Greater Buenos Aires is the urban agglomeration comprising the autonomous city of Buenos Aires and the adjacent 24 partidos over the Province of Buenos Aires. Thus, it does not constitute an administrative unit. The conurbation spreads south and north of Buenos Aires city, to the east, the River Plate serves as a natural boundary. The term is related to other expressions that are not necessarily well-defined, the Buenos Aires conurbation, the Greater Buenos Aires Agglomeration. The National Institute of Statistics and Censuses has defined Greater Buenos Aires, there are three main groups within the Buenos Aires Conurbation. The first two groups comprise the traditional conurbation, or the conurbation proper, the third group of six partidos is in process of becoming fully integrated with the rest. D. and Marcos, M. The social map of Greater Buenos Aires as empirical evidence of urban models, volume 11 Number 1, pp. 67–78, DOI10. 1353/lag.2012.0012 Keeling, D. Buenos Aires, Global Dreams, Local Crisis
Flores is a middle class barrio or district in the centre part of Buenos Aires city, Argentina. Flores was considered an area of the Province of Buenos Aires until 1888 when it was integrated into the City. The limits of the neighbourhood are marked by several streets and avenues, Cuenca, Flores was mainly composed of country houses from the wealthy people of the City of Buenos Aires. Today, remains of houses can still be found, including the house owned by Juan Manuel de Rosas. One of the most prominent of these early homeowners in Flores was the Marcó del Pont family, purchasing property facing the new railway station, they had a comfortable yet understated italianate property built in 1860. Relocating in 1929, the sold the property and the estate fell into disrepair. Slated at one time for demolition, it caught the attention of the San José de Flores Historical Society. Its fate now secure, as the home became the Marcó del Pont Cultural Center, a fictitious mythology of the neighborhood was created by author Alejandro Dolina, centered on the grey angel of Flores.
A famous tango song, San José de Flores, centers on the sorrow of a man returning to the barrio after a long and tumultuous absence. The Pueyrredón theatre was a ballroom, where tango vocalist Edmundo Rivero gained fame in the 1930s and was an oft-used venue by early Argentine rock bands such as Almendra. On 13 September 2011 a bus on a crossing at Flores rail station was hit by a train travelling on the Sarmiento Line, operated by Trenes de Buenos Aires. The train derailed and crashed into a train, standing at the station. The accident, which occurred during the rush hour, resulted in 11 deaths and 228 injuries. The bus, operated by Empresa de Transportes Microomnibus Saenz Peña, was working a service on route 92. Video evidence revealed that the bus driver, who was killed in the accident, ignored warning lights, jorge Mario Bergoglio, Pope Francis, was born and grew up in Flores, as did Roberto Arlt. Flores Portal Information from the citys legislative files Flores at Citys Government Map Marcó del Pont Cultural Center
The 1951 Pan American Games were held in Buenos Aires, Argentina between 25 February-9 March 1951. During the Pan American Exposition at Dallas in 1937, a sports program was staged. These included Athletics and Wrestling among others and this program was considered a success and a meeting of Olympic officials from the Americas was held. At the Pan American Sports Conference held in 1940, It was decided to hold the 1st Pan American Games at Buenos Aires, the Pan American Sports Committee was formed to govern the games. Avery Brundage, President of the USOC and Vice-President of the IOC, was elected as the first President, the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor brought much of the Americas into World War II, thus forcing the cancellation of the 1942 games. A second conference was held in 1948, Avery Brundage was re-elected as the President of the PASC. It was decided that Buenos Aires would still host the 1st Pan American Games, the Greek athlete Aristeidis Roubanis lit the pebble for the first time.
The inauguration event was attended by the Argentine President Juan Perón, to sort this table by nation, total medal count, or any other column, click on the icon next to the column title. Note ^ The medal counts for Argentina, the United States and Chile are disputed
Liberty, in philosophy, involves free will as contrasted with determinism. In politics, liberty consists of the social and political freedoms to all community members are entitled. In theology, liberty is freedom from the effects of sin, spiritual servitude, as such, the exercise of liberty is subject to capability and limited by the rights of others. Philosophers from earliest times have considered the question of liberty, according to Thomas Hobbes, a free man is he that in those things which by his strength and wit he is able to do is not hindered to do what he hath the will to do. John Locke rejected that definition of liberty, while not specifically mentioning Hobbes, he attacks Sir Robert Filmer who had the same definition. According to Locke, In the state of nature, liberty consists of being free from any power on Earth. People are not under the will or lawmaking authority of others but have only the law of nature for their rule, in political society, liberty consists of being under no other lawmaking power except that established by consent in the commonwealth.
