1. Cultural icon – A cultural icon is an artifact that is recognised by members of a culture or sub-culture as representing some aspect of cultural identity. Icons are judged by their ability to be an authentic proxy, when individuals perceives a cultural icon, they compare it with their perceptions of the culture identity it attempts to mimic. Cultural Icons can also be identified as a representation of the practices of one culture by another. In the media, many items of culture have been called iconic despite their lack of durability. Some commentators believe that the word is overused or misused, a subset of cultural icons are national icons. Some examples are, Big Ben, Cup of tea, Red telephone box, Red AEC Routemaster London double decker bus, Spitfire, matryoshka dolls are seen internationally as cultural icons of Russia. Thus an apple pie is an icon of the United States. Religious icons can become cultural icons in societies where religion and culture are deeply entwined. Describing something as iconic or as an icon has become common in the popular media. This has drawn criticism from some, a writer in Liverpool Daily Post calls iconic a word that makes my flesh creep, category, Lists of cultural icons Pop icon Popular culture Biedermann, Hans. Dictionary of Symbolism, Cultural Icons and the Meanings Behind Them, batman Unmasked, Analysing a Cultural Icon. Edwards, Peter, Karl Enenkel, and Elspeth Graham, the Horse as Cultural Icon, The Real and the Symbolic Horse in the Early Modern World. CS1 maint, Multiple names, authors list Foudy, Julie, Leslie Heywood, built to Win, The Female Athlete as Cultural Icon. Titanic Century, Media, Myth, and the Making of a Cultural Icon, titanic Century, Media, Myth, and the Making of a Cultural Icon. Cles Pour la France en 80 Icones Culturelles, the DNA Mystique, The Gene as a Cultural Icon. Reydams-Schils, Gretchen J. Platos Timaeus as Cultural Icon and our New Icons by The Daily Telegraph Nothing and no one are Off Limits in an Age of Iconomania by The Age British Postal Museum & Archive, Icons of England Culture24, Icons of EnglandCultural icon – Apple pie, baseball, and the flag grouped together are a cliché of American cultural icons
2. Biography – A biography, or simply bio, is a detailed description of a persons life. It involves more than just the basic facts like education, work, relationships, biographical works are usually non-fiction, but fiction can also be used to portray a persons life. One in-depth form of biographical coverage is called legacy writing, works in diverse media, from literature to film, form the genre known as biography. An authorized biography is written with the permission, cooperation, and at times, an autobiography is written by the person himself or herself, sometimes with the assistance of a collaborator or ghostwriter. At first, biographical writings were regarded merely as a subsection of history with a focus on an individual of historical importance. The independent genre of biography as distinct from general history writing, began to emerge in the 18th century, one of the earliest of the biographers was Plutarch, and his Parallel Lives, published about 80 A. D. covers prominent figures in the classical world. Cornelius Nepos published a work, his Excellentium Imperatorum Vitae. Perhaps the earliest extant biography that does not contain mythological material is The Lives of the Caesars by Suetonius, in the early Middle Ages, there was a decline in awareness of the classical culture in Europe. During this time, the only repositories of knowledge and records of the history in Europe were those of the Roman Catholic Church. Hermits, monks, and priests used this period to write biographies. Their subjects were usually restricted to the fathers, martyrs, popes. Their works were meant to be inspirational to the people and vehicles for conversion to Christianity, one significant secular example of a biography from this period is the life of Charlemagne by his courtier Einhard. Early biographical dictionaries were published as compendia of famous Islamic personalities from the 9th century onwards and they contained more social data for a large segment of the population than other works of that period. And then began the documentation of the lives of other historical figures who lived in the medieval Islamic world. By the late Middle Ages, biographies became less church-oriented in Europe as biographies of kings, knights, the most famous of such biographies was Le Morte dArthur by Sir Thomas Malory. The book was an account of the life of the fabled King Arthur, following Malory, the new emphasis on humanism during the Renaissance promoted a focus on secular subjects, such as artists and poets, and encouraged writing in the vernacular. Giorgio Vasaris Lives of the Artists was the landmark biography focusing on secular lives, vasari made celebrities of his subjects, as the Lives became an early bestseller. Two other developments are noteworthy, the development of the press in the 15th centuryBiography – Third Volume of a 1727 edition of Plutarch 's Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans printed by Jacob Tonson.
3. Genre – Genre is any form or type of communication in any mode with socially-agreed upon conventions developed over time. Genres form by conventions that change over time as new genres are invented, often, works fit into multiple genres by way of borrowing and recombining these conventions. Stand alone texts, works, or pieces of communication may have individual styles, some genres may be rigid with strictly adhered to guidelines while others may be very flexible. Genre began as a classification system for ancient Greek literature. Poetry, prose, and performance each had a specific and calculated style that related to the theme of the story. Speech patterns for comedy would not be appropriate for tragedy, in later periods genres proliferated and developed in response to changes in audiences and creators. Genre became a tool to help the public make sense out of unpredictable art. Because art is often a response to a state, in that people write/paint/sing/dance about what they know about. Genre suffers from the ills of any classification system. Genre is to be reassessed and scrutinized, and to works on their unique merit. While the genre of storytelling has been relegated as lesser form of art because of the heavily borrowed nature of the conventions, proponents argue that the genius of an effective genre piece is in the variation, recombination, and evolution of the codes. The term genre is used in the history and criticism of visual art. These are distinguished from staffage, incidental figures in what is primarily a landscape or architectural painting, Genre painting may also be used as a wider term covering genre painting proper, and other specialized types of paintings such as still-life, landscapes, marine paintings and animal paintings. The concept of the hierarchy of genres was a one in artistic theory. It was strongest in France, where it was associated with the Académie française which held a role in academic art. Genres may be determined by technique, tone, content. Genre should not be confused with age category, by which literature may be classified as adult, young adult. They also must not be confused with format, such as novel or picture bookGenre – A genre painting (Peasant Dance, c. 1568, by Pieter Brueghel the Elder)
4. Autobiography – An autobiography is a self-written account of the life of a person. The word autobiography was first used deprecatingly by William Taylor in 1797 in the English periodical The Monthly Review, when he suggested the word as a hybrid, however, its next recorded use was in its present sense, by Robert Southey in 1809. Despite only being named early in the century, first-person autobiographical writing originates in antiquity. Autobiography thus takes stock of the life from the moment of composition. While biographers generally rely on a variety of documents and viewpoints. The memoir form is associated with autobiography but it tends, as Pascal claims, to focus less on the self. See also, List of autobiographies and Category, Autobiographies for examples, in a classic essay on American autobiography James M. Autobiographical works are by nature subjective. The inability—or unwillingness—of the author to accurately recall memories has in certain cases resulted in misleading or incorrect information, some sociologists and psychologists have noted that autobiography offers the author the ability to recreate history. Spiritual autobiography is an account of a struggle or journey towards God, followed by conversion a religious conversion. The author re-frames his or her life as a demonstration of divine intention through encounters with the Divine, the spiritual autobiography works as an endorsement of his or her religion. A memoir is slightly different in character from an autobiography, while an autobiography typically focuses on the life and times of the writer, a memoir has a narrower, more intimate focus on his or her own memories, feelings and emotions. Memoirs have often written by politicians or military leaders as a way to record. One early example is that of Julius Caesars Commentarii de Bello Gallico, in the work, Caesar describes the battles that took place during the nine years that he spent fighting local armies in the Gallic Wars. His second memoir, Commentarii de Bello Civili is an account of the events took place between 49 and 48 BC in the civil war against Gnaeus Pompeius and the Senate. Leonor López de Córdoba wrote what is supposed to be the first autobiography in Spanish, the English Civil War provoked a number of examples of this genre, including works by Sir Edmund Ludlow and Sir John Reresby. French examples from the period include the memoirs of Cardinal de Retz. Daniel Defoes Moll Flanders is an early example, charles Dickens David Copperfield is another such classic, and J. D. Salingers The Catcher in the Rye is a well-known modern example of fictional autobiography. Charlotte Brontës Jane Eyre is yet another example of fictional autobiography, the term may also apply to works of fiction purporting to be autobiographies of real characters, e. g. Robert Nyes Memoirs of Lord ByronAutobiography – Cover of the first English edition of Clayton Baggett Born on Feb.28,1982
5. Mary Wollstonecraft – Mary Wollstonecraft was an English writer, philosopher, and advocate of womens rights. During her brief career, she wrote novels, treatises, a narrative, a history of the French Revolution, a conduct book. Wollstonecraft is best known for A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, in which she argues that women are not naturally inferior to men and she suggests that both men and women should be treated as rational beings and imagines a social order founded on reason. Until the late 20th century, Wollstonecrafts life, which encompassed several unconventional personal relationships, after two ill-fated affairs, with Henry Fuseli and Gilbert Imlay, Wollstonecraft married the philosopher William Godwin, one of the forefathers of the anarchist movement. Wollstonecraft died at the age of 38, eleven days after giving birth to her second daughter and this daughter, Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin, became an accomplished writer herself, as Mary Shelley, the author of Frankenstein. After Wollstonecrafts death, her widower published a Memoir of her life, revealing her unorthodox lifestyle, today Wollstonecraft is regarded as one of the founding feminist philosophers, and feminists often cite both her life and work as important influences. Wollstonecraft was born on 27 April 1759 in Spitalfields, London and she was the second of the seven children of Elizabeth Dixon and Edward John Wollstonecraft. Although her family had a comfortable income when she was a child, consequently, the family became financially unstable and they were frequently forced to move during Wollstonecrafts youth. The familys financial situation became so dire that Wollstonecrafts father compelled her to turn over money that she would have inherited at her maturity. Moreover, he was apparently a violent man who would beat his wife in drunken rages, as a teenager, Wollstonecraft used to lie outside the door of her mothers bedroom to protect her. Wollstonecraft played a similar role for her sisters, Everina and Eliza. The human costs, however, were severe, her sister suffered social condemnation and, because she could not remarry, was doomed to a life of poverty, two friendships shaped Wollstonecrafts early life. The first was with Jane Arden in Beverley, the two frequently read books together and attended lectures presented by Ardens father, a self-styled philosopher and scientist. Wollstonecraft revelled in the atmosphere of the Arden household and valued her friendship with Arden greatly. Wollstonecraft wrote to her, I have formed romantic notions of friendship, I am a little singular in my thoughts of love and friendship, I must have the first place or none. In some of Wollstonecrafts letters to Arden, she reveals the volatile, unhappy with her home life, Wollstonecraft struck out on her own in 1778 and accepted a job as a ladys companion to Sarah Dawson, a widow living in Bath. However, Wollstonecraft had trouble getting along with the irascible woman, in 1780 she returned home, called back to care for her dying mother. Rather than return to Dawsons employ after the death of her mother and she realized during the two years she spent with the family that she had idealized Blood, who was more invested in traditional feminine values than was WollstonecraftMary Wollstonecraft – Mary Wollstonecraft by John Opie (c. 1797)
6. Kingdom of Great Britain – The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially Great Britain, was a sovereign state in western Europe from 1 May 1707 to 31 December 1800. It did not include Ireland, which remained a separate realm, the unitary state was governed by a single parliament and government that was based in Westminster. Also after the accession of George I to the throne of Great Britain in 1714, the early years of the unified kingdom were marked by Jacobite risings which ended in defeat for the Stuart cause at Culloden in 1746. On 1 January 1801, the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland were merged to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922, five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the United Kingdom, the name Britain descends from the Latin name for the island of Great Britain, Britannia or Brittānia, the land of the Britons via the Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne. The term Great Britain was first used officially in 1474, in the instrument drawing up the proposal for a marriage between Edward IV of Englands daughter Cecily and James III of Scotlands son James. The Treaty of Union and the subsequent Acts of Union state that England and Scotland were to be United into one Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain. However, both the Acts and the Treaty also refer numerous times to the United Kingdom and the longer form, other publications refer to the country as the United Kingdom after 1707 as well. The websites of the UK parliament, the Scottish Parliament, the BBC, additionally, the term United Kingdom was found in informal use during the 18th century to describe the state. The new state created in 1707 included the island of Great Britain, the kingdoms of England and Scotland, both in existence from the 9th century, were separate states until 1707. However, they had come into a union in 1603. Each of the three kingdoms maintained its own parliament and laws and this disposition changed dramatically when the Acts of Union 1707 came into force, with a single unified Crown of Great Britain and a single unified parliament. Ireland remained formally separate, with its own parliament, until the Acts of Union 1800, legislative power was vested in the Parliament of Great Britain, which replaced both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. In practice it was a continuation of the English parliament, sitting at the location in Westminster. Newly created peers in the Peerage of Great Britain were given the right to sit in the Lords. Despite the end of a parliament for Scotland, it retained its own laws. As a result of Poynings Law of 1495, the Parliament of Ireland was subordinate to the Parliament of England, the Act was repealed by the Repeal of Act for Securing Dependence of Ireland Act 1782. The same year, the Irish constitution of 1782 produced a period of legislative freedom, the 18th century saw England, and after 1707 Great Britain, rise to become the worlds dominant colonial power, with France its main rival on the imperial stageKingdom of Great Britain – Lord Clive meeting Mir Jafar after the Battle of Plassey, by Francis Hayman (c. 1762)
7. Philosopher – A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside of either theology or science. The term philosopher comes from the Ancient Greek φιλόσοφος meaning lover of wisdom, the coining of the term has been attributed to the Greek thinker Pythagoras. Typically, these brands of philosophy are Hellenistic ones and those who most arduously commit themselves to this lifestyle may be considered philosophers. The separation of philosophy and science from theology began in Greece during the 6th century BC, thales, an astronomer and mathematician, was considered by Aristotle to be the first philosopher of the Greek tradition. While Pythagoras coined the word, the first known elaboration on the topic was conducted by Plato, in his Symposium, he concludes that Love is that which lacks the object it seeks. Therefore, the philosopher is one who seeks wisdom, if he attains wisdom, therefore, the philosopher in antiquity was one who lives in the constant pursuit of wisdom, and living in accordance to that wisdom. Disagreements arose as to what living philosophically entailed and these disagreements gave rise to different Hellenistic schools of philosophy. In consequence, the ancient philosopher thought in a tradition, as the ancient world became schism by philosophical debate, the competition lay in living in manner that would transform his whole way of living in the world. Philosophy is a discipline which can easily carry away the individual in analyzing the universe. The second is the change through the Medieval era. With the rise of Christianity, the way of life was adopted by its theology. Thus, philosophy was divided between a way of life and the conceptual, logical, physical and metaphysical materials to justify that way of life, philosophy was then the servant to theology. The third is the sociological need with the development of the university, the modern university requires professionals to teach. Maintaining itself requires teaching future professionals to replace the current faculty, therefore, the discipline degrades into a technical language reserved for specialists, completely eschewing its original conception as a way of life. In the fourth century, the word began to designate a man or woman who led a monastic life. Gregory of Nyssa, for example, describes how his sister Macrina persuaded their mother to forsake the distractions of life for a life of philosophy. Later during the Middle Ages, persons who engaged with alchemy was called a philosopher - thus, many philosophers still emerged from the Classical tradition, as saw their philosophy as a way of life. Among the most notable are René Descartes, Baruch Spinoza, Nicolas Malebranche, with the rise of the university, the modern conception of philosophy became more prominentPhilosopher – The School of Athens, by Raphael, depicting the central figures of Plato and Aristotle, and other ancient philosophers exchanging their knowledge.
