is rarely used to refer to the sport of athletics in this region. Track and field is preferred, and is used in the United States and Canada to refer to most athletics events, including racewalking and marathon running (although cross country running is typically considered as a separate sport).

Track and Field.svg More about...Athletics

Athletics competitions

It's from the first edition (1896 Summer Olympics), that Athletics has been considered the "Queen" of the Olympics. Since then there have been a series of competitions organized at world level, than at the continental level. Furthermore, the Athletics is the main sport of nearly all multi-sport events such as Universiade, Mediterranean Games or Pan American Games. The following list refers to the main Athletics competitions that take place in the world.

Event 1st edition Kind of competition Can participate
Olympic Games 1896 World games Earth icon Fredrik.png Worldwide
World Championships 1983 World championships
World Indoor Championships 1985
European Championships 1934 Continental championships Europe (orthographic projection).svg Europe
European Indoor Championships 1966
South American Championships 1919 South America (orthographic projection).svg South America
Asian Championships 1973 Asia (orthographic projection).svg Asia
African Championships 1979 Africa (orthographic projection).svg Africa
Ocenian Championships 1990 Australia-New Guinea (orthographic projection).svg Oceania

Selected article

The Dorando Pietri drammatic finish.

The 1908 Olympics Marathon race was held at the 1908 Summer Olympics in London. The race was held on July 24, 1908. The distance was the now-standard length of 26 miles, 385 yards (42 195 m). 75 competitors entered. 55 runners from 16 nations began the race, with 27 athletes (representing 11 nations) finishing. The most famous incident of the Games came at the end of the event. It occurred when the first runner to enter the stadium, Dorando Pietri of Italy, collapsed several times and ran the wrong way. Not far from the finish-line, two of the officials took him by the arms, and brought him to the line. As a consequence, after crossing the line he was disqualified. The medal went to American Johnny Hayes who was second over the line, but the glory went to Pietri. Since he himself had not been responsible for his disqualification Queen Alexandra the next day awarded him a gold cup in recognition of his achievement. Marathons became an annual event in London following the 1908 Olympics. The Polytechnic Marathon was held each year until 1996.

Archive Track and Field.svg More about...1908 Olympics Marathon

Selected biography

Merlene Ottey - 2. Memoriał Kamili Skolimowskiej - Warszawa, 2011-09-20.jpg

Merlene Joyce Ottey (born May 10, 1960), is a Jamaican-born Slovenian track athlete. Ottey began her career representing Jamaica, but since 2002, has represented Slovenia, where she now resides. She is ranked fourth on the all-time list over 60 metres (indoor), sixth on the all-time list over 100 metres and third on the all-time list over 200 metres.

Achievements
Year Competition Venue Position Event Performance
1980 Olympic Games Moscow, Soviet Union 3rd 200 m 22.20
1983 World Championships Helsinki, Finland 2nd 200 m 22.13
3rd 4x100 m 42.73
1984 Olympic Games Los Angeles, United States 3rd 100 m 11.16
3rd 200 m 22.09
1987 World Championships Rome, Italy 3rd 100 m 11.04
3rd 200 m 22.06
1991 World Championships Tokyo, Japan 3rd 100m 11.06
3rd 200 m 22.21
1st 4x100 m 41.94
1992 Olympic Games Barcelona, Spain 3rd 200 m 22.09
1993 World Championships Stuttgart, Germany 2nd 100 m 10.82
1st 200 m 21.98
3rd 4x100 m 41.94
1995 World Championships Gothenburg, Sweden 2nd 100 m 10.94
1st 200m 22.12
2nd 4x100 m 42.25
1996 Olympic Games Atlanta, United States 2nd 100 m 10.96
2nd 200 m 22.24
3rd 4x100 m 42.24
1997 World Championships Athens, Greece 3rd 200 m 22.40
2000 Olympic Games Sydney, Australia 3rd 100 m 11.19
2nd 4x100 m 42.13
Archive Track and Field.svg More about...Merlene Ottey

World records

As of 19 October 2014
Event Men Record Women Record
100 m Jamaica Usain Bolt 9.58 United States Florence Griffith-Joyner 10.49
200 m Jamaica Usain Bolt 19.19 United States Florence Griffith-Joyner 21.34
400 m South Africa Wayde van Niekerk 43.03 East Germany Marita Koch 47.60
800 m Kenya David Rudisha 1:40.91 Czechoslovakia Jarmila Kratochvílová 1:53.28
1500 m Morocco Hicham El Guerrouj 3:26.00 China Qu Yunxia 3:50.46
3000 m Kenya Daniel Komen 7:20.67 China Wang Junxia 8:06.11
5000 m Ethiopia Kenenisa Bekele 12:37.35 Ethiopia Tirunesh Dibaba 14:11.15
10000 m Ethiopia Kenenisa Bekele 26:17.53 China Wang Junxia 29:31.78
Marathon Kenya Dennis Kipruto Kimetto *2:02:57 United Kingdom Paula Radcliffe 2:15:25
3000 m steeplechase Qatar Saif Saaeed Shaheen 7:53.63 Russia Gulnara Samitova-Galkina 8:58.81
110 / 100 m hurdles United States Aries Merritt 12.80 Bulgaria Jordanka Donkova 12.21
400 m hurdles United States Kevin Young 46.78 Russia Yuliya Pechonkina 52.34
High jump Cuba Javier Sotomayor 2.45 m Bulgaria Stefka Kostadinova 2.09 m
Pole vault France Renaud Lavillenie 6.16 m Russia Elena Isinbaeva 5.06 m
Long jump United States Mike Powell 8.95 m Soviet Union Galina Chistyakova 7.52 m
Triple jump United Kingdom Jonathan Edwards 18.29 m Ukraine Inessa Kravets 15.50 m
Shot put United States Randy Barnes 23.12 m Soviet Union Natalya Lisovskaya 22.63 m
Discus throw East Germany Jürgen Schult 74.08 m East Germany Gabriele Reinsch 76.80 m
Hammer throw Soviet Union Yuriy Sedykh 86.74 m Poland Anita Włodarczyk *79.58 m
Javelin throw Czech Republic Jan Železný 98.48 m Czech Republic Barbora Špotáková 72.28 m
Decathlon/Heptathlon United States Ashton Eaton 9,039 pt. United States Jackie Joyner-Kersee 7,291 pt.
20 km racewalk Russia Vladimir Kanaykin 1:17:16 Russia Elena Lashmanova 1:25:02
50 km racewalk France Yohann Diniz 3:32:33
4×100 m relay  Jamaica 36.84  United States 40.82
4×400 m relay  United States 2:54.29  Soviet Union 3:15.17

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