People are free from the dominion of any will or legal restraint apart from that enacted by their own constituted lawmaking power according to the trust put in it. Thus, freedom is not as Sir Robert Filmer defines it, A liberty for everyone to do what he likes, to live as he pleases, freedom is constrained by laws in both the state of nature and political society. Freedom of nature is to be no other restraint but the law of nature. Freedom of people under government is to be under no restraint apart from standing rules to live by that are common to everyone in the society and made by the lawmaking power established in it. Persons have a right or liberty to follow their own will in all things that the law has not prohibited and not be subject to the inconstant, uncertain and arbitrary wills of others. John Stuart Mill, in his work, On Liberty, was the first to recognize the difference between liberty as the freedom to act and liberty as the absence of coercion, the modern concept of political liberty has its origins in the Greek concepts of freedom and slavery.
To be free, to the Greeks, was to not have a master and that was the original Greek concept of freedom. It is closely linked with the concept of democracy, as Aristotle put it, another is that a man should live as he likes. This, they say, is the privilege of a freeman, since, on the other hand and this applied only to free men. In Athens, for instance, women could not vote or hold office and were legally and socially dependent on a male relative, the populations of the Persian Empire enjoyed some degree of freedom. Citizens of all religions and ethnic groups were given the rights and had the same freedom of religion, women had the same rights as men
The President of the Argentine Nation, usually known as the President of Argentina, is both head of state and head of government of Argentina. Under the national Constitution, the President is the executive of the federal government. Through Argentine history, the office of the Head of State has undergone many changes, current President Mauricio Macri was sworn into office on 10 December 2015. The Constitution of Argentina, along with constitutional amendments, establishes the requirements and responsibilities of the president and term of office. The origins of Argentina as a nation can be traced to 1776, the Head of State continued to be the King, but he was represented locally by the Viceroy. These Viceroys were seldom natives of the country, by the May Revolution of May 25,1810, the first Argentine autonomous government, known as the Primera Junta, was formed in Buenos Aires. It was known as the Junta Grande when representatives from the provinces joined and this power was vested in one man when the position of Supreme Director was created by the 1813 National Assembly.
The Supreme Directors became Heads of State after Independence was declared on 9 July 1816, in 1819, Congress declared Independence and composed a Constitution. This established a figure, named Supreme Director, who was vested with presidential powers. This constitution gave the Supreme Director the power of appointing Governors of the provinces, due to political circumstances, this constitution never came into force, and the central power was dissolved, leaving the country as a federation of provinces. A new constitution was drafted in 1826 and this constitution was the first to create a President, although this office retained the powers described in the 1819 constitution. This constitution did come into force, resulting in the election of the first President, because of the Cisplatine War, Rivadavia resigned after a short time, and the office was dissolved shortly after. A civil war between unitarios and federales ensued in the following decades, in this time, there was no central authority, and the closest to that was the Chairman of Foreign Relations, typically the Governor of the Province of Buenos Aires.
The last to bear this title was Juan Manuel de Rosas, in 1852, Rosas was deposed, and a constitutional convention was summoned. This constitution, still in force, established a federal government. The term was fixed as six years, with no possibility of reelection, the first elected President under the constitution was Justo José de Urquiza, but Buenos Aires seceded from the Argentine Confederation as the State of Buenos Aires. Bartolomé Mitre was the first president of the country, when Buenos Aires rejoined the Confederation. In 1930, and again in 1943,1955,1962,1966 and 1976, in 1966 and 1976, federal government was undertaken by a military junta, where power was shared by the chiefs of the armed forces
6. Mexico City
Mexico City, or City of Mexico, is the capital and most populous city of Mexico. As an alpha global city, Mexico City is one of the most important financial centers in the Americas and it is located in the Valley of Mexico, a large valley in the high plateaus at the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 metres. The city consists of sixteen municipalities, the 2009 estimated population for the city proper was approximately 8.84 million people, with a land area of 1,485 square kilometres. The Greater Mexico City has a domestic product of US$411 billion in 2011. The city was responsible for generating 15. 8% of Mexicos Gross Domestic Product, as a stand-alone country, in 2013, Mexico City would be the fifth-largest economy in Latin America—five times as large as Costa Ricas and about the same size as Perus. Mexico’s capital is both the oldest capital city in the Americas and one of two founded by Amerindians, the other being Quito. In 1524, the municipality of Mexico City was established, known as México Tenochtitlán, Mexico City served as the political and financial center of a major part of the Spanish colonial empire.