8. Feminist – Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal, to define and advance political, economic, personal, and social rights for women. This includes seeking to establish opportunities for women in education. Feminists have also worked to promote autonomy and integrity, and to protect women and girls from rape, sexual harassment. Numerous feminist movements and ideologies have developed over the years and represent different viewpoints, some forms of feminism have been criticized for taking into account only white, middle class, and educated perspectives. This criticism led to the creation of specific or multicultural forms of feminism, including black feminism. Charles Fourier, a Utopian Socialist and French philosopher, is credited with having coined the word féminisme in 1837, depending on the historical moment, culture and country, feminists around the world have had different causes and goals. Most western feminist historians assert that all working to obtain womens rights should be considered feminist movements. Other historians assert that the term should be limited to the modern feminist movement and those historians use the label protofeminist to describe earlier movements. The history of the modern western feminist movements is divided into three waves, each wave dealt with different aspects of the same feminist issues. The first wave comprised womens suffrage movements of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the second wave was associated with the ideas and actions of the womens liberation movement beginning in the 1960s. The second wave campaigned for legal and social equality for women, the third wave is a continuation of, and a reaction to, the perceived failures of second-wave feminism, beginning in the 1990s. First-wave feminism was a period of activity during the 19th century, in the UK and US, it focused on the promotion of equal contract, marriage, parenting, and property rights for women. This was followed by Australia granting female suffrage in 1902, in 1928 this was extended to all women over 21. In the U. S. notable leaders of this movement included Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, anthony, who each campaigned for the abolition of slavery prior to championing womens right to vote. These women were influenced by the Quaker theology of spiritual equality, in the United States, first-wave feminism is considered to have ended with the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, granting women the right to vote in all states. During the late Qing period and reform movements such as the Hundred Days Reform, Chinese feminists called for womens liberation from traditional roles, later, the Chinese Communist Party created projects aimed at integrating women into the workforce, and claimed that the revolution had successfully achieved womens liberation. According to Nawar al-Hassan Golley, Arab feminism was closely connected with Arab nationalism, in 1899, Qasim Amin, considered the father of Arab feminism, wrote The Liberation of Women, which argued for legal and social reforms for women. He drew links between womens position in Egyptian society and nationalism, leading to the development of Cairo University, in 1923 Hoda Shaarawi founded the Egyptian Feminist Union, became its president and a symbol of the Arab womens rights movementFeminist – International Women's Day rally in Dhaka, Bangladesh, on 8 March 2005, organized by the National Women Workers Trade Union Centre
9. Travel literature – The genre of travel literature encompasses outdoor literature, guide books, nature writing, and travel memoirs. One early travel memoirist in Western literature was Pausanias, a Greek geographer of the 2nd century AD, in the early modern period, James Boswells Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides helped shape travel memoir as a genre. The travel genre was a common genre in medieval Arabic literature. Travel literature became popular during the Song Dynasty of medieval China, the genre was called travel record literature, and was often written in narrative, prose, essay and diary style. One of the earliest known records of taking pleasure in travel, of travelling for the sake of travel and he states that he went to the mountaintop for the pleasure of seeing the top of the famous height. His companions who stayed at the bottom he called frigida incuriositas and he then wrote about his climb, making allegorical comparisons between climbing the mountain and his own moral progress in life. Antoine de la Sale, author of Petit Jehan de Saintre, climbed to the crater of a volcano in the Lipari Islands in 1407, councils of mad youth were his stated reasons for going. In 1589, Richard Hakluyt published Voyages, a text of the travel literature genre. In the 18th Century, travel literature was commonly known as the book of travels, in 18th century Britain, almost every famous writer worked in the travel literature form. Captain James Cooks diaries were the equivalent of todays best sellers, Other later examples of travel literature include accounts of the Grand Tour. Aristocrats, clergy, and others with money and leisure time travelled Europe to learn about the art, a very popular subgenre of travel literature started to emerge in the form of narratives of exploration, a still unexplored source for colonial and postcolonial studies. Travel books range in style from the documentary to the evocative, from literary to journalistic and they are often associated with tourism and include guide books, meant to educate the reader about destinations, provide advice for visits, and inspire readers to travel. Travel writing may be found on web sites, in periodicals and it has been produced by a variety of writers, such as travelers, military officers, missionaries, explorers, scientists, pilgrims, social and physical scientists, educators, and migrants. Travel literature often intersects with essay writing, as in V. S. Naipauls India, A Wounded Civilization, whose trip became the occasion for extended observations on a nation and this is similarly the case in Rebecca Wests work on Yugoslavia, Black Lamb and Grey Falcon. Sometimes a writer will settle into a locality for an extended period, examples of such writings include Lawrence Durrells Bitter Lemons, Deborah Talls The Island of the White Cow, and Peter Mayles best-selling A Year in Provence and its sequels. Travel and nature writing merge in many of the works by Sally Carrighar, Gerald Durrell and these authors are naturalists, who write in support of their fields of study. Another naturalist, Charles Darwin, wrote his famous account of the journey of HMS Beagle at the intersection of science, natural history, a number of writers famous in another field have written about their travel experiences. H. Lawrences Twilight in Italy and Other Essays, Mornings in Mexico and Other Essays, Rebecca Wests Black Lamb and Grey Falcon, in the world of sailing Joshua Slocums Sailing Alone Around the World is a classic of outdoor adventure literatureTravel literature – Handwritten notes by Christopher Columbus on the Latin edition of Marco Polo 's Il Milione.
10. French Revolution – Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history, the causes of the French Revolution are complex and are still debated among historians. Following the Seven Years War and the American Revolutionary War, the French government was deeply in debt, Years of bad harvests leading up to the Revolution also inflamed popular resentment of the privileges enjoyed by the clergy and the aristocracy. Demands for change were formulated in terms of Enlightenment ideals and contributed to the convocation of the Estates-General in May 1789, a central event of the first stage, in August 1789, was the abolition of feudalism and the old rules and privileges left over from the Ancien Régime. The next few years featured political struggles between various liberal assemblies and right-wing supporters of the intent on thwarting major reforms. The Republic was proclaimed in September 1792 after the French victory at Valmy, in a momentous event that led to international condemnation, Louis XVI was executed in January 1793. External threats closely shaped the course of the Revolution, internally, popular agitation radicalised the Revolution significantly, culminating in the rise of Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobins. Large numbers of civilians were executed by revolutionary tribunals during the Terror, after the Thermidorian Reaction, an executive council known as the Directory assumed control of the French state in 1795. The rule of the Directory was characterised by suspended elections, debt repudiations, financial instability, persecutions against the Catholic clergy, dogged by charges of corruption, the Directory collapsed in a coup led by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799. The modern era has unfolded in the shadow of the French Revolution, almost all future revolutionary movements looked back to the Revolution as their predecessor. The values and institutions of the Revolution dominate French politics to this day, the French Revolution differed from other revolutions in being not merely national, for it aimed at benefiting all humanity. Globally, the Revolution accelerated the rise of republics and democracies and it became the focal point for the development of all modern political ideologies, leading to the spread of liberalism, radicalism, nationalism, socialism, feminism, and secularism, among many others. The Revolution also witnessed the birth of total war by organising the resources of France, historians have pointed to many events and factors within the Ancien Régime that led to the Revolution. Over the course of the 18th century, there emerged what the philosopher Jürgen Habermas called the idea of the sphere in France. A perfect example would be the Palace of Versailles which was meant to overwhelm the senses of the visitor and convince one of the greatness of the French state and Louis XIV. Starting in the early 18th century saw the appearance of the sphere which was critical in that both sides were active. In France, the emergence of the public sphere outside of the control of the saw the shift from Versailles to Paris as the cultural capital of France. In the 1750s, during the querelle des bouffons over the question of the quality of Italian vs, in 1782, Louis-Sébastien Mercier wrote, The word court no longer inspires awe amongst us as in the time of Louis XIVFrench Revolution – The August Insurrection in 1792 precipitated the last days of the monarchy.
