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Portal:Bulgaria

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Bulgarian: Добре дошли в българския портал!

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Welcome to the Bulgarian portal!

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Къде е България? • Where is Bulgaria?

(Partially recognized Macedonian Bulgaria, the Republic of Bulgaria is marked in green)

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Bulgaria (/bʌlˈɡɛəriə, bʊl-/ (About this sound listen); Bulgarian: България, tr. Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Bulgarian: Република България, tr. Republika Bǎlgariya, IPA: [rɛˈpublikɐ bɐɫˈɡarijɐ]), is a country in southeastern Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, and the Black Sea to the east. The capital and largest city is Sofia; other major cities are Plovdiv, Varna and Burgas. With a territory of 110,994 square kilometres (42,855 sq mi), Bulgaria is Europe's 16th-largest country.

During the Neolithic period, organized prehistoric cultures appeared in the lands that would one day become Bulgaria. In Antiquity (6th–3rd century BC), the region became a battleground for Thracians, Persians, Celts and Macedonian Greeks until it was conquered by the Roman Empire in 45 AD. The Eastern Roman, or Byzantine, Empire lost some of these territories to an invading Bulgar horde in the late 7th century. The Bulgars then founded the first unified Bulgarian state in 681 AD which dominated most of the Balkans and functioned as a cultural hub for Slavs during the Middle Ages. The First Bulgarian Empire lasted until the early 11th century, when Byzantine emperor Basil II conquered and dismantled it. A successful Bulgarian revolt in 1185 established a Second Bulgarian Empire which reached its apex under Ivan Asen II (1218–1241). After numerous exhausting wars and feudal strife, the Second Bulgarian Empire disintegrated in 1396 and its territories fell under Ottoman rule for nearly five centuries. The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 resulted in the formation of the current Third Bulgarian State. Many ethnic Bulgarian populations were left outside its borders, which led to several conflicts with its neighbours and an alliance with Germany in both world wars. In 1946 Bulgaria became a one-party socialist state and part of the Soviet-led Eastern Bloc. The ruling Communist Party gave up its monopoly on power after the Revolutions of 1989 and allowed multi-party elections. Bulgaria then transitioned into a democracy and a market-based economy.

Since the adoption of a democratic constitution in 1991, Bulgaria has functioned as a unitary parliamentary republic with a high degree of political, administrative, and economic centralisation. Most commercial and administrative activities are concentrated in its capital and largest city of Sofia. The predominantly urbanized population of seven million people mainly inhabits the primary cities of the 28 provinces. Bulgaria's market economy is part of the European Single Market and is largely based on services, agriculture, and a sizeable industrial sector focused on mining and machine building.

Bulgaria is a member of the European Union, NATO, and the Council of Europe; it is a founding state of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) and has taken a seat at the UN Security Council three times. It is also notable for its biodiversity, its achievements in sports and science, and its historical influence on Slavic cultures through its Medieval literary schools and the Cyrillic script. However, it continues to struggle with crippling corruption and severe demographic decline.

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Veselin Topalov in 2005
Veselin Topalov (IPA: [ve.se'lin to'pɑ.lof], Bulgarian: Веселин Топалов) (born March 15, 1975) is a Bulgarian chess player. He became the FIDE World Chess Champion by winning the FIDE World Chess Championship 2005. Topalov was awarded the 2005 Chess Oscar. In the July 2006 FIDE rating list, he is ranked number one in the world with an Elo rating of 2813, the second highest rated person ever.

Topalov was born in Rousse. He was taught to play chess when he was eight years old by his father. In 1989 he won the World Under 14 Championship in Aguadilla, Puerto Rico, and in 1990 won the silver medal at the World Under-16 Championship in Singapore. He became a Grandmaster in 1992. His current trainer and manager is International Master Silvio Danailov.

On the strength of his rating, Topalov was invited to the 8 player, double round-robin FIDE World Chess Championship in San Luis, Argentina, in September-October of 2005. Scoring an extraordinary 6.5/7 in the first cycle, Topalov had virtually clinched the tournament at the halfway mark, before drawing every game in the second cycle to win by a convincing 1.5 points and become FIDE World Chess Champion. The average rating of the field in the championship was 2739, and Topalov's performance rating was an incredible 2890.

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Nuvola apps kate.png Requested articlesBirth rate in Bulgaria (bg) • Census of Bulgaria, 1992 (bg) • Census of Bulgaria, 2001 (bg) • Census of Bulgaria, 2011 (bg) • Bulgarian architecture (bg) • Bulgarian gardenersTotyu Mladenov (bg) • Alexander Tsvetkov (bg) • Nona Karadzhova (bg) • Stefan Konstantinov (bg) • Minko Gerdzhikov (bg) • Nikolay Liliev (bg) • Teodor Trayanov (bg) • Bulgarian dressPliska–Preslav culture (bg) • Evgeni Tanchev (bg) • Plamen Paskov (bg)

Nuvola kdict glass.png ExpandDulo clanYantra RiverNestinarstvoVrana PalacePliskaGate of TrajanGeorgi IvanovGeorgi BenkovskiEkaterina DafovskaName days in BulgariaEvlogi GeorgievSlivenShumenShishman dynasty


Nuvola apps kappfinder.png Requested imagesKlokotnitsaNaftex StadiumPalitsiVrana PalaceDimitar Petkov

Nuvola apps filetypes.svg Further informationWikiProject BulgariaBulgarian Collaboration ProjectTranslation into English/Bulgarian

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