After independence from Spain was achieved, the district was created in 1824. Ever since, the left-wing Party of the Democratic Revolution has controlled both of them, in recent years, the local government has passed a wave of liberal policies, such as abortion on request, a limited form of euthanasia, no-fault divorce, and same-sex marriage. On January 29,2016, it ceased to be called the Federal District and is now in transition to become the countrys 32nd federal entity, giving it a level of autonomy comparable to that of a state. Because of a clause in the Mexican Constitution, however, as the seat of the powers of the federation, it can never become a state, the city of Mexico-Tenochtitlan was founded by the Mexica people in 1325. According to legend, the Mexicas principal god, Huitzilopochtli indicated the site where they were to build their home by presenting an eagle perched on a cactus with a snake in its beak. Between 1325 and 1521, Tenochtitlan grew in size and strength, eventually dominating the other city-states around Lake Texcoco, when the Spaniards arrived, the Aztec Empire had reached much of Mesoamerica, touching both the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean.
After landing in Veracruz, Spanish explorer Hernán Cortés advanced upon Tenochtitlan with the aid of many of the native peoples. Cortés put Moctezuma under house arrest, hoping to rule through him, the Aztecs thought the Spaniards were permanently gone, and they elected a new king, Cuitláhuac, but he soon died, the next king was Cuauhtémoc. Cortés began a siege of Tenochtitlan in May 1521, for three months, the city suffered from the lack of food and water as well as the spread of smallpox brought by the Europeans. Cortés and his allies landed their forces in the south of the island, the Spaniards practically razed Tenochtitlan during the final siege of the conquest. Cortés first settled in Coyoacán, but decided to rebuild the Aztec site to erase all traces of the old order and he did not establish a territory under his own personal rule, but remained loyal to the Spanish crown
Jacques de Liniers was a French officer in the Spanish military service, and a viceroy of the Spanish colonies of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. He is more known by the Spanish form of his name. Such a thing, the replacement of a viceroy without the Kings direct intervention, was completely unprecedented and he was confirmed in office by Charles IV of Spain, and endured a second ill-fated British Invasion attempt and a mutiny that sought to replace him. He was replaced in 1809 by Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros, appointed as viceroy by the Junta of Seville, when the May Revolution took place, Liniers decided to come out of his retirement and organized a monarchist uprising in Córdoba. However, Liniers was defeated and executed without trial, family Liniers is one of the most antique noble French family, known since the 11th century. One of its ancestors, Guillaume de Liniers died in the Battle of Poitiers, and eight of his members were Cavaliers of the Order of Saint John. In 1765, when he was 12 years old, as a son, he entered the military school at the Order of Malta.
Then, he became Sub-Lieutenant of Cavalry in the Royal-Piémont Regiment in France, in 1774 he requested dismissal and re-enlisted as a volunteer in the campaigns against the Moors in Algiers. He benefited from the third Pacte de Famille, that allowed Frenchmen to take part in Spanish military campaigns with equal rights and requirements as the Spaniards, at the campaigns conclusion he took an exam as a Midshipman in Cádiz, to serve as a volunteer for the Spanish Crown. In 1775 he earned the rank of Ensign, in 1776, under the orders of Pedro de Cevallos, he sailed to the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata and took part on the occupation of Santa Catalina Island and the attack on Colonia del Sacramento. The American Revolution allowed him to stand out professionally, in 1780, with a few sloops, he captured a three-masted ship of 24 guns. This earned him promotion, to Frigate Captain, a few months Liniers took part in a new expedition, this time against the city of Algiers, during the First Barbary War and the Second Barbary War.
The campaign did not go well for the Spanish navy, Liniers was trusted with this mission. The king of Trpoli was delighted with Liniers, and agreed to free several European prisoners. The Spanish court rewarded him for this success by promoting him to the rank of captain. He took with him his son Luis and his first wife, Juana de Menviel and she died two years in 1790. Liniers married again, this time in Buenos Aires, María Martina Sarratea, the Napoleonic Wars expanded to South America. Britain got naval supremacy with the victory at the battle of Trafalgar, France attacked Britain by imposing the Continental System, locking the continent to British trade
The Primera Junta or First Assembly is the most common name given to the first independent government of Argentina. It was created on 25 May 1810, as a result of the events of the May Revolution, the Junta initially had representatives from only Buenos Aires. When it was expanded, as expected, with the addition of the representatives from the cities of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. The Junta operated at El Fuerte, which had used since 1776 as a residence by the Viceroys. Its claims had been rejected by Spanish Americans, and its authority was superseded by a Supreme Central Junta of Spain. When the Supreme Central Junta abolished itself in 1810, the politically active inhabitants of Buenos Aires saw no better moment than this to establish a local government, historically Buenos Aires province had partially mitigated this problem through contraband. The people were to assume the government until the King returned, the Viceroy and his supporters countered that the colonies belonged to Spain and did not have a political relationship with only the King.