11. A Vindication of the Rights of Woman – In it, Wollstonecraft responds to those educational and political theorists of the 18th century who did not believe women should have an education. Instead of viewing women as ornaments to society or property to be traded in marriage, Wollstonecraft wrote the Rights of Woman hurriedly to respond directly to ongoing events, she intended to write a more thoughtful second volume but died before completing it. While Wollstonecraft does call for equality between the sexes in particular areas of life, such as morality, she does not explicitly state that men and women are equal, the Rights of Woman was actually well received when it was first published in 1792. One biographer has called it perhaps the most original book of century, a Vindication of the Rights of Woman was written against the tumultuous background of the French Revolution and the debates that it spawned in Britain. Wollstonecraft first entered this fray in 1790 with A Vindication of the Rights of Men, in his Reflections, Burke criticised the view of many British thinkers and writers who had welcomed the early stages of the French revolution. He viewed the French revolution as the violent overthrow of a legitimate government, when Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord presented his Rapport sur linstruction publique to the National Assembly in France, Wollstonecraft was galvanised to respond. Men are destined to live on the stage of the world, a public education suits them, it early places before their eyes all the scenes of life, only the proportions are different. The paternal home is better for the education of women, they have less need to learn to deal with the interests of others, than to accustom themselves to a calm, the Rights of Woman is an extension of Wollstonecrafts arguments in the Rights of Men. In the Rights of Men, as the title suggests, she is concerned with the rights of men while in the Rights of Woman, she is concerned with the rights afforded to woman. She does not isolate her argument to 18th-century women or British women, the first chapter of the Rights of Woman addresses the issue of natural rights and asks who has those inalienable rights and on what grounds. She answers that since natural rights are given by God, for one segment of society to deny them to another segment is a sin. The Rights of Woman thus engages not only specific events in France and in Britain but also larger questions being raised by political philosophers such as John Locke, Wollstonecraft did not employ the formal argumentation or logical prose style common to 18th-century philosophical writing when composing her own works. The Rights of Woman is an essay that introduces all of its major topics in the opening chapters and then repeatedly returns to them. It also adopts a tone that combines rational argument with the fervent rhetoric of sensibility. In the 18th century, sensibility was a phenomenon that came to be attached to a specific set of moral beliefs. Physicians and anatomists believed that the more sensitive peoples nerves, the more emotionally affected they would be by their surroundings, since women were thought to have keener nerves than men, it was also believed that women were more emotional than men. The emotional excess associated with sensibility also theoretically produced an ethic of compassion, thus historians have credited the discourse of sensibility and those who promoted it with the increased humanitarian efforts, such as the movement to abolish the slave trade. By the time Wollstonecraft was writing the Rights of Woman, sensibility had already been under sustained attack for a number of yearsA Vindication of the Rights of Woman – Title page from the first American edition of Rights of Woman
12. Wayne Gretzky – Wayne Douglas Gretzky CC is a Canadian former professional ice hockey player and former head coach. He played twenty seasons in the National Hockey League for four teams from 1979 to 1999, nicknamed The Great One, he has been called the greatest hockey player ever by many sportswriters, players, and the league itself. He is the scorer in NHL history, with more goals. He garnered more assists than any player scored total points. In addition, he tallied over 100 points in 16 professional seasons,14 of them consecutive, at the time of his retirement in 1999, he held 61 NHL records,40 regular-season records,15 playoff records, and six All-Star records. As of 2014, he still holds 60 NHL records, born and raised in Brantford, Ontario, Canada, Gretzky honed his skills at a backyard rink and regularly played minor hockey at a level far above his peers. Despite his unimpressive stature, strength and speed, Gretzkys intelligence and he was adept at dodging checks from opposing players, and consistently anticipated where the puck was going to be and executed the right move at the right time. Gretzky became known for setting up behind his opponents net, an area that was nicknamed Gretzkys office, in 1978, Gretzky signed with the Indianapolis Racers of the World Hockey Association, where he briefly played before being traded to the Edmonton Oilers. When the WHA folded, the Oilers joined the NHL, where he established many scoring records, Gretzky played briefly for the St. Louis Blues before finishing his career with the New York Rangers. He won the Lady Byng Trophy for sportsmanship and performance five times, after his retirement in 1999, Gretzky was immediately inducted into the Hockey Hall of Fame, making him the most recent player to have the waiting period waived. The NHL retired his jersey number 99 league-wide, making him the player to receive this honour. He was one of six players voted to the International Ice Hockey Federations Centennial All-Star Team, Gretzky became executive director for the Canadian national mens hockey team during the 2002 Winter Olympics, in which the team won a gold medal. In 2000, he became owner of the Phoenix Coyotes. In 2004, he was inducted into the Ontario Sports Hall of Fame, in September 2009, following the franchises bankruptcy, Gretzky resigned as coach and relinquished his ownership share. In October 2016, he became partner and vice-chairman of Oilers Entertainment Group, Wayne Gretzky was born on January 26,1961 in Brantford, Ontario, the son of Phyllis Leone and Walter Gretzky. The couple had married in 1960, and lived in an apartment in Brantford, the family moved into a house on Varadi Avenue in Brantford seven months after Wayne was born, chosen partly because its yard was flat enough to make an ice rink on every winter. Wayne was joined by a sister, Kim, and brothers Keith, Glen, the family would regularly visit the farm of Waynes grandparents, Tony and Mary, and watch Hockey Night in Canada together. By age two, Wayne was trying to score goals against Mary using a souvenir stick, the farm was where Wayne skated on ice for the first time, aged two years,10 monthsWayne Gretzky – Wayne Gretzky, 2006
13. Order of Canada – The Order of Canada is a Canadian national order, admission into which is the second highest honour for merit in the system of orders, decorations, and medals of Canada. It comes second only to membership in the Order of Merit, membership is accorded to those who exemplify the orders Latin motto, desiderantes meliorem patriam, meaning they desire a better country, a phrase taken from Hebrews 11,16. Appointees to the order are recommended by a board and formally inducted by the governor general or the sovereign. As of October 2016,6,699 people have been appointed to the Order of Canada, including scientists, musicians, politicians, artists, athletes, business people, and film stars, benefactors, and others. Some have resigned or have been removed from the order, while other appointments have been controversial, appointees are presented with insignia and receive the right to armorial bearings. Pearson, who was assisted with the establishment of the order by John Matheson. Laurent, Hugh MacLennan, David Bauer, Gabrielle Roy, Donald Creighton, Thérèse Casgrain, Wilder Penfield, Arthur Lismer, M. J. Coldwell, Edwin Baker, Alex Colville, and Maurice Richard. From the Order of Canada grew a Canadian honours system, thereby reducing the use of British honours, by the 1980s, Canadas provinces began to develop their own distinct honours and decorations. The Canadian monarch, seen as the fount of honour, is at the apex of the Order of Canada as its Sovereign, followed by the governor general, who serves as the fellowships Chancellor. Thereafter follow three grades, which are, in order of precedence, Companion, Officer, and Member, each incumbent governor general is also installed as the Principal Companion for the duration of his or her time in the viceregal post and continues as an extraordinary Companion thereafter. As of March 2016, there have twenty one honorary appointments. There were originally, in effect, only two ranks to the Order of Canada, Companion and the Medal of Service, there was, however, also a third award, the Medal of Courage, meant to recognize acts of gallantry. This latter decoration fell in rank between the two levels, but was anomalous within the Order of Canada, being a separate award of a different nature rather than a middle grade of the order. Lester Pearsons vision of a structure to the order was thus fulfilled. Companions of the Order of Canada have demonstrated the highest degree of merit to Canada and humanity, up to 15 Companions are appointed annually, with an imposed limit of 165 living Companions at any given time, not including those appointed as extraordinary Companions or in an honorary capacity. As of October 2015, there are 143 living Companions, none being honorary, since 1994, substantive members are the only regular citizens who are empowered to administer the Canadian Oath of Citizenship. As of October 2015, there were 1,123 living Officers, Members of the Order of Canada have made an exceptional contribution to Canada or Canadians at a local or regional level, group, field or activity. As many as 136 Members may be appointed annually, not including extraordinary Members and those inducted on an honorary basis, as of October 2015, there were 2,225 living Members, none being honoraryOrder of Canada – Order of Canada
14. Ice hockey – Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponents net to score points. Ice hockey teams usually consist of six each, one goaltender. A fast-paced, physical sport, ice hockey is most popular in areas of North America, Ice hockey is the official national winter sport of Canada, where the game enjoys immense popularity. In North America, the National Hockey League is the highest level for mens hockey, the Kontinental Hockey League is the highest league in Russia and much of Eastern Europe. The International Ice Hockey Federation is the governing body for international ice hockey. The IIHF manages international tournaments and maintains the IIHF World Ranking, worldwide, there are ice hockey federations in 74 countries. Ice hockey is believed to have evolved from simple stick and ball games played in the 18th and 19th century United Kingdom and these games were brought to North America and several similar winter games using informal rules were developed, such as shinny and ice polo. The contemporary sport of ice hockey was developed in Canada, most notably in Montreal, some characteristics of that game, such as the length of the ice rink and the use of a puck, have been retained to this day. Amateur ice hockey began in the 1880s, and professional ice hockey originated around 1900. The Stanley Cup, emblematic of ice hockey club supremacy, was first awarded in 1893 to recognize the Canadian amateur champion, in international competitions, the national teams of six countries predominate, Canada, Czech Republic, Finland, Russia, Sweden and the United States. Of the 69 medals awarded all-time in mens competition at the Olympics, in the annual Ice Hockey World Championships,177 of 201 medals have been awarded to the six nations. In Russia and the Ukraine, where hockey can also refer to bandy, the name hockey has no clear origin. The English historian and biographer John Strype did not use the word hockey when he translated the proclamation in 1720, the 1573 Statute of Galway banned a sport called hokie—the hurling of a little ball with sticks or staves. A form of this word was thus being used in the 16th century, though much removed from its current usage. According to the Austin Hockey Association, the word derives from the Scots Gaelic puc or the Irish poc. The blow given by a hurler to the ball with his caman or hurley is always called a puck. Stick-and-ball games date back to pre-Christian times, in Europe, these games included the Irish game of hurling, the closely related Scottish game of shinty and versions of field hockey. IJscolf, a game resembling colf on a surface, was popular in the Low Countries between the Middle Ages and the Dutch Golden Age. It was played with a curved bat, a wooden or leather ballIce hockey – The San Jose Sharks (teal) attempt to prevent the Anaheim Ducks (white) from scoring a goal during the 2007–08 NHL season.
15. National Hockey League – Headquartered in New York City, the NHL is considered to be the premier professional ice hockey league in the world, and one of the major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. The Stanley Cup, the oldest professional sports trophy in North America, is awarded annually to the playoff champion at the end of each season. At its inception, the NHL had four teams—all in Canada, the league expanded to the United States in 1924, when the Boston Bruins joined, and has since consisted of American and Canadian teams. After a labour-management dispute that led to the cancellation of the entire 2004–05 season, in 2009, the NHL enjoyed record highs in terms of sponsorships, attendance, and television audiences. The league draws many highly skilled players from all over the world, canadians have historically constituted the majority of the players in the league, with an increasing percentage of American and European players in recent seasons. The National Hockey League was established in 1917 as the successor to the National Hockey Association, founded in 1909, the NHA began play one year later with seven teams in Ontario and Quebec, and was one of the first major leagues in professional ice hockey. Realizing the NHA constitution left them unable to force Livingstone out, the four teams voted instead to suspend the NHA, frank Calder was chosen as its first president, serving until his death in 1943. The Bulldogs were unable to play, and the remaining owners created a new team in Toronto, the first games were played on December 19,1917. The Montreal Arena burned down in January 1918, causing the Wanderers to cease operations, the NHL replaced the NHA as one of the leagues that competed for the Stanley Cup, which was an interleague competition back then. Toronto won the first NHL title, and then defeated the Vancouver Millionaires of the Pacific Coast Hockey Association for the 1918 Stanley Cup. The Canadiens won the title in 1919, however their Stanley Cup Final against the PCHAs Seattle Metropolitans was abandoned as a result of the Spanish Flu epidemic. Montreal in 1924 won their first Stanley Cup as a member of the NHL, the Hamilton Tigers, won the regular season title in 1924–25 but refused to play in the championship series unless they were given a C$200 bonus. The league refused and declared the Canadiens the league champion after defeated the Toronto St. Patricks in the semi-final. Montreal was then defeated by the Victoria Cougars of the Western Canada Hockey League for the 1925 Stanley Cup and it was the last time a non-NHL team won the trophy, as the Stanley Cup became the de facto NHL championship in 1926 after the WCHL ceased operation. The National Hockey League embarked on rapid expansion in the 1920s, adding the Montreal Maroons, the Bruins were the first American team in the league. The New York Americans began play in 1925 after purchasing the assets of the Hamilton Tigers, the New York Rangers were added in 1926. The Chicago Black Hawks and Detroit Cougars were also added after the league purchased the assets of the defunct WCHL, a group purchased the Toronto St. Patricks in 1927 and immediately renamed them the Maple Leafs. The first NHL All-Star Game was held in 1934 to benefit Ace Bailey, the second was held in 1937 in support of Howie Morenzs family when he died of a coronary embolism after breaking his leg during a gameNational Hockey League – National Hockey League Ligue nationale de hockey (French)
16. 1785 – As of the start of 1785, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 1 – The first issue of the Daily Universal Register, later known as The Times, is published in London. January 7 – Frenchman Jean-Pierre Blanchard and American John Jeffries travel from Dover, England to Calais, France in a gas balloon. January 20 – Invading Siamese forces, attempting to exploit the chaos in Vietnam, are ambushed and annihilated at the Mekong river by the Tây Sơn in the Battle of Rạch Gầm-Xoài Mút. January 27 – The University of Georgia is founded in Athens, may 10 – A hot air balloon crashes in Tullamore, Ireland, causing a fire that burns down about 100 houses, making it the worlds first aviation disaster. June 3 – Continental Navy disbanded, july 6 – The dollar is unanimously chosen as the money unit for the United States. July 16 – The Piper-Heidsieck Champagne house is founded by Florens-Louis Heidsieck in Reims, august 1 – The fleet of French explorer Jean-François de Galaup, comte de Lapérouse leaves Paris for the circumnavigation of the globe. August 15 – Cardinal de Rohan is arrested in Paris, the Necklace Affair comes into the open, november – A drought occurs in Haiti. November 28 – The Treaty of Hopewell is signed between the United States of America and the Cherokee Nation, the University of New Brunswick is founded in Fredericton, New Brunswick. Coal gas is first used for illumination, louis XVI of France signs to a law that a handkerchief must be square. The British government establishes a permanent land force in the Eastern Caribbean, Belfast Academy is founded by Rev. Dr James Crombie in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi publishes Letters on the Teachings of Spinoza, napoleon Bonaparte becomes a lieutenant in the French artillery. Music, Mozarts Haydn String Quartets are published, as is his collaboration with Salieri and Cornetti, London, H. G. Bohn – via Hathi Trust1785 – Jacob Grimm
17. Thomas Love Peacock – Thomas Love Peacock was an English novelist, poet, and official of the East India Company. He was a friend of Percy Bysshe Shelley and they influenced each others work. Peacock wrote satirical novels, each with the basic setting. Peacock was born in Weymouth, Dorset, the son of Samuel Peacock and his wife Sarah Love, daughter of Thomas Love and his father was a glass merchant in London, partner of a Mr Pellatt, presumed to be Apsley Pellatt. Peacock went with his mother to live with her family at Chertsey in 1791 and in 1792 went to a run by Joseph Harris Wicks at Englefield Green where he stayed for six. Peacocks father died in 1794 in poor circumstances leaving a small annuity, Peacocks first known poem was an epitaph for a school fellow written at the age of ten and another on his Midsummer Holidays was written when he was thirteen. Around that time in 1798 he was taken from school. In February 1800, Peacock became a clerk with Ludlow Fraser Company and he lived with his mother on the firms premises at 4 Angel Court Throgmorton Street. He won the prize from the Monthly Preceptor for a verse answer to the question Is History or Biography the More Improving Study. He also contributed to The Juvenile Library, a magazine for youth whose competitions excited the emulation of other boys including Leigh Hunt, de Quincey. He began visiting the Reading Room of the British Museum and continued doing so for years, diligently studying the best literature in Greek, Latin, French. In 1804 and 1806 he published two volumes of poetry, The Monks of St. Mark and Palmyra, some of Peacocks juvenile compositions were privately printed by Sir Henry Cole. In around 1806 Peacock left his job in the city and during the year made a walking tour of Scotland. The annuity left by his father expired in October 1806, in 1807 he returned to live at his mothers house at Chertsey. He was briefly engaged to Fanny Faulkner, but it was broken off through the interference of her relations and his friends, as he hints, thought it wrong that so clever a man should be earning so little money. In the autumn of 1808 he became secretary to Sir Home Popham. By the end of the year he was serving Captain Andrew King aboard HMS Venerable in the Downs and his preconceived affection for the sea did not reconcile him to nautical realities. Writing poetry, he says, or doing anything else that is rational, I would give the world to be at home and devote the winter to the composition of a comedyThomas Love Peacock – Thomas Love Peacock
18. 1866 – As of the start of 1866, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 1 Fisk University, a black university, is established in Nashville. The last issue of the abolitionist magazine The Liberator is published, january 6 – Ottoman troops clash with men of a Maronite leader Youssef Bey Karam at St. Doumit in Lebanon, the Ottomans are defeated. January 12 Royal Aeronautical Society is formed as The Aeronautical Society of Great Britain in London, british auxiliary steamer SS London sinks in a storm in the Bay of Biscay on passage from the Thames to Australia with the loss of 244 people and only 19 survivors. January 18 – Wesley College, Melbourne is established, january 26 – Volcanic eruption in the Santorini caldera begins. February 7 – Battle of Abtao, A Spanish naval squadron fights a combined Peruvian-Chilean fleet, february 13 – The first daylight bank robbery in United States history during peacetime takes place in Liberty, Missouri. This is considered to be the first robbery committed by Jesse James and his gang, february 26 – The Calaveras Skull is discovered in California. Purported to be evidence of humans in North America during the Pliocene epoch, february 28 – The month concludes without having a full moon. April 4 – Alexander II of Russia narrowly escapes an attempt in the city of St Petersburg. April 8 – The kingdoms of Italy and Prussia form an alliance against the Austrian Empire, april 10 – The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals is founded in New York City by Henry Bergh. May 2 – Battle of Callao, Peruvian defenders fight the Spanish fleet, may 7 – Student Ferdinand Cohen-Blind makes a failed attempt to assassinate Otto von Bismarck in Unter den Linden in Berlin. May 10 – London bank Overend, Gurney and Company collapses, may 16 – The United States Congress approves the minting of a nickel 5-cent coin, eliminating its predecessor, the half dime. May 24 – Battle of Tuyutí,32,000 soldiers of the Triple Alliance defeat 24,000 Paraguayan soldiers few miles north of the Paraná, Argentina in the Paraguayan War, may 26 – First production of the comic opera Cox and Box by F. C. Burnand and Arthur Sullivan at Moray Lodge, Kensington June 2 – Fenian forces skirmish with Canadian militia at the battles of Ridgeway, June 5 – Calculations indicate Pluto reaches its only aphelion between 1618 and August 2113. June 8 – The Canadian Parliament meets for the first time in Ottawa, June 11 – The Agra High Court is established. June 14 – The Austro-Prussian War begins, when the Austrians, June 20 – The Kingdom of Italy declares war on Austria. June 22 – In Sweden, the Riksdag of the Estates votes to replace itself by an elected 2-chamber Riksdag, June 27–June 29 – Battle of Langensalza, The Prussians defeat the Hanoverian army. July 1 – The first Constitution of Romania is issued, july 5 – Princess Helena, third daughter of Queen Victoria, marries Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein1866 – May 16: U.S. nickel coin approved.
19. 1926 – January 1 Flooding of the Rhine River struck Cologne,50,000 were forced to evacuate their homes. Irelands first regular service, 2RN, began broadcasting. January 3 – Theodoros Pangalos declared himself dictator in Greece, January 6 – The airline Deutsche Luft Hansa was founded in Berlin. January 8 – Abdul-Aziz ibn Saud was crowned King of Hejaz and it was a precursor to Gosden and Corrells more popular later program, Amos n Andy. January 16 – A BBC comic radio play broadcast by Ronald Knox about a revolution caused a panic in London. January 21 – The Belgian Parliament accepted the Locarno Treaties, January 26 – Scottish inventor John Logie Baird demonstrated a mechanical television system for members of the Royal Institution and a reporter from The Times at his London laboratory. January 29 – Eugene ONeills The Great God Brown opened at the Greenwich Theatre, January 31 – British and Belgian troops left Cologne. February 1 – Land on Broadway and Wall Street in New York City was sold at a record $7 per sq inch, february 8 – Seán OCaseys The Plough and the Stars opened at the Abbey Theatre in Dublin. February 9 – Flooding hit London suburbs, february 12 – The Irish minister for Justice, Kevin OHiggins, appointed the Committee on Evil Literature. February 20 – The Berlin International Green Week debuted in Berlin, february 25 – Francisco Franco became General of Spain. March 6 – The Shakespeare Memorial Theatre in Stratford-upon-Avon is destroyed by fire, march 6 – The first commercial air route to South Africa is established by Alan Cobham. March 16 – Robert Goddard launches the first liquid-fuel rocket, at Auburn, march 23 – Éamon de Valera organises Fianna Fáil in Ireland. April 4 – Greek dictator Theodoros Pangalos won the election with 93. 3% of the vote. Turnout was light as the result was considered a foregone conclusion, april 7 – An assassination attempt against Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini fails. April 12 – By a vote of 45–41, the United States Senate unseats Iowa Senator Smith W. Brookhart and seats Daniel F. Steck, april 17 – Zhang Zuolins army captured Beijing. April 24 – Treaty of Berlin, Germany and the Soviet Union each pledged neutrality in the event of an attack on the other by a party for the next five years. April 25 – Rezā Khan was crowned Shah of Iran under the name Pahlevi, april 30 – African-American pilot Bessie Coleman was killed after falling 500 feet from an airplane. May 3 – Coal miners were locked out in Britain, may 4 – The United Kingdom general strike began at midnight in support of the coal strike1926 – March 16: Goddard with rocket in 1926.