Therefore, they should follow any governmental body established in Spain as the authority, namely the Supreme Central Junta of Spain and its successor. The meeting of a Buenos Aires cabildo abierto during 22 May 1810, came under pressure from the militias. The crowd favored the stance of the politicians, and the cabildo ended up creating the Primera Junta. Spain would never recover its dominion over that territory, the Audience refused at first to swear allegiance to the Junta, and when they finally did, prosecutor Caspe did so with clear gestures of contempt. Caspe would be ambushed near his home, in retaliation for this, the Cabildo imposed a time limit on the Junta, if the General Congress was not formed in six months, the Cabildo would reassume government. The Junta answered the day, rejecting such requirements. The Audience requested that the Junta submitted to the Regency Counsel, but the Junta refused, on the grounds that Cisneros did not so submit, the Audience itself swore allegiance to the Counsel shortly after, and they were all banished in response.
From the early days of the Primera Junta there was a rivalry between Saavedra and Moreno. Matheu would point in his memories that the Morenists were upset because they perceived that Saavedra enjoyed receiving honors, the Junta was received with mixed reactions from the other cities of the viceroyalty. Santa Fe, Entre Ríos, Misiones and Mendoza supported the change, Upper Peru, which greatly benefited from the system of mita to exploit the mines in Potosi, supported the absolutist system for a long time. Javier De Elío in Montevideo denied recognition to the Junta, Paraguay was torn between supporters of either side, but royalists prevailed
It will be the first Summer Youth Olympic Games to be held outside Asia. Six bids were submitted for the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics. Buenos Aires confirmed their bid in September 2011, on 13 February 2013, the IOC selected Buenos Aires as one of the three Candidate Cities for the 2018 Summer Youth Olympic Games. The other two cities were Glasgow and Medellín. Guadalajara and Rotterdam failed to become candidates, poznań withdrew their bid before the candidate cities were selected. The host city election vote was held at an IOC Session in Lausanne, the first Coordination Commission meeting took place in Buenos Aires on 27–28 September 2014. The CEOs of Singapore 2010, Lillehammer 2016 and Innsbruck 2012 took part of meetings that were presided over by Frank Fredericks. In December 2015, the four-time olympic medalist Luciana Aymar was named as an ambassador of Buenos Aires 2018, FIFA has decided that futsal will replace football at the Buenos Aires Youth Olympics, while other sports such as skateboarding are being considered for the programme.
On 17 March 2017, Roller speed skating was added to the Olympic programme, three years before the event, a survey showed that public support had reached 82.3 percent in favour of the Yourh Olympic games in Buenos Aires. The official emblem of the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics was presented in July 2015, each letter represents a famous landmark, including the Floralis Genérica, Space Tower, the Columbus Theatre, the National Library and the Obelisk. A short video produced by the Buenos Aires Youth Olympic Games Organising Committee shows what each letter on the emblem relates to. The original plan was based on the bid for the 2004 Summer Olympics, the Green Corridor and the Olympic Corridor shared River Plate Stadium, Tiro Federal, Gimnasia y Esgrima de Buenos Aires, Parque Tres de Febrero, La Bombonera, La Rural and CeNARD as venues. In order to group the sports in a compact framework, in September 2014 a new four-clusters concept was revealed. It was announced that each cluster will include an area called YOG FEST where sporting experiences, family entertainment and cultural activities will take place.
But at the 129th IOC Session, in August 2016, a new masterplan was presented. Adjacent to downtown Buenos Aires and stretching three kilometres along the banks of the River Plate, this area is distinguished by swathes of parks. It includes the barrios of Núñez and Palermo, the Palermo Woods, a highly popular retreat for porteños and visitors alike, will be the triathlon and cycling venue. Venues located in Núñez can be reached by Belgrano Norte Line or by nearby Mitre Line or Buenos Aires underground Line D. Venues located in Palermo can be reached by Mitre Line