20. Chuck Berry – Charles Edward Anderson Chuck Berry was an American guitarist, singer and songwriter and one of the pioneers of rock and roll music. With songs such as Maybellene, Roll Over Beethoven, Rock and Roll Music, Goode, Berry refined and developed rhythm and blues into the major elements that made rock and roll distinctive. Writing lyrics that focused on teen life and consumerism, and developing a style that included guitar solos and showmanship. Born into a middle-class African-American family in St. Louis, Missouri, Berry had an interest in music from an early age, while still a high school student he was convicted of armed robbery and was sent to a reformatory, where he was held from 1944 to 1947. After his release, Berry settled into married life and worked at an assembly plant. By early 1953, influenced by the guitar riffs and showmanship techniques of the blues musician T-Bone Walker and his break came when he traveled to Chicago in May 1955 and met Muddy Waters, who suggested he contact Leonard Chess, of Chess Records. With Chess, he recorded Maybellene—Berrys adaptation of the country song Ida Red—which sold over a million copies, reaching number one on Billboard magazines rhythm and blues chart. By the end of the 1950s, Berry was a star, with several hit records and film appearances. He had also established his own St. Louis nightclub, Berrys Club Bandstand, but in January 1962, he was sentenced to three years in prison for offenses under the Mann Act—he had transported a 14-year-old girl across state lines. After his release in 1963, Berry had several hits, including No Particular Place to Go, You Never Can Tell. His insistence on being paid in cash led in 1979 to a jail sentence and community service. Berry is included in several of Rolling Stone magazines greatest of all time lists, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fames 500 Songs That Shaped Rock and Roll includes three of Berrys, Johnny B. Goode, Maybellene, and Rock and Roll Music, Berrys Johnny B. Goode is the only rock-and-roll song included on the Voyager Golden Record. Born in St. Louis, Missouri, Berry was the child in a family of six. He grew up in the north St. Louis neighborhood known as the Ville and his father, Henry William Berry, was a contractor and deacon of a nearby Baptist church, his mother, Martha Bell, was a certified public school principal. His upbringing allowed him to pursue his interest in music from an early age, Berrys account in his autobiography is that his car broke down and he flagged down a passing car and stole it at gunpoint with a nonfunctional pistol. He was convicted and sent to the Intermediate Reformatory for Young Men at Algoa, near Jefferson City, Missouri, the singing group became competent enough that the authorities allowed it to perform outside the detention facility. Berry was released from the reformatory on his 21st birthday in 1947, on October 28,1948, Berry married Themetta Toddy Suggs, who gave birth to Darlin Ingrid Berry on October 3,1950Chuck Berry – Chuck Berry in 1957
21. 1935 – January – Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia creates a military school at Holeta. January 1 – The Italian colonies of Tripoli and Cyrenaica are joined together as Libya, january 3 – The trial of Bruno Richard Hauptmann, accused of the kidnapping and murder of Charles Lindbergh, Jr. begins in Flemington, New Jersey. January 4 – Dry Tortugas National Park is established, january 7 – Italian premier Benito Mussolini and French Foreign Minister Pierre Laval conclude an agreement in which each power agrees not to oppose the others colonial claims. January 11 – Amelia Earhart becomes the first person to fly solo from Hawaii to California, january 13 – A plebiscite in the Territory of the Saar Basin shows that 90. 3% of those voting wish to join Germany. January 16 – The FBI kills the Barker Gang, including Ma Barker, january 19 – Coopers Inc. sells the worlds first mens briefs, as jockeys, in Chicago. January 24 – The first canned beer is sold in Richmond, Virginia, United States, january 28 – Iceland legalizes abortion on medical grounds. February 6 – Parker Brothers begins selling the board game Monopoly in the United States, february 23 – The classic Mickey Mouse cartoon The Band Concert is released by United Artists in the United States. February 26 In Nazi Germany, Adolf Hitler orders reinstatement of the air force, Robert Watson-Watt first demonstrates the use of radar to detect aircraft at Daventry in England. February 28 – Ladby ship, Viking ship grave discovered in Denmark, March 11935 Greek coup détat attempt, Nikolaos Plastiras, Anastasios Papoulas and other Venizelists lead a coup against the Peoples Party government in Greece. The attempt is suppressed by March 11 and the condemned to death for treason. İsmet İnönü forms the new government in Turkey, March 2 – King Prajadhipok of Siam abdicates the throne. He is succeeded by his 9-year-old-nephew Ananda Mahidol, March 8 – Faithful dog Hachikō dies on the spot where he had awaited his dead owner for nine years in Japan. March 9 – Porky Pig makes his debut as the first major Looney Tunes character in I Havent Got a Hat, March 16 – Adolf Hitler announces German re-armament in violation of the 1919 Treaty of Versailles. March 19 – Harlem riot of 1935, A race riot breaks out in Harlem after a rumor circulates that a teenage Puerto Rican shoplifter in the S. H. Kress & Co. department store has been brutally beaten, March 21 – Persia is renamed Iran. March 22 – The worlds first television program by Fernsehsender Paul Nipkow is transmitted from the Funkturm in Berlin, april 1 – The North American NA-16, prototype of the North American T-6 Texan or Harvard flying trainer, flies for the first time. April 14 – Dust Bowl, The great dust storm in the United States hits eastern New Mexico and Colorado and it will be made famous by Woody Guthrie in his dust bowl ballads. April 15 – Roerich Pact, a Pan-American treaty on the protection of cultural artefacts, is signed in Washington D. C, april 16 – Fibber McGee and Molly debuts on NBC Radio in the United States. April 17 – Sun Myung Moon, a teenage Presbyterian convert in Korea under Japanese rule, april 27 – FA Cup, Sheffield Wednesday F. C. beat West Bromwich Albion 4–2 at Wembley Stadium in England1935 – Dust storm approaching Spearman, Texas
22. Peter Boyle – Peter Lawrence Boyle was an American character actor. He played Frank Barone on the sitcom Everybody Loves Raymond and the monster in Mel Brooks film spoof Young Frankenstein. Boyle was born on October 18,1935, in Norristown, Pennsylvania and he moved with his family to nearby Philadelphia. He had Irish ancestry and was raised Roman Catholic and he attended St. Francis de Sales School and West Philadelphia Catholic High School For Boys. After graduating high school in 1953, Boyle spent three years as a novice of the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools, or De La Salle Brothers, a Catholic teaching order. He lived in a house of studies with other novices and earned a BA from La Salle University in Philadelphia in 1957, while in Philadelphia, he worked as a cameraman on the cooking show Television Kitchen, hosted by Florence Hanford. After graduating from Officer Candidate School in 1959, he was commissioned as an ensign in the United States Navy, in New York City, Boyle studied with acting coach Uta Hagen while working as a postal clerk and a maitre d. He went on to play Murray the cop in a company of Neil Simons The Odd Couple, leaving the tour in Chicago, Illinois. He had a scene as the manager of an indoor shooting range in the critically acclaimed 1969 film Medium Cool. Boyle gained acclaim for his first starring role, playing the title character, the films release was surrounded by controversy over its violence and language. It was during this time that Boyle became close friends with actress Jane Fonda, after seeing people cheer at his role in Joe, Boyle refused the lead role in The French Connection, as well as other movie and TV roles that he believed glamorized violence. However, in 1974, he starred in a film based on the life of murdered New York gangster Crazy Joey Gallo and his next major role was as the campaign manager for a U. S. Senate candidate in The Candidate. He also played an Irish mobster opposite Robert Mitchum in The Friends of Eddie Coyle, Boyle said at the time, The Frankenstein monster I play is a baby. Hes big and ugly and scary, but hes just been born, remember, and its been traumatic, Boyle met his wife, Loraine Alterman, on the set of Young Frankenstein while she was there as a reporter for Rolling Stone. He was still in his Frankenstein makeup when he asked her for a date, through Alterman and her friend Yoko Ono, Boyle became friends with John Lennon, who was the best man at Boyle and Altermans 1977 wedding. Boyle and his wife had two daughters, Lucy and Amy, Boyle received his first Emmy nomination for his acclaimed dramatic performance in the 1977 television film Tail Gunner Joe, in which he played Senator Joseph McCarthy. Yet he was often cast as a character actor than as a leading man. Dolittle, the father of Billy Bob Thorntons prison-guard character in Monsters Ball, Muta in The Cat ReturnsPeter Boyle – Peter Boyle in 1978
23. 2006 – 2006 was designated as, International Year of Deserts and Desertification International Aspergers Year January 1 – Russia cuts the shipment of natural gas to Ukraine over a price dispute. January 12 – A stampede during the Stoning of the Devil ritual on the last day at the Hajj in Mina, Saudi Arabia, January 15 – NASAs Stardust mission successfully ends, the first to return dust from a comet. January 19 – NASA launches the first space mission to Pluto as a rocket hurls the New Horizons spacecraft on a nine-year journey. February 3 – Egyptian passenger ferry, MS al-Salam Boccaccio 98, sinks in the Red Sea off the coast of Saudi Arabia, february 10–26 – The 2006 Winter Olympics are held in Turin, Italy. February 17 – A massive mudslide occurs in Southern Leyte, Philippines killing an estimated 1,126 people, march 9 – NASAs Cassini–Huygens spacecraft discovers geysers of a liquid substance shooting from Saturns moon Enceladus, signaling a possible presence of water. March 10 – NASAs Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter enters orbit around Mars, march 16 – The United Nations General Assembly votes overwhelmingly to establish the United Nations Human Rights Council. March 28 – A scramjet jet engine, HyShot III, designed to fly at seven times the speed of sound, is tested at Woomera. April 11 The European Space Agencys Venus Express spaceprobe enters Venus orbit, President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad confirms that Iran has successfully produced a few grams of low-grade enriched uranium. May – The Human Genome Project publishes the last chromosome sequence, may 27 – The 6.4 Mw Yogyakarta earthquake shakes central Java with an MSK intensity of IX, leaving more than 5,700 dead and 37,000 injured. June 3 – Montenegro declares independence after a May 21 referendum, the state union of Serbia and Montenegro is dissolved on June 5, leaving Serbia as the successor state. June 9 – July 9 – The 2006 FIFA World Cup begins in Germany, June 28 Israel launches an offensive in the Gaza Strip in response to rocketfire by Hamas into Israeli territory. The United States Armed Forces withdraws its forces in Iceland, thereby disbanding the Iceland Defense Force, July 1 – The Qinghai–Tibet Railway launches a trial operation, making Tibet the last province-level entity of China to have a conventional railway. July 6 – The Nathu La pass between India and China, sealed during the Sino-Indian War, re-opens for trade after 44 years, July 12 – Israeli troops invade Lebanon in response to Hezbollah kidnapping two Israeli soldiers and killing three others. Hezbollah declares open war against Israel two days later, august 22 – Pulkovo Aviation Enterprise Flight 612 crashes near the Russian border in Ukraine, killing all 171 people on board. August 24 – The International Astronomical Union defines planet at its 26th General Assembly, september 19 – The Royal Thai Army overthrows the government of Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra in a coup détat. September 29 – Gol Transportes Aéreos Flight 1907 collides with a jet over the Amazon rainforest. October 9 – North Korea claims to have conducted its nuclear test. October 13 – South Korean Ban Ki-moon is elected as the new Secretary-General of the United Nations,5,1948 by Jackson Pollock becomes the most expensive painting after it is sold privately for $140 million2006 – 2006 FIFA World Cup opening ceremony in Germany.
24. 1939 – This year also marks the start of the Second World War, the deadliest conflict in human history. Below, events of World War II have the WWII prefix, january 3 – EFE, a news agency, based in Madrid, Spain, officially founded. January 5 – Amelia Earhart is officially declared dead after her disappearance, january 6 – Naturwissenschaften publishes evidence that nuclear fission has been achieved by Otto Hahn. January 13 – Black Friday,71 people die across Victoria in one of Australias worst ever bushfires, the Dutch War Scare leads to a major change in British policies towards Europe. January 24 – An earthquake kills 30,000 in Chile, january 25 – Refik Saydam forms the new government of Turkey. January 26 Spanish Civil War, Spanish Nationalist troops, aided by Italy, january 27 – Adolf Hitler orders Plan Z, a 5-year naval expansion programme intended to provide for a huge German fleet capable of crushing the Royal Navy by 1944. The Kriegsmarine is given the first priority on the allotment of German economic resources, january 30 – Hitler gives a speech before the Reichstag calling for an export battle to increase German foreign exchange holdings. The same speech also sees Hitlers prophecy where he warns that if Jewish financers start a war against Germany, February 2 – Hungary joins the Anti-Comintern Pact. February 6 British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain states in the House of Commons that any German attack on France will be considered an attack on Britain. February 10 Spanish Nationalists complete their offensive in Catalonia, Pope Pius XI dies of a heart attack in Rome. February 15 – Stagecoach premieres in New York City and Los Angeles, February 18 – The Golden Gate International Exposition opens in San Francisco. February 27 The United Kingdom and France recognize Francos government, borley Rectory in England is destroyed by fire. Sit-down strikes are outlawed by the Supreme Court of the United States, March – The 1936–39 Arab revolt in Palestine ends. March 1 – An Imperial Japanese Army ammunition dump explosion on the outskirts of Osaka kills 94, March 2 – Pope Pius XII succeeds Pope Pius XI as the 260th pope. March 3 In Bombay, Mohandas Gandhi begins a fast protesting against British rule in India, students at Harvard University demonstrate the new tradition of swallowing goldfish to reporters. In Durban, South Africa the Timeless Test begins between England and South Africa, the longest game of cricket ever played and it is abandoned twelve days later when the English team has to catch the last ferry home. March 13 Adolf Hitler advises Jozef Tiso to declare Slovakias independence in order to prevent its partition by Hungary, Irish writer Flann OBriens comic metafiction At Swim-Two-Birds is published in London but attracts little attention at this time. March 14 – The Slovak provincial assembly proclaims independence, priest Jozef Tiso becomes the president of the independent Slovak government, March 15 – German troops occupy the remaining part of Bohemia and Moravia, Czechoslovakia ceases to exist1939 – The year 1939
25. Mike Ditka – Michael Keller Ditka is a former American football player, coach, and television commentator. He was named to both the NFLs 50th and 75th Anniversary All-Time Team, as a coach for the Bears for 11 years he was twice both the AP and UPI NFL Coach of Year. He also coached the New Orleans Saints for three years, Ditka and Tom Flores are the only people to win an NFL title as a player, an assistant coach, and a head coach. Ditka, Flores and Gary Kubiak are also the people in modern NFL history to win a championship as head coach of a team he played for previously. Ditka is the person to participate in both of the last two Chicago Bears championships, as a player in 1963 and as head coach in 1985. He is known by the nickname Iron Mike, which he has said comes from his being born, Ditka was born as Michael Dyczko in the Pittsburgh-area town of Carnegie, Pennsylvania on October 18,1939. The oldest child of Charlotte and Mike Ditka, Sr. he grew up in nearby Aliquippa with siblings Ashton, David and his father, a welder, was one of three brothers of a Polish and Ukrainian family in the coal mining and steel manufacturing area in Western Pennsylvania. His ancestry on his mothers side is Irish and German, the Polish surname Dyczko was difficult to pronounce in his hometown, so the family name was changed to Ditka. Under head coach Press Maravich, Ditka was a star at Aliquippa High School. Ditka hoped to escape his hometowns manufacturing jobs by attending college with a football scholarship, planning to become a dentist, he was recruited by Notre Dame, Penn State, and University of Pittsburgh. Ditka played for the University of Pittsburgh from 1958 until 1960 and he was a three-sport athlete at Pitt, also playing baseball and basketball. He started all three seasons, leading the team in receiving in each, and also served as the teams punter, a first team selection on the College Football All-America Team in his senior year, he was enshrined in the College Football Hall of Fame in 1968. The Chicago Bears drafted Ditka fifth overall in the 1961 NFL Draft and he signed with the Bears and his presence was immediately felt. In his first season, Ditka had 58 receptions, introducing a new dimension to an end position that had previously been dedicated to blocking. He also scored 12 receiving touchdowns, which was the most by a Bears rookie and his success earned him Rookie of the Year honors. He continued to play for the Bears for the five years. He played on the 1963 NFL championship team, many of the players from that team, including Ditka, were drafted by assistant coach George Allen, a future Hall of Famer, who was then in charge of the Bears drafts. During the season, against the Los Angeles Rams, Ditka tied Harlon Hills franchise record for the most receiving touchdowns in a game with four, Ditka ranks first among tight ends and fourth in Bears history with 4,503 yards, fifth in both receptions and touchdown catchesMike Ditka – Ditka in the press booth during an NFL pre-season game
26. Lee Harvey Oswald – Lee Harvey Oswald was an American former U. S. Marine who assassinated President John F. Kennedy on November 22,1963. Shortly after being discharged from the Marine Corps, Oswald defected to the Soviet Union in October 1959 and he lived in the Belarusian city of Minsk until June 1962, at which time he returned to the United States with Marina, his Russian wife, eventually settling in Dallas. Following Kennedys assassination, Oswald was initially arrested for the murder of police officer J. D. Tippit, Oswald was later charged with the murder of Kennedy. He denied shooting anybody, saying that he was a patsy, two days later, while being transferred from the city jail to the county jail, Oswald was fatally shot by Dallas nightclub owner Jack Ruby in full view of television cameras broadcasting live. In September 1964, the Warren Commission concluded that Oswald acted alone in assassinating Kennedy by firing three shots from the Texas School Book Depository and this conclusion was supported by previous investigations carried out by the FBI, the Secret Service, and the Dallas Police Department. The assassination has spawned numerous conspiracy theories, Oswald was born in New Orleans, Louisiana, on October 18,1939 to Robert Edward Lee Oswald, Sr. and Marguerite Frances Claverie. Robert Oswald died of an attack two months before Lee was born. Lees elder brother Robert, Jr. was also a former Marine, through Marguerites first marriage to Edward John Pic, Jr. Lee and Robert Jr. were the half-brothers of Air Force veteran John Edward Pic. In 1944, Marguerite moved the family from New Orleans to Dallas, Texas, Oswald entered the 1st grade in 1945 and over the next half-dozen years attended several different schools through the 6th grade in the Dallas and Fort Worth areas. Oswald took an IQ test in the 4th grade and scored 103, on achievement tests in, he twice did best in reading, as a child, Oswald was described by several people who knew him as withdrawn and temperamental. In August 1952, when Oswald was 12, his mother took him to New York City where they lived for a time with Oswalds half-brother. Oswald and his mother were asked to leave after an argument in which Oswald allegedly struck his mother. Oswald attended the 7th grade in the Bronx, New York, but was often truant, the reformatory psychiatrist, Dr. Dr. Hartogs detected a personality pattern disturbance with schizoid features and passive-aggressive tendencies and recommended continued treatment. In January 1954, Oswalds mother returned to New Orleans, taking Oswald with her, in New Orleans, Oswald completed the 8th and 9th grades. He entered the 10th grade in 1955 but quit school after one month, after leaving school, Oswald worked for several months as an office clerk and messenger in New Orleans. In July 1956, Oswalds mother moved the family to Fort Worth, Texas, a few weeks later in October, Oswald quit school at age 17 to join the Marines, he never received a high school diploma. By the age of 17, he had resided at 22 different locations, though the young Oswald had trouble spelling and may have had a reading-spelling disability, he read voraciously. By age 15, he claimed to be a Marxist, writing in his diary, I was looking for a key to my environment, I had to dig for my books in the back dusty shelves of librariesLee Harvey Oswald – Photo taken in Minsk, Commission Exhibit 2892
27. John F. Kennedy – Kennedy was a member of the Democratic Party, and his New Frontier domestic program was largely enacted as a memorial to him after his death. Kennedy also established the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1963, Kennedys time in office was marked by high tensions with Communist states. He increased the number of American military advisers in South Vietnam by a factor of 18 over President Dwight D. Eisenhower, in Cuba, a failed attempt was made at the Bay of Pigs to overthrow the government of Fidel Castro in April 1961. He subsequently rejected plans by the Joint Chiefs of Staff to orchestrate false-flag attacks on American soil in order to gain approval for a war against Cuba. After military service in the United States Naval Reserve in World War II and he was elected subsequently to the U. S. Senate and served as the junior Senator from Massachusetts from 1953 until 1960. Kennedy defeated Vice President, and Republican presidential candidate, Richard Nixon in the 1960 U. S, at age 43, he became the youngest elected president and the second-youngest president. Kennedy was also the first person born in the 20th century to serve as president, to date, Kennedy has been the only Roman Catholic president and the only president to have won a Pulitzer Prize. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas, on November 22,1963, Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested that afternoon and determined to have fired the shots that hit the President from a sixth floor window of the Texas School Book Depository. Dallas nightclub owner Jack Ruby fatally shot Oswald two days later in a jail corridor, then-Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson succeeded Kennedy after he died in the hospital. The FBI and the Warren Commission officially concluded that Oswald was the lone assassin, the majority of Americans alive at the time of the assassination, and continuing through 2013, believed that there was a conspiracy and that Oswald was not the only shooter. Since the 1960s, information concerning Kennedys private life has come to light, including his health problems, Kennedy continues to rank highly in historians polls of U. S. presidents and with the general public. His average approval rating of 70% is the highest of any president in Gallups history of systematically measuring job approval and his grandfathers P. J. Kennedy and Boston Mayor John F. Fitzgerald were both Massachusetts politicians. All four of his grandparents were the children of Irish immigrants, Kennedy had an elder brother, Joseph Jr. and seven younger siblings, Rosemary, Kathleen, Eunice, Patricia, Robert, Jean, and Ted. Kennedy lived in Brookline for ten years and attended the Edward Devotion School, the Noble and Greenough Lower School, and the Dexter School through 4th grade. In 1927, the Kennedy family moved to a stately twenty-room, Georgian-style mansion at 5040 Independence Avenue in the Hudson Hill neighborhood of Riverdale, Bronx and he attended the lower campus of Riverdale Country School, a private school for boys, from 5th to 7th grade. Two years later, the moved to 294 Pondfield Road in the New York City suburb of Bronxville, New York. The Kennedy family spent summers at their home in Hyannis Port, Massachusetts, in September 1930, Kennedy—then 13 years old—attended the Canterbury School in New Milford, Connecticut. In late April 1931, he required an appendectomy, after which he withdrew from Canterbury, in September 1931, Kennedy attended Choate, a boarding school in Wallingford, Connecticut, for 9th through 12th gradeJohn F. Kennedy – John F. Kennedy
28. 1963 – January 1 Osamu Tezukas Tetsuwan Atomu, Japans first serialized animated series based on the popular manga, debuts on Japanese television station Fuji Television. January 2 – Vietnam War, The Viet Cong win their first major victory in the Battle of Ap Bac. January 8 – Leonardo da Vincis Mona Lisa is exhibited in the United States for the first time, at the National Gallery of Art in Washington, january 14 George Wallace becomes governor of Alabama. In his inaugural speech, he defiantly proclaims segregation now, segregation tomorrow, the steam locomotive Flying Scotsman makes its last scheduled run, before going into the hands of Alan Pegler for preservation. January 18 – Due to severe winter conditions the twelfth elfstedentocht skating tour in the Netherlands turns into an almost total disaster, of the 9,294 participants only 69 manage to finish, making this the heaviest elfstedentocht ever held. January 22 – France and West Germany sign the Élysée Treaty, january 26 – The Australia Day shootings rock Perth,2 people are shot dead and 3 others injured by Eric Edgar Cooke. January 28 – Black student Harvey Gantt enters Clemson University in South Carolina, january 29 – French President Charles de Gaulle vetoes the United Kingdoms entry into the European Common Market. February 8 – Travel, financial and commercial transactions by United States citizens to Cuba are made illegal by the John F. Kennedy Administration. February 10 – Five Japanese cities located on the northernmost part of Kyūshū are merged and become the city of Kitakyūshū, february 11 The Central Intelligence Agencys Domestic Operations Division is created in the United States. The Beatles record their debut album Please Please Me in a day at the Abbey Road Studios in London. American-born poet Sylvia Plath commits suicide in London, february 12 – Northwest Airlines Flight 705 crashes in the Florida Everglades, killing all 43 aboard. February 14 – Harold Wilson becomes leader of the opposition Labour Party in the United Kingdom, february 21 – An earthquake destroys the village of Marj, Libya, killing 900. February 27 Juan Bosch takes office as the 41st president of the Dominican Republic, female suffrage is enacted in Iran. February 28 – Dorothy Schiff resigns from the New York Newspaper Publishers Association and her paper, the New York Post, resumes publication on March 4. March The divorce case of The Duke and Duchess of Argyll causes scandal in the United Kingdom, March 4 – In Paris, six people are sentenced to death for conspiring to assassinate President Charles de Gaulle. De Gaulle pardons five, but the other conspirator, Jean Bastien-Thiry, is executed by firing squad several days later, March 17 – Mount Agung erupts on Bali, killing approximately 1,500. March 22 – The Beatles release their first album, Please Please Me, March 23 – Dansevise by Grethe & Jørgen Ingmann wins the Eurovision Song Contest 1963 for Denmark. March 27 – In Britain, Dr. Richard Beeching issues a report, The Reshaping of British Railways, March 28 – Director Alfred Hitchcocks film The Birds is released in the United States1963 – January 8: Mona Lisa in Washington, D.C.
29. 1960 – January – The state of emergency is lifted in Kenya, officially ending the Mau Mau Uprising. January 1 – Cameroon gains its independence from French-administered U. N. trusteeship, senator John F. Kennedy announces his candidacy for the Democratic presidential nomination. January 6 – The Associations Law comes into force in Iraq, January 9–11 – Aswan High Dam construction begins in Egypt. January 10 – British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan makes the Wind of Change speech for the first time, January 14 – The Reserve Bank and Commonwealth Bank are created in Australia. January 15 – The first televised anime, Three Tales, debuts on NHK, January 19 – The Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan is signed in Washington, D. C. January 21 – A coal mine collapses at Coalbrook, South Africa, January 22 In France, President Charles de Gaulle fires Jacques Massu, the commander-in-chief of the French troops in Algeria. Jacques Piccard and Don Walsh descend into the Mariana Trench in the bathyscaphe Trieste, reaching the depth of 10,911 meters, January 24 – A major insurrection occurs in Algiers against French colonial policy. January 25 – In Washington, D. C. the National Association of Broadcasters reacts to the scandal by threatening fines for any disc jockeys who accepted money for playing particular records. January 28 – The National Football League announces expansion teams for Dallas to start in the 1960 NFL season, paul for the 1961 NFL season. January 30 – The African National Party is founded in Chad, february 1 – In Greensboro, North Carolina, four black students from North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University begin a sit-in at a segregated Woolworths lunch counter. Although they are refused service, they are allowed to stay at the counter, the event triggers many similar non-violent protests throughout the Southern United States, and six months later the original four protesters are served lunch at the same counter. February 3 – Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Harold Macmillan makes the Wind of Change speech to the South African Parliament in Cape Town, february 5 – The first CERN particle accelerator becomes operational in Geneva, Switzerland. February 9 Joanne Woodward receives the first star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, adolph Coors III, the chairman of the board of the Coors Brewing Company, is kidnapped, and his captors demand a ransom of $500,000. Coors is later murdered, and Joseph Corbett, Jr. is indicted for the crime. February 10 – A conference about the independence of the Belgian Congo begins in Brussels. February 11 The N-class blimp ZPG-3W of the U. S. Navy is destroyed during a storm over Massachusetts, twelve Indian soldiers die in clashes with Red Chinese troops along their small common border. February 13 – France tests its first atomic bomb in the Sahara Desert of Algeria, february 18 – The 1960 Winter Olympics begin at the Squaw Valley Ski Resort, in Placer County, California. February 26 – A New York-bound Alitalia airliner crashes into a cemetery at Shannon, Ireland, shortly after takeoff, killing 34 of the 52 persons on board1960 – A section of lunch counter from the Greensboro, North Carolina Woolworth's where the Greensboro sit-ins began is now preserved in the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History
30. Jean-Claude Van Damme – The most successful of these films include Bloodsport, Kickboxer, Lionheart, Double Impact, Universal Soldier, Hard Target, Street Fighter, Timecop, Sudden Death, JCVD and The Expendables 2. His father is Walloon from Brussels, and his mother is Flemish and he began martial arts at the age of ten, enrolled by his father in a Shotokan karate school. His styles consist of Shotokan Karate and Kickboxing and he eventually earned his black belt in karate at 18. He started lifting weights to improve his physique, which led to a Mr. Belgium bodybuilding title. At the age of 16, he took up ballet, which he studied for five years, according to Van Damme, ballet is an art, but its also one of the most difficult sports. If you can survive a workout, you can survive a workout in any other sport. Later he took up both Taekwondo and Muay Thai, at the age of 12, Van Damme joined the Centre National De Karaté under the guidance of Claude Goetz in Belgium. Van Damme trained for four years and he earned a spot on the Belgian Karate Team, later training in full-contact karate, at the age of 15, Van Damme started his competitive karate career in Belgium. From 1976 to 1980, Van Damme compiled a record of 44 victories and 4 defeats in tournament and non-tournament semi-contact matches. Van Damme was a member of the Belgium Karate Team when it won the European Karate Championship on 26 December 1979 at La Coupe Francois Persoons Karate Tournament in Brussels, Van Damme placed second at the Challenge Coupe des Espoirs Karate Tournament. At the 3-day tournament, Van Damme defeated 25 opponents before losing in the finals to fellow teammate Angelo Spataro, prior to this match, Teugels had defeated Van Damme twice by decision, including a match for the Belgium Lightweight Championship. Van Damme had a 1977 victory over Teugels, Teugels was coming off an impressive showing at the World Association of Kickboxing Organizations World Championships four months earlier, and was favored by some to win this match. According to reports, and Patrick Teugels own interview, Teugels lost to Van Damme by TKO in the 1st round, Teugels was kicked in the nose and was unable to continue as a result. In a 2013 interview, Van Damme called this fight his most memorable match, Van Damme began his full-contact career in 1977, when Claude Goetz promoted the first ever full-contact karate tournament in Belgium. From 1977 to 1982, Van Damme compiled a record of 18 victories and 1 defeat and he was even named Mr. Belgium in a bodybuilding competition. In 1980, Van Damme caught the attention of Professional Karate Magazine publisher and editor Mike Anderson, both men tabbed Van Damme as an upcoming prospect. Van Damme retired from competition in 1982, since 2009, Van Damme has been planning to make a comeback to fight former boxing Olympic gold-medalist Somluck Kamsing. The fight was a point in his ITV reality show Jean Claude Van DammeJean-Claude Van Damme – Van Damme in Paris at the French premiere of The Expendables 2 in 2012
31. 1961 – The next such year will be 6009. January 3 United States President Dwight D. Eisenhower announces that the United States has severed diplomatic, cuba–United States relations are later restored in 2015. At the National Reactor Testing Station near Idaho Falls, atomic reactor SL-1 explodes and it remains the deadliest air disaster to occur in the country. Erwin Schrödinger died January 41961 January 5 Italian sculptor Alfredo Fioravanti marches into the U. S, consulate in Rome, and confesses that he was part of the team that forged the Etruscan terracotta warriors in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Cemal Gürsel forms the new government of Turkey, January 7 – Following a four-day conference in Casablanca, five African chiefs of state announce plans for a NATO-type African organization to ensure common defense. The Charter of Casablanca involves the Casablanca Group, Morocco, the United Arab Republic, Ghana, Guinea, January 8 – In France, a referendum supports Charles de Gaulles policies on independence for Algeria. January 9 – British authorities announce that they have discovered a large Soviet spy ring in London, January 17 President Dwight Eisenhower gives his final State of the Union Address to Congress. In a Farewell Address the same day, he warns of the power of a military–industrial complex. Patrice Lumumba of Republic of Congo is assassinated, January 20 – John F. Kennedy is sworn in as President of the United States. January 24 – A B-52 Stratofortress, with two bombs, crashes near Goldsboro, North Carolina. President John F. Kennedy delivers the first live news conference. In it, he announces that the Soviet Union has freed the two surviving crewmen of a USAF RB-47 reconnaissance plane shot down by Soviet flyers over the Barents Sea July 1,1960, One Hundred and One Dalmatians is released in cinemas. Acting to halt leftist excesses, a composed of two army officers and four civilians takes over El Salvador, ousting another junta that had ruled for three months. Jânio Quadros is elected president of Brazil and he later resigns on August 25. January 26 – President John F. Kennedy appoints Janet G. Travell to be his physician, January 28 – Supercar, the first family sci-fi TV series filmed in Supermarionation debuts on ATV. January 30 – President John F. Kennedy delivers his first State of the Union Address. January 31 – Ham the Chimp, a 37-pound male, is rocketed into space aboard Mercury-Redstone 2, in a test of the Project Mercury capsule, February 1 – The United States tests its first Minuteman I intercontinental ballistic missile. February 3 – China buys grain from Canada for $60 million, February 4 – The Portuguese Colonial War begins in Angola1961 – Jan. 20: John F. Kennedy inaugurated as President of the U.S.
32. Wynton Marsalis – Wynton Learson Marsalis is a trumpeter, composer, teacher, music educator, and artistic director of Jazz at Lincoln Center in New York City, United States. Marsalis has promoted the appreciation of classical and jazz music often to young audiences, Marsalis has been awarded nine Grammys in both genres, and his Blood on the Fields was the first jazz composition to win the Pulitzer Prize for Music. Marsalis is the son of jazz musician Ellis Marsalis, Jr. grandson of Ellis Marsalis, Sr. and brother of Branford, Delfeayo, Marsalis performed the national anthem at Super Bowl XX in 1986. Marsalis was born in New Orleans, Louisiana, on October 18,1961, Marsalis brothers are, Branford Marsalis, Ellis Marsalis III, Delfeayo Marsalis, Mboya Kinyatta Marsalis, and Jason Marsalis. Branford, Delfeayo, Jason and father Ellis are also jazz musicians, Ellis III is a poet, photographer, and network engineer based in Baltimore. At age eight, Wynton performed traditional New Orleans music in the Fairview Baptist Church band led by banjoist Danny Barker, Marsalis graduated from Benjamin Franklin High School with a 3.98 GPA. At age 17, he was the youngest musician admitted to Tanglewoods Berkshire Music Center and he moved to New York City to attend Juilliard in 1979, and picked up gigs around town. During this period, Marsalis received a grant from the National Endowment of the Arts to spend time and study with trumpet innovator Woody Shaw and he was also mentored by Herbie Hancock, who he often performed with. In 1982 John McLaughlin described Marsalis as the best classical trumpet player and the best jazz trumpet player we have today, in 1980, Marsalis joined the Jazz Messengers led by Art Blakey. In 1995, PBS premiered Marsalis on Music, a television series on jazz and classical music hosted. Also, in 1995, National Public Radio aired the first of Marsalis 26-week series and his radio and television series were awarded the George Foster Peabody Award. There is a Language Arts study guide available for Moving to Higher Ground and it is aligned to the Common Core State Standards and has audio and visual supplemental materials. In 1987, Marsalis co-founded a jazz program at Lincoln Center, in July 1996, Jazz at Lincoln Center was installed as a new constituent of Lincoln Center. Marsalis serves as Artistic Director for Jazz at Lincoln Center and Music Director for the Jazz at Lincoln Center Orchestra, in December 2011, Marsalis was named cultural correspondent for the new CBS This Morning. Wynton Marsalis is a member of the CuriosityStream Advisory Board, Marsalis currently serves as director of the Juilliard Jazz studies program. Marsalis has won nine Grammy Awards, in 1983 and 1984, he became the only artist ever to win Grammy Awards for both jazz and classical records. He is one of two artists to win Grammy Awards for five consecutive years of musical contributions. Honorary degrees Marsalis has received include those conferred by New York University, Columbia, Harvard, Howard, Marsalis was honored with the Louis Armstrong Memorial Medal and the Algur HWynton Marsalis – Marsalis at the Oskar Schindler Performing Arts Center (OSPAC) Seventh Annual Jazz Festival in West Orange, New Jersey
33. 1739 – As of the start of 1739, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 1 – Bouvet Island is discovered by French explorer Jean-Baptiste Charles Bouvet de Lozier in the South Atlantic Ocean, february 24 – Battle of Karnal, The army of Iranian ruler Nader Shah defeats the forces of the Mughal emperor of India, Muhammad Shah. March 20 – Nader Shah occupies Delhi in India and sacks the city, stealing the jewels of the Peacock Throne, may 12 – John Wesley lays the foundation stone of the New Room, Bristol in England, the worlds first Methodist meeting house. June 2 – The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences is founded in Stockholm, september 9 – The Stono Rebellion, a slave rebellion, erupts near Charleston, South Carolina. September 18 – The Treaty of Belgrade brings the Austro-Russian–Turkish War to an end, october 3 – The Treaty of Niš is signed. October 17 – The Foundling Hospital is created in London by royal charter, october 23 – War of Jenkins Ear, Great Britain declares war on Spain. November 20–22 – War of Jenkins Ear, Battle of Porto Bello, ecuador becomes a part of New Granada. 84,000 farmers revolt in the province of Iwaki in Japan, plinian eruption of Mount Tarumae volcano in Japan. The first Bible in Estonian is published1739 – Battle of Karnal.
34. 1705 – As of the start of 1705, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. In the Swedish calendar it was a year starting on Sunday, one day ahead of the Julian. March 8 – The Province of Carolina incorporates the town of Bath, the town becomes the political center and de facto capital of the northern portion of the Province of Carolina until Edenton is incorporated in 1722. April 16 – Anne, Queen of Great Britain honours Isaac Newton with a Knight Bachelor May – The Twelfth Siege of Gibraltar ends with the defending Confederate forces retaining control of the town, may 5 – Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor succeeds his father Leopold I. November – In Williamsburg, capital of the Virginia colony in America, november 5 – The Dublin Gazette publishes its first edition. Construction begins on Blenheim Palace, in Oxfordshire, England, taichung City, Taiwan is founded as the village of Dadun. With the interest paid from daimyō loans, the Konoike buy a tract of ponds and swampland, turn the land into rice paddies, the Shogunate confiscates the property of a merchant in Osaka for conduct unbecoming a member of the commercial class. The government seizes 50 pairs of screens,360 carpets, several mansions,48 granaries and warehouses scattered around the country1705 – November: Williamsburg Capitol (replica).
35. 1871 – As of the start of 1871, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 18 – The member states of the North German Confederation, the King of Prussia is declared the first German Emperor as Wilhelm I of Germany in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles. January 21 – Giuseppe Garibaldis group of French and Italian volunteer troops in support of the French Third Republic win a battle against the Prussians in Dijon, february 9 – United States Commission on Fish and Fisheries is founded. March 7 – José Paranhos, Viscount of Rio Branco, becomes Prime Minister of the Empire of Brazil, march 21 – John Campbell, Marquess of Lorne marries Princess Louise. March 21 – Otto von Bismarck becomes first Chancellor of the German Empire, march 22 In North Carolina, William Holden becomes the first governor of a U. S. state to be removed from office by impeachment. The United States Army issues an order for the abandonment of Fort Kearny, march 26 – The Paris Commune is formally established in Paris. March 27 – The first rugby union International results in a 4–1 win by Scotland over England, march 29 First Surgeon General of the United States appointed. The Royal Albert Hall in London is opened by Queen Victoria, april – The Stockholms Handelsbank is founded. April 4 – New Jersey Detective Agency chartered, april 20 – U. S. President Ulysses S. Grant signs the Civil Rights Act. April 24 – Murder of servant girl Jane Clouson in Eltham, may 4 – The first supposedly Major League Baseball game is played. May 8 – The first Major League Baseball home run is hit by Ezra Sutton of the Cleveland Forest Citys, may 10 – Treaty of Frankfurt is signed confirming the frontiers between Germany and France. May 11 – The first trial in the Tichborne case begins in the London Court of Common Pleas, may 21 – Opening of the first rack railway in Europe, the Vitznau–Rigi Railway on Mount Rigi in Switzerland. May 30 – French Third Republic, Government suppression of the Paris Commune rebellion is completed, june 1 – Bombardment of the Selee River Forts, Koreans attack two United States Navy warships. June 10 – United States expedition to Korea, Captain McLane Tilton leads 109 members of the United States Marine Corps in a naval attack on the Han River forts on Ganghwa Island in Korea. June 18 – The University Tests Act removes restrictions limiting access to Oxford, Cambridge, july 20 British Columbia joins the confederation of Canada. C. W. Alcock proposes that a Challenge Cup should be established in connection with the Association, july 21 – August 26 – First ever photographs of Yellowstone National Park region taken by the photographer William Henry Jackson during the Hayden Geological Survey of 1871. July 22 – The foundation stone of the first Tay Rail Bridge is laid, july 28 – The Annie, the first boat ever launched on Yellowstone Lake in Yellowstone National Park region. August 29 – The abolition of the han system is carried out in Japan, August 31 – Adolphe Thiers becomes the President of the French Republic1871 – Friedrich Ebert
36. Charles Babbage – Charles Babbage KH FRS was an English polymath. A mathematician, philosopher, inventor and mechanical engineer, Babbage is best remembered for originating the concept of a programmable computer. His varied work in other fields has led him to be described as pre-eminent among the many polymaths of his century, parts of Babbages uncompleted mechanisms are on display in the Science Museum in London. In 1991, a perfectly functioning difference engine was constructed from Babbages original plans, built to tolerances achievable in the 19th century, the success of the finished engine indicated that Babbages machine would have worked. Babbages birthplace is disputed, but according to the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography he was most likely born at 44 Crosby Row, Walworth Road, London, a blue plaque on the junction of Larcom Street and Walworth Road commemorates the event. His date of birth was given in his obituary in The Times as 26 December 1792, the parish register of St. Marys Newington, London, shows that Babbage was baptised on 6 January 1792, supporting a birth year of 1791. Babbage was one of four children of Benjamin Babbage and Betsy Plumleigh Teape and his father was a banking partner of William Praed in founding Praeds & Co. of Fleet Street, London, in 1801. In 1808, the Babbage family moved into the old Rowdens house in East Teignmouth, around the age of eight, Babbage was sent to a country school in Alphington near Exeter to recover from a life-threatening fever. For a short time he attended King Edward VI Grammar School in Totnes, South Devon, Babbage then joined the 30-student Holmwood academy, in Baker Street, Enfield, Middlesex, under the Reverend Stephen Freeman. The academy had a library that prompted Babbages love of mathematics and he studied with two more private tutors after leaving the academy. The first was a clergyman near Cambridge, through him Babbage encountered Charles Simeon and his evangelical followers and he was brought home, to study at the Totnes school, this was at age 16 or 17. The second was an Oxford tutor, under whom Babbage reached a level in Classics sufficient to be accepted by Cambridge, Babbage arrived at Trinity College, Cambridge, in October 1810. He was already self-taught in some parts of mathematics, he had read in Robert Woodhouse, Joseph Louis Lagrange. As a result, he was disappointed in the standard mathematical instruction available at the university, Babbage, John Herschel, George Peacock, and several other friends formed the Analytical Society in 1812, they were also close to Edward Ryan. In 1812 Babbage transferred to Peterhouse, Cambridge and he was the top mathematician there, but did not graduate with honours. He instead received a degree without examination in 1814 and he had defended a thesis that was considered blasphemous in the preliminary public disputation, but it is not known whether this fact is related to his not sitting the examination. Considering his reputation, Babbage quickly made progress and he lectured to the Royal Institution on astronomy in 1815, and was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1816. After graduation, on the hand, he applied for positions unsuccessfullyCharles Babbage – Charles Babbage in 1860
37. 1791 – As of the start of 1791, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 12 – Holy Roman troops reenter Liège, heralding the end of the Liège Revolution, january 25 – The British Parliament passes the Constitutional Act 1791, splitting the old province of Quebec into Upper and Lower Canada. February 21 – The United States opens diplomatic relations with Portugal, march 2 – In France, Abolition of guilds is enacted. A mechanical semaphore line for rapid long-distance communication is demonstrated by Claude Chappe in Paris, march 4 – Vermont is admitted as the 14th U. S. state. March 13 – Thomas Paines chief work Rights of Man is published in London, march – In France, the National Constituent Assembly accepts the recommendation of its Commission of Weights and Measures that the nation should adopt the metric system. April 21 – The first of forty boundary stones delineating the borders of the new District of Columbia in the United States is laid at Jones Point Light, in Alexandria, Virginia. May 3 – The Sejm of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth proclaims the Constitution of May 3,1791, june 20 – Flight to Varennes, The French Royal Family is captured when they try to flee in disguise. June 21 – Foundation date of the Ordnance Survey in Great Britain, july 8 – Composer Joseph Haydn is awarded an honorary doctorate of music at the University of Oxford. July 14 – The Priestley Riots against Dissenters break out in Birmingham, july 17 – The Champ de Mars Massacre occurs during the French Revolution. August 4 – The Treaty of Sistova is signed, ending the Ottoman–Habsburg wars, august 6 – The Brandenburg Gate in Berlin is finished. August 21 – Haitian Revolution, A slave rebellion breaks out in the French colony of Saint-Domingue, august 26 – John Fitch is granted a patent for the steamboat in the United States. August 27 – Battle of Tellicherry off the south-west coast of India, september 6 – Wolfgang Amadeus Mozarts opera seria La clemenza di Tito premières at the Estates Theatre in Prague to mark the coronation of Leopold II as King of Bohemia. September 13 – Louis XVI of France accepts the final version of the completed constitution, september 25 – Mission Santa Cruz is founded by Father Fermín Lasuén, becoming the 12th mission in the California mission chain. September 28 – Promulgation of the law on Jewish emancipation in France, september 30 – Wolfgang Amadeus Mozarts singspiel opera The Magic Flute premières at the Freihaus-Theater auf der Wieden in Vienna. October – The Legislative Assembly convenes, october 9 – Mission Nuestra Señora de la Soledad is founded by Father Fermín Lasuén, becoming the 13th mission in the California mission chain. October 28 – Publication of the Declaration of the Rights of Woman, december 4 – The first issue of The Observer, the worlds first Sunday newspaper, is published in London. December 5 – Austrian composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart dies aged 35 at his home in Vienna, perhaps of acute rheumatic fever, december 15 – Ratification by the states of the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution is completed, creating the United States Bill of Rights. Two additional amendments remain pending, and one of these is finally ratified in 1992, the first American ship reaches Japan1791 – Samuel Morse
38. 1921 – As of the start of 1921, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 1 – In American football, the University of California, january 2 The football club Cruzeiro Esporte Clube from Belo Horizonte is founded as Palestra Italia in Brazil. The first religious radio broadcast is heard over station KDKA AM in Pittsburgh, the Spanish liner Santa Isabel sinks off Villa Garcia,244 die. The De Young Museum opens in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, january 20 – The British K-class submarine HMS K5 sinks in the English Channel, all 56 on board die. January 21 The Italian Communist Party is founded in Livorno, the Marxist Left in Slovakia and the Transcarpathian Ukraine holds its founding congress in Ľubochňa. Womens suffrage is attained in Sweden, the full-length silent comedy-drama film The Kid, written, produced, directed by and starring Charlie Chaplin, with Jackie Coogan, is released in the United States. January 25 – The Italian battleship Leonardo da Vinci is righted in Taranto Harbour, february 12 – Red Army invasion of Georgia, The Democratic Republic of Georgia is invaded by forces of Bolshevist Russia. February 20 – The Young Communist League of Czechoslovakia is founded, february 21 –1921 Persian coup détat, Rezā Khan and Ziaeddin Tabatabaee stage a coup détat in Iran. February 23 – The moderately conservative public official Oscar von Sydow takes over the Swedish premiership from Baron Louis De Geer the younger, february 25 – Red Army invasion of Georgia, The Red Army enters the Georgian capital Tbilisi and installs a Moscow-directed communist government. February 27 – The International Working Union of Socialist Parties is formed in Vienna, february 28 – The Kronstadt rebellion is initiated by sailors of the Soviet Navys Baltic Fleet. March – Group Settlement Scheme in Western Australia begins, March 1 – The city of Kiryū, located in Gunma Prefecture, Japan, is founded. March 4 – Warren G. Harding is sworn in as 29th President of the United States, March 5 – Irish War of Independence, Clonbanin Ambush, Irish Republican Army kills Brigadier General Cumming. March 6 – The Portuguese Communist Party is founded, March 8 Spanish Premier Eduardo Dato e Iradier is assassinated while exiting the parliament building in Madrid. Allied forces occupy Düsseldorf, Ruhrort and Duisburg, March 12 – The İstiklâl Marşı, the Turkish national anthem, is officially adopted. March 13 – Occupation of Mongolia, The Russian White Army captures Mongolia from China, roman von Ungern-Sternberg declares himself ruler. March 14 – Armenian Soghomon Tehlirian assassinates Mehmed Talaat, former Interior Minister of Turkey, in Charlottenburg, March 16 – Six Irish Republican Army men of the Forgotten Ten are hanged in Mountjoy Prison, Dublin. March 17 The Red Army crushes the Kronstadt rebellion and a number of sailors flee to Finland, dr. Marie Stopes opens the first birth control clinic in London, England. The Second Polish Republic adopts the March Constitution, March 18 – The second Peace of Riga ends the Polish–Soviet War1921 – Friedrich Dürrenmatt
39. Ludwig III of Bavaria – Ludwig III, was the last King of Bavaria, reigning from 1913 to 1918. Ludwig was born in Munich, the eldest son of Prince Luitpold of Bavaria and of his wife and he was a descendant of both Louis XIV of France and William the Conqueror. Hailing from Florence, Augusta always spoke in Italian to her four children, Ludwig was named after his grandfather, King Ludwig I of Bavaria. Ludwig spent his first years living in the Electoral rooms of the Munich Residenz, from 1852 to 1863, he was tutored by Ferdinand von Malaisé. When he was ten years old, the moved to the Leuchtenberg Palace. In 1861 at the age of sixteen, Ludwig began his career when his uncle, King Maximilian II of Bavaria. A year later, he entered the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, when he was eighteen, he automatically became a member of the Senate of the Bavarian Legislature as a prince of the royal house. In 1866, Bavaria was allied with the Austrian Empire in the Austro-Prussian War, Ludwig held the rank of Oberleutnant. He was wounded at the Battle of Helmstedt, taking a bullet in his thigh, the incident contributed to the fact that he was rather averse to the military. He received the Knights Cross 1st Class of the Bavarian Military Merit Order In June 1867, Ludwig visited Vienna to attend the funeral of his cousin, while there, Ludwig met Mathildes eighteen-year-old step-cousin Maria Theresia, Archduchess of Austria-Este. On 20 February 1868, at St. Augustines Church in Vienna and she was the only daughter of the late Archduke Ferdinand Karl Viktor of Austria-Este and of his wife Archduchess Elisabeth Franziska of Austria. Until 1862, Ludwigs uncle had reigned as King Otto I of Greece, although Otto had been deposed, Ludwig was still in line of succession to the Greek throne. Had he ever succeeded, this would have required that he renounce his Roman Catholic faith, Maria Theresas uncle, Duke Francis V of Modena, was a staunch Roman Catholic. He required that as part of the marriage agreement Ludwig renounce his rights to the throne of Greece, in addition, the 1843 Greek Constitution forbade the Greek sovereign to be simultaneously ruler of another country. Consequently, Ludwigs younger brother Leopold technically succeeded upon their fathers death to the rights of the deposed Otto I, by his marriage, Ludwig became a wealthy man. Maria Theresa had inherited large properties from her father and she owned the estate of Sárvár in Hungary and the estate of Eiwanowitz in Moravia. The income from these estates enabled Ludwig to purchase an estate at Leutstetten in Bavaria, over the years, Ludwig expanded the Leutstetten estate until it became one of the largest and most profitable in Bavaria. Ludwig was sometimes derided as Millibauer due to his interest in agriculture, although they maintained a residence in Munich at the Leuchtenberg Palace, Ludwig and Maria Theresa lived mostly at LeutstettenLudwig III of Bavaria – Ludwig III